Pointer Events Specification
W3C W3C Member Submission

Pointer Events Specification

W3C Member Submission 7 September 2012

Document Status Update 2013-05-09: The Pointer Events Working Group has published a document, based on this Member Submission, that is intended to become a W3C Recommendation.

This version:
http://www.w3.org/Submission/2012/SUBM-pointer-events-20120907/
Latest published version:
http://www.w3.org/Submission/pointer-events/
Editor:
Jacob Rossi, Microsoft Corporation
Adrian Bateman, Microsoft Corporation

This document is available under the W3C Document License. See the W3C Intellectual Rights Notice and Legal Disclaimers for additional information.


Abstract

This document defines events and related interfaces for handling hardware agnostic pointer input from devices like a mouse, pen, or touchscreen. For compatibility with existing mouse-based content, this specification also describes a mapping to fire [DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS] Mouse Events for pointer device types other than mouse.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document was published by the Microsoft Corporation as a Member Submission.

By publishing this document, W3C acknowledges that the Submitting Members have made a formal Submission request to W3C for discussion. Publication of this document by W3C indicates no endorsement of its content by W3C, nor that W3C has, is, or will be allocating any resources to the issues addressed by it. This document is not the product of a chartered W3C group, but is published as potential input to the W3C Process. A W3C Team Comment has been published in conjunction with this Member Submission. Publication of acknowledged Member Submissions at the W3C site is one of the benefits of W3C Membership. Please consult the requirements associated with Member Submissions of section 3.3 of the W3C Patent Policy. Please consult the complete list of acknowledged W3C Member Submissions.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This section is non-normative.

Today, most [HTML5] content is used with and/or designed for mouse input. Those that handle input in a custom manner typically code to [DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS] Mouse Events. Newer computing devices today, however, incorporate other forms of input, like touchscreens or pen input. Event types have been proposed for handling each of these forms of input individually. However, that approach requires a step function in opportunity cost to authors when adding support for a new input type. This often creates a compatibility problem when content is written with only one device type in mind. Additionally, for compatibility with existing mouse-based content, most user agents fire Mouse Events for all input types. This makes it ambiguous whether a Mouse Event represents an actual mouse device or is being produced from another input type for compatibility, which makes it hard to code to both device types simultaneously.

To reduce the cost of coding to multiple input types and also to help with the above described ambiguity with Mouse Events, this specifications defines a more abstract form of input, called a pointer. A pointer can be any point of contact on the screen made by a mouse cursor, pen, touch (including multi-touch), or other pointing input device. This model makes it easy to write sites and applications that work well no matter what hardware the user has. For scenarios when device-specific handling is desired, this specification also defines properties for inspecting the device type which produced the event. The primary goal is to provide a single set of events and interfaces that allow for easy authoring for cross-device pointer input while still allowing for device-specific handling when necessary.

Pointer input combines input from mouse, pen, touch, etc.
Fig. 1 A pointer is a hardware agnostic representation of input devices that can target a specific coordinate (or set of coordinates) on a screen.

The events for handling generic pointer input look a lot like those for mouse: pointerdown, pointermove, pointerup, pointerover, pointerout, etc. This facilitates easy content migration from Mouse Events to Pointer Events. Pointer Events provide all the usual properties present in Mouse Events (client coordinates, target element, button states, etc.) in addition to new properties for other forms of input: pressure, contact geometry, tilt, etc. So authors can easily code to Pointer Events and their content just works no matter what input hardware is being used.

2. Conformance

As well as sections marked as non-normative, all authoring guidelines, diagrams, examples, and notes in this specification are non-normative. Everything else in this specification is normative.

The key words must, must not, required, should, should not, recommended, may, and optional in this specification are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

Implementations that use ECMAScript to expose the APIs defined in this specification must implement them in a manner consistent with the ECMAScript Bindings defined in the Web IDL specification [WEBIDL].

