Standards for Web Applications on Mobile: current state and roadmap

August 2015

Latest version
http://www.w3.org/Mobile/mobile-web-app-state/
This version
http://www.w3.org/2015/08/mobile-web-app-state/ (PDF version)
Previous version
http://www.w3.org/2015/05/mobile-web-app-state/

Web technologies have become powerful enough that they are used to build full-featured applications; this has been true for many years in the desktop and laptop computer realm, but is increasingly so on mobile devices as well.

This document summarizes the various technologies developed in W3C that increase the capabilities of Web applications, and how they apply more specifically to the mobile context. A good subset of these technologies are described and explained in the W3C on-line training on programming Web applications.

  1. Core Web Design and Development
  2. Media and Real-Time Communications
  3. Usability and Accessibility
  4. Device Interaction
  5. Network Integration
  6. Application Lifecyle
  7. Payment and Services
  8. Performance & Tuning
  9. Security & Privacy

Status and changes

This document is the 18th edition of this overview of mobile Web applications technologies. The previous edition was released in May 2015. A live version of this document accepts contributions on the W3C Web and Mobile Interest Group Github repository.

This document is published by the Web and Mobile Interest Group; feedback on every aspect of this document should be sent to public-web-mobile@w3.org, the publicly archived mailing list of the interest group, or raised as issues on the Github repository, or alternatively to the author (dom@w3.org). It will serve as input for the next iteration of the document.

The following changes in the Web platform since May 2015 are documented in this udpate:

Emerging Work
Published as First Public Working Draft
  • The Geofencing API, enabling developers to be notified when the user enters specific geographical areas, was published as a First Public Working Draft
  • The Entry Point Regulation specification, which provides another layer of protection against common attack vectors such as cross-site-script or cross-site request forgery, was published as First Public Working Draft
  • The Preload specification, which offers a way to load stylesheets and scripts immediately, but defer their application, was published as a First Public Working Draft
Returned to Working Draft
Reached Candidate Recommendation
  • The Canvas API, a programmatic graphics API, re-entered Candidate Recommendation phase after it had gone back to Last Call following a substantive change
  • The Tracking Preference Expression (DNT) specification, which defines a mechanism for expressing the user’s preference regarding tracking, reached Candidate Recommendation status
Specification merged, split or abandoned

Document structure

The features that these technologies add to the Web platform are organized around the application foundations for the Open Web Platform, a set of high-level components that application developers rely on to build their Web-based content and services.

The following application foundations are considered in this document: core web design and development, media and real-time communications, usability and accessibility, device interaction, application lifecycle, payment and services, performance & tuning, and security & privacy. In addition, it covers topics related to network integration.

Diagram showing the various components of the Web platform
The Web as an application development platform

In each category of features, a table summarizes for each feature:

W3C creates Web standards by progressing documents through its Recommendation track, with the following stages:

For groups that have adopted it, the 2014 update of the W3C Process simplifies a bit the progression by removing the Last Call stage — instead of a single global call for review addressed to the whole community, Working Groups are empowered with solicitting reviews from their various related communities as long as they can demonstrate sufficient wide review of the specification before requesting transition to Candidate Recommendation.

Prior to starting standardization, a Working Group needs to be chartered, based on input from W3C Members, often through the organization of a workshop, or after the reception of a W3C Member Submission.

W3C has set up Community Groups, a mechanism that allows anyone to do experimental work within the W3C infrastructure, under IPR rules that are compatible to transition the work to the W3C standardization process.

1. Core Web Design and Development

1.1 Graphics and Layout

SVG, Scalable Vector Graphics, provides an XML-based markup language to describe two-dimensions vector graphics. Since these graphics are described as a set of geometric shapes, they can be zoomed at the user request, which makes them well-suited to create graphics on mobile devices where screen space is limited. They can also be easily animated, enabling the creation of very advanced and slick user interfaces.

The integration of SVG in HTML5 opens up new possibilities, for instance applying advanced graphic filters (through SVG filters) to multimedia content, including videos. SVG 2.0 is set to facilitate that integration and complete the set of features in SVG.

In complement to the declarative approach provided by SVG, the <canvas> element added in HTML5 enables a 2D programmatic API that is well-suited for processing graphics in a less memory intensive way. That API not only allows rendering graphics, but can also be used to do image processing and analysis — HTML 5.1 adds the ability to do that processing in a separate Web Worker.

Both SVG and HTML can be styled using CSS (Cascading Style Sheets); in particular, CSS3 (the third level of the specification) is built as a collection of specifications set to offer a large number of new features that make it simple to create graphical effects, such as rounded corners, complex background images, shadow effects (CSS Backgrounds and Borders), rotated content (CSS Transforms, including with 3D effects).

Animations can be described declaratively via CSS Animations, and CSS Transitions.

