EMMA: Extensible MultiModal Annotation markup language

W3C Working Draft 14 December 2004

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Wu Chou, Avaya
Deborah A. Dahl, Independent Consultant
Michael Johnston, AT&T
Roberto Pieraccini, IBM
Dave Raggett, W3C/Canon


The W3C Multimodal Interaction working group aims to develop specifications to enable access to the Web using multi-modal interaction. This document is part of a set of specifications for multi-modal systems, and provides details of an XML markup language for describing the interpretation of user input. Examples of interpretation of user input are a transcription into words of a raw signal, for instance derived from speech, pen or keystroke input, a set of attribute/value pairs describing their meaning, or a set of attribute/value pairs describing a gesture. The interpretation of the user's input is expected to be generated by signal interpretation processes, such as speech and ink recognition, semantic interpreters, and other types of processors for use by components that act on the user's inputs such as interaction managers.

Status of this Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document is a W3C Working Draft for review by W3C members and other interested parties. Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This specification describes markup for representing interpretations of user input (speech, keystrokes, pen input etc.) together with annotations for confidence scores, timestamps, input medium etc., and forms part of the proposals for the W3C Multimodal Interaction Framework. This version of EMMA is the first to include the associated XML schema, see section 7.1.

This document has been produced as part of the W3C Multimodal Interaction Activity, following the procedures set out for the W3C Process, with the intention of advancing it along the W3C Recommedation track. The authors of this document are members of the W3C Multimodal Interaction Working Group (members only).

This document was produced under the 24 January 2002 CPP as amended by the W3C Patent Policy Transition Procedure. The Working Group maintains a public list of patent disclosures relevant to this document; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) with respect to this specification should disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Your feedback is welcomed. Please send comments about this document to the public mailing list: www-multimodal@w3.org (public archives). See W3C mailing list and archive usage guidelines.

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