3. Pointer Events and Interfaces

3.1 PointerEvent Interface

[Constructor]
interface PointerEvent : MouseEvent {
    const unsigned short POINTER_TYPE_UNAVAILABLE = 0x00000001;
    const unsigned short POINTER_TYPE_TOUCH = 0x00000002;
    const unsigned short POINTER_TYPE_PEN = 0x00000003;
    const unsigned short POINTER_TYPE_MOUSE = 0x00000004;
    readonly attribute long               pointerId;
    readonly attribute long               width;
    readonly attribute long               height;
    readonly attribute float              pressure;
    readonly attribute long               tiltX;
    readonly attribute long               tiltY;
    readonly attribute long               pointerType;
    readonly attribute unsigned long long hwTimestamp;
    readonly attribute boolean            isPrimary;
};

Attributes

pointerId of type long, readonly

A unique identifier for the pointer causing the event. This identifier must be unique from all other active pointers at the time. A user agent may recycle previously retired values for pointerId from previous active pointers, if necessary.

If the device producing the event is a mouse, then the pointerId must be 1. Device types other than mouse must not have a pointerId of 1.

width of type long, readonly
The width (magnitude on the X axis), in physical screen pixels, of the contact geometry of the pointer. This value may be updated on each event for a given pointer. For devices which have a contact geometry but the actual geometry is not reported by the hardware, a default value may be provided by the user agent to approximate the geometry typical of that pointer type. Otherwise, the value must be 0.
height of type long, readonly
The height (magnitude on the Y axis), in physical screen pixels, of the contact geometry of the pointer. This value may be updated on each event for a given pointer. For devices which have a contact geometry but the actual geometry is not reported by the hardware, a default value may be provided by the user agent to approximate the geometry typical of that pointer type. Otherwise, the value must be 0.
Issue 1
Physical screen pixels may be ineffective. For example, the physical size of the contact cannot be surmised due to varying pixel densities of devices (which are not always reported by the user agent). Further, it is generally impossible or difficult to correlate this back to CSS pixels in the document (which often are not at a fixed ratio to screen pixels due to zoom).
pressure of type float, readonly
The normalized pressure of the pointer input in the range of [0,1], where 0 and 1 represent the minimum and maximum pressure the hardware is capable of detecting, respectively. For hardware that does not support pressure, including but not limited to mouse, the value must be 0.
tiltX of type long, readonly

The plane angle (in degrees, in the range of [-90,90]) between the Y-Z plane and the plane containing both the transducer (e.g. pen stylus) axis and the Y axis. A positive tiltX is to the right. tiltX can be used along with tiltY to represent the tilt away from the normal of a transducer with the digitzer. For devices that do not report tilt, the value must be 0.

tiltX
Fig. 2 Positive tiltX.
tiltY of type long, readonly
The plane angle (in degrees, in the range of [-90,90]) between the X-Z plane and the plane containing both the transducer (e.g. pen stylus) axis and the X axis. A positive tiltY is towards the user. tiltY can be used along with tiltX to represent the tilt away from the normal of a transducer with the digitzer. For devices that do not report tilt, the value must be 0.
tiltY
Fig. 3 Negative tiltY.
pointerType of type long, readonly
Indicates the device type that caused the event (mouse, pen, touch, etc.). Possible values are defined as constants on the PointerEvent interface.
Issue 2
Should this be a string rather than enumerated constants? What about extensibility?
hwTimestamp of type unsigned long long, readonly
A timestamp, in microseconds, of the pointer event as reported by hardware. The origin time (e.g. hwTimestamp equals 0) is hardware and/or operating system dependent. If the hardware does not provide a high resolution timestamp, then the value must be 0.
Note
This value is typically determined by using the hardware's high-resolution performance counter.
isPrimary of type boolean, readonly
Indicates if the pointer represents the primary pointer.