Animations can also be managed via scripting through the API exposed in Web Animations; as they can be resource intensive, the possibility offered by the Timing control for script-based animations API to manage the rate of updates to animations can help keep them under control.

To ensure optimal performances when animating parts of an app, authors can make use of the CSS will-change property to let browsers compute the animation ahead of its occurrence.

An early proposal for Web Navigation Transitions would enable animations that occur when navigating from one page to another.

CSS Flexbox allows to build complex layouts as required for interactive applications on small screens.

Fonts play also an important role in building appealing graphical interfaces, but mobile devices are in general distributed with only a limited set of fonts. WOFF 1.0 (Web Open Font Format) addresses that limitation by making it easy to use fonts that are automatically downloaded through style sheets, while keeping the size of the downloaded fonts limited to what is actually needed to render the interface. The upcoming WOFF 2.0 update to that format promises 25%-smaller download sizes; on mobile, a 35% reduction in the time needed to download and display these fonts has been measured.

Given the time required for downloading fonts over mobile networks, authors need to adapt their content to the progressive availability of fonts; CSS Font Loading gives the necessary events to developers to enable that adaptation.

Another important aspect in graphics-intensive applications (e.g. games) is the possibility to use the entire screen to display the said graphics; the work on a Fullscreen API to request and detect full screen display, previously co-developed by the Web Applications and CSS Working Groups, has now fully moved to the WHATWG.

Likewise, in these scenarios, it is often useful to be able to lock the orientation of the screen; the Screen Orientation API allows not only to detect orientation change, but also to lock the orientation in a specific state.

NB: a 3D graphic API for HTML5 canvas, called WebGL, has been developed outside of W3C, as part of the Khronos Group; this API has been built to be compatible with OpenGL ES, i.e. for embedded systems, and is intended to work on mobile devices.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
2D Vector GraphicsScalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 SpecificationSVGRECFinishedWidely deployed
Support for svg12Supported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgHigh coverage
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 2WDEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 10 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 9 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 15 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 150 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 95 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 96 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 11 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 197 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 31 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 206 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 2 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
N/A
Support for svg2Not supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
2D Programmatic APIHTML Canvas 2D ContextHTMLCRStableLast updated December 2014
Editing activity for Last updated December 2014 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 1 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Widely deployed
Support for canvasSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 33+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Good coverage
Canvas Proxy for Web Workers in HTML 5.1WDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
None
Support for canvasproxySupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android unknown?
None
Rounded CornersCSS Backgrounds and Borders Module Level 3CSSCRMostly finishedLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-borderSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
Complex background imagesCSS Backgrounds and Borders Module Level 3CRMostly finishedLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-borderSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
Box shadow effectsCSS Backgrounds and Borders Module Level 3CRMostly finishedLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-borderSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
2D EffectsCSS Transforms Module Level 1SVG and
CSS
WDMostly stableLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 8 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 3 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 1 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-2dSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
3D EffectsCSS Transforms Module Level 1WDStabilizingLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 8 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 3 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 1 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-3dSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 33+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
AnimationsCSS AnimationsCSSWDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 16 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 2 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 3 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 2 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 4 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 1 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 3 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 2 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-animationSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 44+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 12.112.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgwell started
CSS TransitionsWDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 23 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 8 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 2 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 4 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 2 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for css-transitionsSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgwell started
Web AnimationsSVG and
CSS
WDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 13 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 11 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 12 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 33 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 33 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 48 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 19 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 17 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 31 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 18 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 3 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for webanimationsNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
Timing control for script-based animationsWeb PerformanceCRStableLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 1 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for animation-timingSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
CSS Will Change Module Level 1CSSWDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 1 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for css-will-changeNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
Web Navigation TransitionsNot on standards track yetEarly proposalLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 1 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
N/A
Complex layoutsCSS Flexible Box Layout Module Level 1LastCallMostly finishedLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 6 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 4 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 5 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 7 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 4 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 2 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 13 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 12 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 13 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 3 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for flexboxSupported in Safari on iOS from version 7.07.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 12.112.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Downloadable fontsWOFF File Format 1.0WebFontsRECFinishedGood deployment
Support for woffSupported in Safari on iOS from version 5.05.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
WOFF File Format 2.0WDEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 6 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 8 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 8 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 2 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 1 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for woff2Not supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
CSS Font Loading Module Level 3CSSLastCallStabilizingLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 4 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 3 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 2 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 1 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 2 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 10 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 2 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 3 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 1 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for css-font-loadingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
Orientation LockThe Screen Orientation APIWeb ApplicationsWDEarly draftLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 10 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 1 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 1 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for screenlockNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Not supported in Android browserX Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started

1.2. Device Adaptation

Mobile devices not only differ widely from traditional computers, but they also have a lot of variations among themselves, in term of screen size, resolution, type of keyboard, media recording capabilities, etc.

The Device Description Repository API is a unified server-side API that allows Web developers to retrieve data on the devices that are accessing their pages on a variety of device information database.

The Media Capture and Streams API exposes some specific information on capabilities of camera and microphones to make it possible to take advantage of the large variety of media capturing devices provided on mobile phones.

CSS Media Queries offer a mechanism that allows adapting the layout and behavior of a Web page based on some of the characteristics of the device, including the screen resolution — to which Media Queries Level 4 proposes to add the availability and type of a pointing device, the ability to hover over elements, and the ambient luminosity. It also lets developers the ability to define media queries that react to script-defined variables, making it easier to integrate these adaptation rules in the overall logic of the app.

CSS Device Adaptation defines a set of CSS directives to define the size on which this layout should be based, relatively to the size of the underlying device — specifying what has been implemented using the <meta name="viewport"> element so far.

The viewport-relative CSS units vw and vh let design layouts that adapt to the dimensions of the viewport, while CSS Mobile Text Size Adjustment lets text adapt to zoomed parts of a page.

The Responsive Images Community Group (RICG) developed an extension to HTML, known as the picture element, that allows authors define what image to load depending on device capabilities and/or other media features.

As a complementary approach, the srcset attribute, specified by the WHATWG and also published as an extension to HTML, let Web developers define the various device pixel ratios of an image, letting the browser pick the best choice for the pixel density of the screen. As of January 2014, there is general agreement amongst browser vendors to implement both picture and srcset.

SVG, which lets define images that can be scaled up and down without any loss of quality, is another critical tool to the development of Web applications that adapt to the resolution of the underlying device.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Device informationDevice Description Repository Simple APIDevice DescriptionRECfinishedLimited
Good Coverage
Media Capture CapabilitiesSource capabilities in Media Capture and StreamsDevice APIs and
Web Real-Time Communications
LastCallStabilizingLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 15 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 120 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 21 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 25 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 33 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 26 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 15 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 10 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 41 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 28 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 13 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for getusermedia-capNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
CSS-based adaptationMedia QueriesCSSRECFinishedWidely deployed
Support for mediaqueriesSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
Media Queries Level 4WDEarly draftLast updated May 2015
Editing activity for Last updated May 2015 October 2014O 11 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 3 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 3 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 3 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 2 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for mediaqueries4Supported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android unknown?
None
CSS Device AdaptationWDEarly draftLast updated May 2015
Editing activity for Last updated May 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 3 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 1 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for css-device-adaptNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
WebPlatform.orgN/A
viewport relative units in CSS Values and Units Module Level 3CRMostly finishedLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 1 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 1 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 3 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 2 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 2 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 3 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for viewport-unitsSupported in Safari on iOS from version 88+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
CSS Mobile Text Size Adjustment Module Level 1edEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for css-size-adjustSupported in Safari on iOS from version 5.05.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
Responsive imagespicture element in HTML 5.1HTMLWDstabilizingLast updated July 2015
Growing
Support for pictureNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Started
srcset attribute in HTML 5.1WDStabilizingLast updated July 2015
Well deployed
Support for srcsetSupported in Safari on iOS from version 99+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 SpecificationSVGRECFinishedWidely deployed
Support for svg12Supported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgHigh coverage

1.3. Forms

The ability to build rich forms with HTML is the basis for user input in most Web-based applications. Due to their limited keyboards, text input on mobile devices remains a difficult task for most users; HTML5 address parts of this problem by offering new type of form controls that optimize the way users will enter data:

  • date and time entries can take advantage of a number of dedicated form controls (e.g. <input type="date">) where the user can use a native calendar control;
  • the <input type="email">, <input type="tel"> and <input type="url"> can be used to optimize the ways user enter these often-difficult to type data, e.g. through dedicated virtual keyboards, or by accessing on-device records for these data (from the address book, bookmarks, etc.);
  • the inputmode attribute (proposed in HTML 5.1) defines the type of textual input expected in a text entry;
  • the pattern attribute allows both to guide user input as well as to avoid server-side validation (which requires a network round-trip) or JavaScript-based validation (which takes up more resources);
  • the placeholder attribute allows to guide user input by inserting hints as to what type of content is expected in a text-entry control;
  • the <datalist> element allows creating free-text input controls coming with pre-defined values the user can select from; HTML 5.1 defines a mechanism for the autocomplete attribute to automatically fill input fields based on well-known data for the user.
Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Date and time entriesData and Time input element in HTML5HTMLRECStableFinishedWell deployed
Support for inputdateSupported in Safari on iOS from version 5.05.0+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Just started
Customized text entries (tel, email, url)telephone, email and URL input element in HTML5RECStableFinishedWell deployed
Support for inputtextSupported in Safari on iOS from version 55+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 44+ Supported in Android browser from version 33+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 1818+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Just started
Input modalityinputmode attribute in HTML 5.1WDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
None
Support for inputmodeSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android unknown?
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
None
Input patternpattern attribute in HTML5RECStableFinishedLimited but growing
Support for inputpatternNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 44+ Not supported in Android browserX Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 1818+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Just started
Input hintplaceholder attribute in HTML5RECStableFinishedWell deployed
Support for inputhintSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Started
Autocomplete for text entriesdatalist element in HTML5RECStableFinishedGrowing
Support for datalistNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.4.34.4.3+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Started
autocomplete attribute in HTML 5.1WDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Very limited
Support for autocompleteSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android from version 3131+
None