Constants

POINTER_TYPE_UNAVAILABLE of type unsigned short
Value for pointerType when the device type being used cannot be detected by the user agent.
POINTER_TYPE_TOUCH of type unsigned short
Value for pointerType when the device being used can be detected and is a touchscreen.
POINTER_TYPE_PEN of type unsigned short
Value for pointerType when the device being used can be detected and is a pen stylus.
POINTER_TYPE_MOUSE of type unsigned short
Value for pointerType when the device being used can be detected and is a mouse.

3.1.1 Button States

3.1.1.1 Chorded Button Interactions

Some pointer devices, such as mouse or pen, support multiple buttons. In the [DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS] Mouse Event model, each button press produces a mousedown and mouseup event. To better abstract this hardware difference and simplify cross-device input authoring, Pointer Events do not fire overlapping pointerdown and pointerup events for chorded button presses (depressing an additional button while another button on the pointer device is already depressed).

Instead, chorded button presses can be detected by inspecting changes to the button and buttons properties. The button and buttons properties are inherited from the [DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS] MouseEvent interface. In order to facilitate differentiating button state transitions in any pointer event (and not just pointerdown and pointerup), the button property takes on a new value when no mouse buttons are depressed:

Device Button Statebuttonbuttons
Mouse move with no buttons pressed-10
Left Mouse,
Touch Contact,
Pen contact (with no modifier buttons pressed)
01
Middle Mouse14
Right Mouse,
Pen contact with barrel button pressed
22
X1 (back) Mouse38
X2 (forward) Mouse416

3.1.2 The Primary Pointer

In a multi-pointer (e.g. multi-touch) scenario, the primary pointer is used to identify a master pointer amongst the set of active pointers. This pointer is the one that will produce compatibility mouse events. It is also useful when single-pointer interaction is desired by an author.

The primary pointer is indicated on events by a value of true for the isPrimary property.

3.1.2.1 Determining the primary pointer
When dispatching a pointer event, a pointer is considered primary if:
  • The pointer represents a mouse device.
  • The pointer represents a primary touch input.
  • The pointer represents a primary pen input.
primary touch input
A pointer representing touch input is considered the primary touch input if its pointerdown event was dispatched when no other active pointers representing touch input existed.
primary pen input
A pointer representing pen input is considered the primary pen input if its pointerdown event was dispatched when no other active pointers representing pen input existed.
Note
In some platforms, the primary pointer is determined using all active pointers on the device including those not targeted at the user agent (e.g. in another application). This means it is possible for the user agent to fire pointer events in which no pointer is marked as the primary pointer. For example, if the first touch interaction is targeted outside the user agent and a secondary (multi-touch) touch interaction is targeted inside the user agent, then the user agent fires pointer events for the second contact with a value of false for isPrimary.

3.2 Pointer Event Types

3.2.1 List of Pointer Events

This section is non-normative.

The following table provides a summary of the event types defined in this specification.

Event TypeSync/AsyncBubblesCancellableTrusted proximal event target typesEvent object interfaceDefault Action
pointerdown Sync Yes Yes Document, Element PointerEvent Varies: when the pointer is primary, all default actions of the mousedown event
pointerup Sync Yes Yes Document, Element PointerEvent Varies: when the pointer is primary, all default actions of mouseup
pointercancel Sync Yes Yes Document, Element PointerEvent None
pointermove Sync Yes Yes Document, Element PointerEvent Varies: when the pointer is primary, all default actions of mousemove
pointerover Sync Yes Yes Document, Element PointerEvent Varies: when the pointer is primary, all default actions of mouseover
pointerout Sync Yes Yes Document, Element PointerEvent Varies: when the pointer is primary, all default actions of mouseout
gotpointercapture Async Yes No Element PointerEvent None
lostpointercapture Async Yes No Element PointerEvent None

3.2.2 The pointerdown event

A user agent must dispatch this event when a pointer enters the active buttons state. For mouse, this is when the the device transitions from no buttons depressed to at least one button depressed. For touch, this is when physical contact is made with the digitizer. For pen, this is when the stylus makes physical contact with the digitizer.