1.4 Data storage

A critical component of many applications is the ability to save state, export content, as well as integrate data from other files and services on the system.

For simple data storage, the Web Storage specification offers two basic mechanisms, localStorage and sessionStorage, that can preserve data respectively indefinitely, or on a browser-session basis.

For richer interactions, the Web platform provides the File Reader API makes it possible to load the content of a file.

Discussions have started on a new proposal for a sandboxed filesystem API.

Meanwhile, the HTML5 download attribute provides a simply mechanism to trigger a file download (rather than a page navigation), with the possibility of setting a user-friendly filename.

On top of this file-based access, the Indexed Database API (IndexedDB) defines a database of values and hierarchical objects that integrates naturally with JavaScript, and can be queried and updated very efficiently - a new second edition of the specification is under development. Note that the work around a client-side SQL-based database, which had been started in 2009, has been abandoned in favor of this new system.

As more and more data need to be stored by the browser (e.g. for offline usage), it becomes critical for developers to get reliable storage space, which the proposed Quota Management API will offer to Web applications.

Communication applications can benefit from integrating with their users’ existing data records; on mobile devices, the address book is a particularly useful source of information.

For Web apps outside of the browser, a purely programmatic approach was part of the System Applications Working Group; since this group has now closed, no further work on the Contacts Manager API is expected for the time being.

In the browser, HTML 5.1 provides autocompleted fields for contacts information that would let browsers re-use data from addressbooks.

Some of this data need to be encrypted, the Web Cryptography API from the Web Cryptography Working Group exposes strong cryptography primitives to Web applications, and can be bound to pre-provisioned keys via the WebCrypto Key Discovery API.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Simple data storageWeb StorageWeb ApplicationsRECFinishedFinishedWell deployed
Support for webstorageSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgComplete
File operationsFile APIWDStabilizingLast updated April 2015
Editing activity for Last updated April 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 3 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Getting well deployed
Support for filereaderSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 33+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 11.111.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+

W3DevCampus
Started
FileSystem APIN/AEarly proposalLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 2 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 1 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
N/A
None
download attribute in HTML5HTMLRECStableFinishedGrowing
Support for html5-downloadNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
None
Database query/updateIndexed Database APIWeb ApplicationsRECStableFinishedWell deployed
Support for indexeddbSupported in Safari on iOS from version 88+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Good coverage
Web SQL DatabaseRetiredAbandonedSomewhat deployed, but won’t be further deployed
Support for websqlSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
N/A
Quota for storageQuota Management APIWDEarly workLast updated April 2015
Editing activity for Last updated April 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 1 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 6 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Very limited
Support for quotaNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 1818+
None
Addressbook dataContacts Manager APISystem ApplicationsRetiredAbandonnedLast updated April 2014
None
Support for contacts-sysSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android unknown?
None
autocomplete attribute in HTML 5.1HTMLWDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Very limited
Support for autocompleteSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android from version 3131+
None
Encrypted storageWeb Cryptography APIWeb CryptographyCRStableLast updated November 2014
Editing activity for Last updated November 2014 October 2014O 32 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 15 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for cryptoSupported in Safari on iOS from version 88+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 1919+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Early start
WebCrypto Key DiscoveryWDEarly workLast updated May 2014
None
Support for cryptokeyNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None

2. Media and Real-Time Communications

HTML5 adds two tags that dramatically improve the integration of multimedia content on the Web: the <video> and <audio> tags. Respectively, these tags allow embedding video and audio content, and make it possible for Web developers to interact much more freely with that content than they would through plug-ins. They make multimedia content first-class citizens of the Web, the same way images have been for the past 20 years.

The playback content can be streamed, augmented and completed via Media Source Extensions that lets developers buffer and generate media content in JavaScript.

To cater for the needs of some content providers, a proposal to enable playback of protected content, Encrypted Media Extensions is an API that is under consideration in the HTML Working Group.

Mobile devices often expose shortcuts to handle the audio output of a main application (e.g. a music player) from a lock screen or the notification areas. The WHATWG Media Session specification proposes deeper integration with these features in Web applications.

Because mobile devices often come with a variety of configurable audio output (phone speaker, loudspeaker, headset, bluetooth speakers), the Audio Output Devices API let developers set on which ouput devices a given audio resource should play.

While the new HTML5 tags allow to play multimedia content, the HTML Media Capture defines a markup-based mechanism to access captured multimedia content using attached camera and microphones, a very common feature on mobile devices. The Web Real-Time Communications Working Group and the Device APIs Working Group are building together an API (getUserMedia) to directly manipulate streams from camera and microphones, as well as an API to record these streams into files, and another API to use access to cameras to take photos programatically.

Beyond capturing and recording, two additional APIs add multimedia manipulation capabilities to the Web platform. We have already mentioned the Canvas 2D Context API: it enables modifying images, which in turn opens up the possibility of video editing.

In a similar vein, the Audio Working Group is working on an API that that makes it possible to modify audio content, as well as analyze, modify and synthesize sounds, the Web Audio API.

The Network Service Discovery API offers to discover services on the local network (such as the ones offered via DLNA), enabling mobile Web applications to integrate seamlessly with these services.

An alternative proposal to the Network Service Discovery API has emerged: Named Web Sockets offers to provide well-known sockets to existing and approved local network services.

The Second Screen Presentation Working Group is building an an API to request display of content on an external screen, including through network-based protocols, forming the basis for second-screen scenarios.

The Web Real-Time Communications Working Group is the host of specifications for a wider set of communication opportunities:

The combination of all these features marks the starting point of the Web as a comprehensive platform for multimedia, both for consuming and producing. The rising interest around bridging the Web and TV worlds (manifested through the W3C Web and TV Interest Group) should strengthen that trend in the coming months. Mobile devices are expected to take a growing role in many users TV experience, providing a “second screen” experience, where users can find more information on or interact with a TV program they're watching via their mobile devices.

Likewise, the opportunity offered to deploy real-time communication services on the Web is another step towards the unification of the telecommunication and Web ecosystems.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Video playbackvideo element in HTML5HTMLRECStableFinishedGood deployment
Support for videoSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.32.3+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Well started
Audio playbackaudio element in HTML5RECStableFinishedGood deployment
Support for audioSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.32.3+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Started
Generation of media contentMedia Source ExtensionsCRStableLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 5 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 8 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 3 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 2 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 4 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 3 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for mseNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 4.4.34.4.3+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgWell started
Protected content playbackEncrypted Media ExtensionsWDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 24 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 21 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 17 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 2 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 23 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 7 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 27 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 19 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 4 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for emeNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 34p34p+
None
Media focusMedia SessionWHATWGN/AEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 11 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 99 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 68 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 5 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 21 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 6 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for mediasessionNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
Audio output selectionAudio Output Devices APIDevice APIs and
Web Real-Time Communications
WDearly draftLast updated February 2015
Editing activity for Last updated February 2015 October 2014O 1 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 4 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for audio-outputNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Capturing audio/videoHTML Media CaptureDevice APIsCRStableLast updated October 2014
Editing activity for Last updated October 2014 October 2014O 2 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for inputacceptSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 99+ Supported in Android browser from version 3.03.0+ Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 1818+
Good coverage
Media Capture and StreamsDevice APIs and
Web Real-Time Communications
LastCallStabilizingLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 15 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 120 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 21 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 25 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 33 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 26 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 15 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 10 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 41 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 28 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 13 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for getusermediaNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1212+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
started
MediaStream RecordingWDEarly draftLast updated December 2014
Editing activity for Last updated December 2014 October 2014O 2 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 1 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Very limited
Support for recordingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 2929+ Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Mediastream Image CaptureWDEarly draftLast updated January 2015
Editing activity for Last updated January 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 2 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 1 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for imagecaptureNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Image & Video analysis, modificationHTML Canvas 2D ContextHTMLCRStableLast updated December 2014
Editing activity for Last updated December 2014 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 1 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Widely deployed
Support for canvasSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 33+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Good coverage
Audio analysis, modificationWeb Audio APIAudioWDStarting to stabilizeLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 28 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 62 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 7 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 6 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 7 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 32 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 10 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 5 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 35 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 17 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 7 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Good deployment
Support for webaudioSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgStarted
Local network servicesNetwork Service DiscoveryDevice APIsWDEarly draft, unsure futureLast updated February 2014
None
Support for discoveryNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Named Web SocketsN/AEarly proposalLast updated December 2014
Editing activity for Last updated December 2014 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 28 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 3 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for namedwebsocketsNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Presentation APISecond Screen PresentationWDEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 2 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 5 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 23 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 12 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 13 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 14 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 8 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 68 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 27 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 18 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 3 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
N/A
P2P connections and audio/video streamsWebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between BrowsersWeb Real-Time CommunicationsWDEarly draftLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 18 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 13 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 29 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 25 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 10 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 18 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 43 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 27 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 3 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for p2pNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgEarly start

3. Usability and Accessibility

An increasing share of mobile devices relies on touch-based interactions. While the traditional interactions recognized in the Web platform (keyboard, mouse input) can still be applied in this context, a more specific handling of touch-based input is a critical aspect of creating well-adapted user experiences, which Touch Events in the DOM (Document Object Model) enable. The work on that specification is now nearly finished.