For input devices that do not support hover, a user agent must also fire a pointerover event proceeding the pointerdown event.

Note
For mouse (or other multi-button pointer devices), this means pointerdown and pointerup are dispatched differently than mousedown and mouseup. See chorded buttons for more information.

3.2.3 The pointerup event

A user agent must dispatch this event when a pointer leaves the active buttons state. For mouse, this is when the the device transitions from at least one button depressed to no buttons depressed. For touch, this is when physical contact is removed from the digitizer. For pen, this is when the pen is removed from physical contact with the digitizer.

For input devices that do not support hover, a user agent must also fire a pointerout event after firing the pointerup event.

Note
For mouse (or other multi-button pointer devices), this means pointerdown and pointerup are dispatched differently than mousedown and mouseup. See chorded buttons for more information.

3.2.4 The pointercancel event

A user agent must dispatch this event in the following circumstances:
  • The user agent has determined that a pointer is unlikely to continue to produce events (for example, because of a hardware event).
  • After having fired the pointerdown event, the pointer is subsequently used to manipulate the page viewport (e.g. panning or zooming).

A user agent must also fire a pointerout event after firing the pointercancel event.

Note

This section is non-normative.

Examples of scenarios in which a user agent might determine that a pointer is unlikely to continue to produce events include:

  • A device's screen orientation is changed while a pointer is active.
  • The user inputs a greater number of simultaneous pointers than is supported by the device.
  • The user agent interprets the input as accidental (for example, the hardware supports palm rejection).

Methods for changing the device’s screen orientation, recognizing accidental input, or using a pointer to manipulate the viewport (e.g. panning or zooming) are out of scope for this specification.

3.2.5 The pointermove event

A user agent must dispatch this event when a pointer changes coordinates, button state, pressure, tilt, or contact geometry (e.g. width and height).

3.2.6 The pointerover event

A user agent must dispatch this event when a pointing device is moved into the hit test boundaries of an element. A user agent must also dispatch this event prior to a pointerdown event for devices that do not support hover.

3.2.7 The pointerout event

A user agent must dispatch this event when any of the following occurs:
  • A pointing device is moved out of the hit test boundaries of an element
  • After firing the pointerup event for a device that does not support hover
  • After firing the pointercancel event

3.2.8 The gotpointercapture event

A user agent must dispatch this event prior to dispatching the first event after pointer capture is set for a pointer. This event is dispatched to the element that is receiving pointer capture. Subsequent events for that pointer will be dispatched to this element. See setPointerCapture().

3.2.9 The lostpointercapture event

A user agent must dispatch this event after pointer capture is released for a pointer. This event must be dispatched prior to any subsequent events for the pointer after capture was released. This event is dispatched to the element from which pointer capture was removed. Subsequent events for the pointer follow normal hit testing mechanisms (out of scope for this specification) for determining the event target. See releasePointerCapture().

4. Extensions to the Element interface

partial interface Element {
    void setPointerCapture (long pointerId);
    void releasePointerCapture (long pointerId);
             attribute EventHandler onpointerdown;
             attribute EventHandler onpointermove;
             attribute EventHandler onpointerup;
             attribute EventHandler onpointercancel;
             attribute EventHandler onpointerover;
             attribute EventHandler onpointerout;
             attribute EventHandler ongotpointercapture;
             attribute EventHandler onlostpointercapture;
};

Attributes

onpointerdown of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the pointerdown event type.
onpointermove of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the pointermove event type.
onpointerup of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the pointerup event type.
onpointercancel of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the pointercancel event type.
onpointerover of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the pointerover event type.
onpointerout of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the pointerout event type.
ongotpointercapture of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the gotpointercapture event type.
onlostpointercapture of type EventHandler
The event handler IDL attribute (see [HTML5]) for the lostpointercapture event type.