Meanwhile, the Pointer Events Working Group has made good progress on an alternative approach to handle user input, Pointer Events, that allows to handle mouse, touch and pen events under a single model. It provides a complementary and more unified approach to the currently more widely deployed Touch Events.

In particular, the CSS property touch-action that lets filter gesture events on elements is gaining traction beyond implementations of Pointer Events.

The early proposal for an InputDevice capabilities API would provide information about a given “mouse” event comes from a touch-capable device.

As more and more content gets rendered as long scrollable lists, more and more logic is attached to scrolling events, and the quality of the user experience of these actions is highly dependent on their performances. The CSSOM View Module determines when scrolling events get fired, and let developers specify the type of scrolling behavior they want.

The proposed work on CSS Scroll Snap Points adds greater ability to control the behavior of panning and scrolling by defining points to which an app view would snap when the user moves through the page.

The CSS will-change property is also available to indicate to browsers that a given part of the page will be soon scrolled to and should be pre-rendered.

Many mobile devices use on-screen keyboards to let users type; the Input Method Editor (IME) API makes it possible to coordinate the interactions between that on-screen keyboard and Web applications, but the future of that API is under discussion given its relative lack of adoption.

Conversely, many mobile devices use haptic feedback (such as vibration) to create new form of interactions (e.g. in games); work on a vibration API in the Device APIs Working Group is making good progress.

But as the Web reaches new devices, and as devices gain new user interactions mechanisms, it also becomes important to allow Web developers to react to a more abstract set of user interactions: instead of having to work in terms of “click”, “key press”, or “touch event”, being able to react to an “undo” command, or a “next page” command independently of how the user instructed it to the device will prove beneficial to the development of device-independent Web applications. The IndieUI Events specification, developed by the Indie UI Working Group, aims at addressing this need.

Mobile devices follow their users everywhere, and many mobile users rely on them to remind them or notify them of events, such as messages: the Web Notifications specification enables that feature in the Web environment, while the Push API makes it possible for server-side notifications to alert the user, even if the browser is not running.

Mobile devices, and mobile phones in particular, are also in many cases well-suited to be used through voice-interactions; the Speech API Community Group is exploring the opportunity of starting standardization work around a JavaScript API that would make it possible for users to interact with a Web page through spoken commands.

Whether users are speaking commands to their apps or working with them through non-haptic interactions, they risk seeing the screens turned off automatically by their devices screensaver. An early proposal for a Wake Lock API would let developers signal the needs to keep the screen up in these circumstances.

The hardware constraints of mobile devices, and their different usage context can make mobile users experience similar barriers to people with disabilities. These similarities in barriers mean that similar solutions can be used to cater for them, making a Web site accessible both for people with disabilities and mobile devices a natural goal (as detailed in Relationship between Mobile Web Best Practices and WCAG).

The WCAG and UAWG Working Group provide guidance on mobile accessibility in how Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and other WAI guidelines apply to mobile — that is, making websites and applications more accessible to people with disabilities when they are using mobile phones and a broad range of other devices.

WAI-ARIA provides semantic information on widgets, structures and behaviors hooks to make Web applications more accessible, including on mobile devices.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Touch-based interactionsTouch EventsWeb EventsRECFinishedFinishedLargely deployed
Support for toucheventSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Complete
Pointer EventsPointer EventsRECStableFinishedLimited deployment
Support for pointer-eventsNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
WebPlatform.orgWell started
touch-action property in Pointer EventsRECStableFinishedGrowing
Support for css-touch-actionNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
InputDeviceCapabilitiesNot on standards track yetEarly proposalLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Started
Smooth scrollingsmooth scrolling in CSSOM View ModuleCSSWDStill changingLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 11 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 4 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 2 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 13 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 2 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for smooth-scrollNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
CSS Scroll Snap Points Module Level 1WDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 1 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for css-snappointsSupported in Safari on iOS from version 99+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
CSS Will Change Module Level 1WDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 1 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for css-will-changeNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
On-screen keyboard interactionsInput Method Editor APIWeb ApplicationsWDUncertainty about futureLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 3 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 2 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Very limited
Support for imeNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
VibrationVibration APIDevice APIsRECFinishedFinishedGrowing
Support for vibrationNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Intent-based eventsIndieUI: Events 1.0Independent User Interface (Indie UI)WDEarly draftLast updated June 2014
None
Support for indieuiNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
NotificationWeb NotificationsWeb NotificationCRStableLast updated January 2015
Editing activity for Last updated January 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 2 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for notificationNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Push APIWeb ApplicationsWDEarly draft, now with Service WorkersLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 12 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 7 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 4 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 11 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 3 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 21 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 4 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 3 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 12 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for pushNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4242+
N/A
Speech-based interactionsWeb Speech APISpeech API Community GroupN/AN/ALast updated January 2013
Limited
Support for speechinputNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
Screen wakeWake Lock APIDevice APIsWDJust startedLast updated July 2015
Editing activity for Last updated July 2015 October 2014O 3 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 1 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for wake-lockNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
AccessibilityRelationship between Mobile Web Best Practices (MWBP) and Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)Mobile Web Best Practices and
Education and Outreach
NOTEFinishedN/A
N/A
Mobile Accessibility: How WCAG 2.0 and Other W3C/WAI Guidelines Apply to MobileWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines and
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines
WDEarly draftLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 14 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 14 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 8 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 12 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 1 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
N/A
N/A
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0Protocols and FormatsRECStableWell deployed
Support for ariaSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage

4. Device interaction

Mobile devices are packed with sensors, making them a great bridge between the real and virtual worlds: GPS, accelerometer, ambient light detector, microphone, camera, thermometer, etc.

To take full advantage of these sensors in mobile Web applications, Web developers need to be provided with hooks to interact with them.

The Geolocation API provides a common interface for locating the device, independently of the underlying technology (GPS, WIFI networks identification, triangulation in cellular networks, etc.).

Work towards a new geofencing API (i.e. an API to detect when a device enters a given geographical area) has started.

Web applications can also now access orientation and acceleration data via the DeviceOrientation Event Specification.

A number of APIs for other sensors are under development: the Battery Status API, the Proximity Events API, the Ambient Light Events API or the proposed Ambient Humidity Events API. The Device APIs Working Group has started an effort to propose a unification pattern for these various sensors.

As already mentioned in the section on multimedia, there is ongoing work on APIs to open up access to camera and microphone streams.

The NFC Working Group had been chartered to develop APIs for accessing from Near-Field Communications systems to Web runtimes, but outside the traditional Web security model; as the need and requirements to bring NFC interactions under that model have become clearer, the existing NFC Working Group has been closed, and work on browser-compatible NFC API has started in the Web NFC Community Group.

A Web Bluetooth Community Group was started to develop a Bluetooth API for browsers with a particular goal of supporting Bluetooth Low Energy devices.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
GeolocationGeolocation API SpecificationGeolocationRECFinishedFinishedWidely deployed
Support for geolocationSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Good coverage
Geofencing APIWDJust startedLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 2 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 6 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 2 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 5 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for geofencingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Motion sensorsDeviceOrientation Event SpecificationLastCallStabilizing, but with planned updatesLast updated August 2014
Well deployed
Support for accelerometerSupported in Safari on iOS from version 4.24.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 33+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1212+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Started
Battery StatusBattery Status APIDevice APIsCRStableLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 2 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for batteryNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Proximity sensorsProximity EventsWDLikely to evolve substantiallyLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 5 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 1 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Very limited
Support for proximityNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
Started
Ambient Light sensorAmbient Light EventsWDLikely to evolve significantlyLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 1 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 3 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 1 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Very limited
Support for ambientlightNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
Started
Humidity sensorAmbient Humidity EventsN/AUnofficial draftLast updated October 2013
None
Support for humidityNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
Generic SensorsGeneric Sensor APIedEarly draftLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 5 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 21 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
N/A
N/A
Camera & Microphone streamsMedia Capture and StreamsDevice APIs and
Web Real-Time Communications
LastCallStabilizingLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 15 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 120 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 21 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 25 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 33 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 26 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 15 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 10 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 41 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 28 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 13 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for getusermediaNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1212+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
started
NFCWeb NFC APIWeb NFC Community GroupNot on standards trackEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 1 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 4 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for webnfcNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
BluetoothWeb BluetoothWeb Bluetooth Community GroupNot on standards trackEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 4 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 13 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 12 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 16 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 18 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 21 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 5 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 17 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 6 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Experimental
Support for bluetoothNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A

5. Network Integration

Network connectivity represents a major asset for mobile devices: the Web is an immense store of content, as well as an almost endless source of processing power, overcoming two of the limitations of mobile devices.

The Web platform is growing a number of APIs that facilitate establishing network connectivity in different contexts.