Methods

setPointerCapture

Sets pointer capture for the pointer identified by the argument pointerId to the element on which this method is invoked. Subsequent events for the pointer must always be targeted at this element.

If the pointerId provided as the method's argument does not match any of the active pointers, then the user agent must throw a DOMException with the name InvalidPointerId.

ParameterTypeNullableOptionalDescription
pointerIdlong
Return type: void
releasePointerCapture

Releases pointer capture for the pointer identified by the argument pointerId from the element on which this method is invoked. Subsequent events for the pointer follow normal hit testing mechanisms (out of scope for this specification) for determining the event target.

If the pointerId provided as the method's argument does not match any of the active pointers, then the user agent must throw a DOMException with the name InvalidPointerId.

If pointer capture has not been set for the pointerId provided, then this method fails silently.

ParameterTypeNullableOptionalDescription
pointerIdlong
Return type: void

5. Extensions to the Navigator interface

The Navigator interface is defined in [HTML5]. This specification extends the Navigator interface to provide device and feature detection support.

interface  {
    readonly attribute boolean pointerEnabled;
    readonly attribute long    maxTouchPoints;
};

Attributes

pointerEnabled of type boolean, readonly
Indicates if the browser will fire pointer events for pointing input.
maxTouchPoints of type long, readonly

The maximum number of simultaneous touch contacts supported by the device. In the case of devices with multiple ditigizers (e.g. multiple touchscreens), the value must be the maximum of the set of maximum supported contacts by each individual digitizer.

For example, suppose a device has 3 touchscreens, which support 2, 5, and 10 simultaneous touch contacts, respectively. The value of maxTouchPoints is 10.

6. Declaring candidate regions for default touch behaviors

For touch input, the default action of any and all pointer events must not be a manipulation of the viewport (e.g. panning or zooming).

Note
Touch manipulations are intentionally not a default action of pointer events. Removing this dependency on the cancellation of events facilitates performance optimizations by the user agent.

6.1 The touch-action CSS property

Name:touch-action
Value:auto | none | inherit
Initial:auto
Applies to:block-level elements, SVG elements
Inherited:no
Percentages:N/A
Media:visual
Computed value:Same as specified value.
The touch-action CSS property determines whether touch input may trigger default behavior supplied by user agent. This includes, but is not limited to, behaviors such as panning or zooming.

Values have the following meanings:

auto
The user agent may determine the permitted touch behaviors, such as panning and zooming manipulations of the viewport, for touches that begin on the element.
none
Touches that begin on the element must not trigger default touch behaviors.
inherit
The property takes the same specified value as the property for the element's parent.

A user agent must dispatch a pointercancel (and subsequently a pointerout event) whenever all of the following are true:

During the execution of the behavior (after sending the pointercancel and pointerout events), the user agent must not dispatch subsequent pointer events for the pointer.

7. Compatibility Mapping with Mouse Events

The vast majority of web content existing today codes only to Mouse Events. The following describes the algorithm for how a user agent must map generic pointer input to mouse events for compatibility with this content. Unless otherwise noted, the target of any mapped mouse event must be the same as the target for the pointer event from which it was mapped.

Authors can prevent the production of compatibility mouse events by cancelling the pointerdown event.

Note

This section is non-normative

The click event is defined in [DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS] and is not considered a compatibility mouse event as it is typically tied to user interface activation.

In user agents that support firing click, calling preventDefault during a pointer event typically does not have an effect on whether click is fired or not. Because it is not a compatibility mouse event, user agents typically fire click for all pointing devices, including pointers that are not primary pointers.

7.1 Mapping for devices that support hover

Whenever a user agent is to dispatch a pointer event from for device that supports hover, it must run the following steps:
  1. If the isPrimary property for the pointer event to be dispatched is false then dispatch the pointer event and terminate these steps.
  2. Dispatch the pointer event.
  3. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerdown and the event was cancelled, then set the PREVENT MOUSE EVENT flag.
  4. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerover,
    1. dispatch a mouseover event, and
    2. if the pointer has been moved onto the boundaries of an element or one of its descendents then dispatch a mouseenter event.
  5. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerout
    1. dispatch a mouseout event, and
    2. if the pointer has been moved out of the boundaries of an element and all of its descendents then dispatch a mouseleave event.
  6. If the PREVENT MOUSE EVENT flag is not set and the pointer event dispatched was:
    • pointerdown, then dispatch a mousedown event.
    • pointermove, then dispatch a mousemove event.
    • pointerup, then dispatch a mouseup event.
    • pointercancel, then dispatch a mouseup event at the window.
  7. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerup or pointercancel, clear the PREVENT MOUSE EVENT flag.
Note
Mouse events can only be prevented when the pointer is down. Hovering pointers (e.g. a mouse with no buttons pressed) cannot have their mouse events prevented. And, the mouseover and mouseout events are never prevented (even if the pointer is down).

7.2 Mapping for devices that do not support hover

Some devices, such as most touchscreens, do not support hovering a coordinate (or set of coordinates) while not in the active state. Much existing content coded to mouse events assumes that a mouse is producing the events and thus certain qualities are generally true:
  • The input can hover independently of activation (e.g. moving a mouse cursor without any buttons pressed)
  • The input will likely produce the mousemove event on an element before clicking it
This requires that user agents provide a different mapping for these types of input devices. Whenever a user agent is to dispatch a pointer event from a device that does not support hover, it must run the following steps:
  1. If the isPrimary property for the pointer event to be dispatched is false then dispatch the pointer event and terminate these steps.
  2. If the pointer event to be dispatched is pointerover and the pointerdown event has not yet been dispatched for this pointer, then dispatch a mousemove event.
  3. Dispatch the pointer event.
  4. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerdown and the event was cancelled, then set the PREVENT MOUSE EVENT flag.
  5. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerover,
    1. dispatch a mouseover event, and
    2. if the pointer has been moved onto the boundaries of an element or one of its descendents then dispatch a mouseenter event.
  6. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerout
    1. dispatch a mouseout event, and
    2. if the pointer has been moved out of the boundaries of an element and all of its descendents then dispatch a mouseleave event.
  7. If the PREVENT MOUSE EVENT flag is not set and the pointer event dispatched was:
    • pointerdown, then dispatch a mousedown event.
    • pointermove, then dispatch a mousemove event.
    • pointerup, then dispatch a mouseup event.
    • pointercancel, then dispatch a mouseup event at the window.
  8. If the pointer event dispatched was pointerup or pointercancel, clear the PREVENT MOUSE EVENT flag.
Note
Mouse events can only be prevented when the pointer is down. Hovering pointers (e.g. a mouse with no buttons pressed) cannot have their mouse events prevented. And, the mouseover and mouseout events are never prevented (even if the pointer is down).

8. Examples

This section is non-normative.

The following are example author code that demonstrates how the APIs in this specification might be used.

Example 1: Basic HTML5 Canvas painting application
<style>
  /* Disable intrinsic user agent touch behaviors (such as panning or zooming) so 
  that all events are given to the application instead. */
  
  html { 
    touch-action: none; 
  }
</style>

<canvas id="drawSurface" width="500px" height="500px" style="border:1px solid black;"></canvas>

<script type='text/javascript'>
window.addEventListener('load', function() {
  var canvas = document.getElementById("drawSurface"),
  context = canvas.getContext("2d");
  if (window.navigator.pointerEnabled) {
    canvas.addEventListener("pointermove", paint, false);
	if(window.navigator.maxTouchPoints>1)
		alert("Your user agent and hardware support multi-touch!");
  } 
  else {
	//Provide fallback for user agents that do not support Pointer Events
    canvas.addEventListener("mousemove", paint, false);
  }
  function paint(event) {
	if(event.buttons>0)
		context.fillRect(event.clientX, event.clientY, 5, 5);
  }
});
</script>
Example 2: Detecting the type of input from a user
window.addEventListener("pointerdown", detectInputType, false);
function detectInputType(event) {
	switch(event.pointerType) {
		case event.POINTER_TYPE_MOUSE:
			alert("You used a mouse!");
			break;
		case event.POINTER_TYPE_PEN:
			alert("You used a pen stylus!");
			break;
		case event.POINTER_TYPE_TOUCH:
			alert("You used touch!");
			break;	
		case event.POINTER_TYPE_UNAVAILABLE:
			alert("Not sure what device was used!");
			break;
	}
}
Example 3: Resizing an element to match the contact geometry
<div style="position:absolute; top:0px; left:0px; width:100px;height:100px;"></div>
<script>
window.addEventListener("pointerdown", checkPointerSize, false);
function checkPointerSize(event) {
	event.target.style.width = event.width + "px";
	event.target.style.height = event.height + "px";
}
</script>

9. Glossary

active buttons state
The condition when a pointer has a non-zero value for the buttons property. For mouse, this is when the the device has at least one button depressed. For touch, this is when there is physical contact with the digitizer. For pen, this is when the pen has physical contact with the digitizer.
active pointer
Any touch contact, pen stylus, mouse cursor, or other pointer that can produce events. If it is possible for a given pointer (identified by a unique pointerId) to produce additional events, then that pointer is still considered active. Examples:
  • A mouse connected to the device is always active.
  • A touch contact on the screen is considered active.
  • If a touch contact or pen stylus is lifted beyond the range of the digitizer, then it is no longer considered active.
Note
In some platforms, the set of active pointers includes all pointer input to the device, including any that are not targeted at the user agent (e.g. another application).
cancelled event
An event whose default action was prevented by means of preventDefault(), returning false in an event handler, or other means as defined by [DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS] and [HTML5].
contact geometry
The bounding box of an input (most commonly, touch) on a digitizer. This typically refers to devices with coarser pointer input resolution than a single pixel. Some devices do not report this data at all.
digitizer
A type of input sensing device in which a surface can detect input which is in contact and/or in close proximity. Most commonly, this is the surface that sense input from touch contact or a pen stylus.
pointer
A hardware agnostic representation of input devices that can target a specific coordinate (or set of coordinates) on a screen, such as a mouse, pen, or touch contact.
user agent
A program, such as a browser or content authoring tool, normally running on a client machine, which acts on a user's behalf in retrieving, interpreting, executing, presenting, or creating content.

A. Acknowledgements

Many thanks to lots of people for their proposals and recommendations, some of which are incorporated into this document.

Special thanks to those that helped pioneer the first edition of this model, including especially: Charu Chandiram, Peter Freiling, Nathan Furtwangler, Thomas Olsen, Matt Rakow, Ramu Ramanathan, Justin Rogers, Jacob Rossi, Reed Townsend, Steve Wright.

B. References

B.1 Normative references

[DOM-LEVEL-3-EVENTS]
Travis Leithead; Jacob Rossi; Doug Schepers; Björn Höhrmann; Philippe Le Hégaret; Tom Pixley. Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Events Specification. 14 June 2012. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/WD-DOM-Level-3-Events-20120614/
[HTML5]
Ian Hickson; David Hyatt. HTML5. 29 March 2012. W3C Working Draft. (Work in progress.) URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/html5
[RFC2119]
S. Bradner. Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels. March 1997. Internet RFC 2119. URL: http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt
[WEBIDL]
Cameron McCormack. Web IDL. 19 April 2012. W3C Candidate Recommendation. (Work in progress.) URL: http://www.w3.org/TR/2012/CR-WebIDL-20120419/

B.2 Informative references

No informative references.