XMLHttpRequest (the basis for Ajax development) is a widely deployed API to load content from Web servers using the HTTP and HTTPs protocol: the W3C specification (formerly known as XMLHttpRequest Level 2) was meant to document the existing deployed API (with the ability to make requests on servers in a different domain, programmatic feedback on the progress of the network operations, and more efficient handling of binary content), but that work is now likely to be done only in the WHATWG. The WHATWG fetch API also provides a more powerful Promise-based alternative.

The Beacon API aims at letting developers queue unsupervised HTTP requests, leaving it to the browser to execute them when appropriate, opening the door for better network optimizations.

Early work on a Web Background Synchronization API would provide a robust Service Worker-based mechanism to enable Web applications to download and upload content in the background, even in the absence of a running browser.

By default, browsers do not allow to make request across different domains (or more specifically, across different origins, a combination of the protocol, domain and port) from a single Web page; this rule protects the user from having a Web site abusing their credentials and stealing their data on another Web site. Sites can opt-out of that rule by making use of the Cross-Origin Resource Sharing mechanism, opening up much wider cooperation across Web applications and services.

XMLHttpRequest is useful for client-initiated network requests, but mobile devices with their limited network capabilities and the cost that network requests induce on their battery (and sometimes on their users bill) can often make better use of server-initiated requests. The Server-Sent Events API allows triggering DOM events based on push notifications (via HTTP and other protocols.)

Early work on a Push API would allow Web applications to receive server-sent messages whether or not the said Web app is active in a browser window. An IETF Working Group charter is under discussion to standardize the protocol aspects of the mechanism.

The WebSocket API, built on top of the IETF WebSocket protocol, offers a bidirectional, more flexible, and less resource intensive network connectivity than XMLHttpRequest.

The work on Web Real-Time Communications will also provide direct peer-to-peer data connections between browsers with real-time characteristics, opening the way to collaborative multi-devices Web applications.

Of course, an important part of using network connectivity relies on being able to determine if such connectivity exists, and the type of network available. The HTML5 onLine DOM flag (and its associated change event, ononline) signals when network connectivity is available to the Web environment.

The network-information API, which was supposed to address discovery of the network characteristics, has been abandoned for the time being due to lack of clear supporting use cases.

The Resource Timing API offers to measure precisely the impact of the network on the time needed to load various resources, offering another approach to adapt a Web app to its network environment.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
HTTP(s) network APIXMLHttpRequest Level 1Web ApplicationsWDLikely to be abandoned in favor of WHATWG specificationLast updated May 2014
Well deployed
Support for xhr2Supported in Safari on iOS from version 88+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.4.34.4.3+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1212+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
BeaconWeb PerformanceLastCallStabilizingLast updated April 2015
Editing activity for Last updated April 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited but growing
Support for beaconNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
Web Background SynchronizationWeb ApplicationsN/AEarly draftLast updated April 2015
Editing activity for Last updated April 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 8 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 16 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 10 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 9 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 7 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for background-syncNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Cross-domain requestsCross-Origin Resource SharingWeb Applications and
Web Application Security
RECStableWell-deployed
Support for corsSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1212+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgWell started
Server-pushed requestsServer-Sent EventsWeb ApplicationsRECStableFinishedGetting well-deployed
Support for eventsourceSupported in Safari on iOS from version 4.04.0+ Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 11.111.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgGood coverage
Push APIWDEarly draft, now with Service WorkersLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 12 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 7 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 4 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 11 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 3 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 21 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 4 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 3 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 12 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for pushNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4242+
N/A
Bidirectional connectionsThe WebSocket APICRStableLast updated June 2014
Good deployment
Support for websocketsSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 12.112.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Good coverage
P2P data connectionsWebRTC 1.0: Real-time Communication Between BrowsersWeb Real-Time CommunicationsWDEarly draftLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 18 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 13 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 29 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 25 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 10 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 18 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 43 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 27 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 3 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for p2pNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgEarly start
on-line stateonLine state in HTML5HTMLRECStableFinishedLimited
Support for onlineNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 88+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 2.22.2+ Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 1818+
Well started
Network characteristicsThe Network Information APIDevice APIsRetiredAbandoned for now, but might be restartedLast updated November 2014
Editing activity for Last updated November 2014 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 5 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for networkapiNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 1010+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.22.2+ Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 3838+
None
Resource TimingWeb PerformanceWDStableLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 1 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 4 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 8 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 6 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 2 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 2 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 2 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for res-timingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started

6. Application Lifecycle

An important aspect of the user experience of applications is linked to how the user perceives the said application is available permanently (even when off-line, which is particularly important on mobile devices), as well as its ability to get started based on external notifications.

These notions are part of the overall application lifecycle: how applications get installed, shown to the user in applications list, started, stopped, woken up from remote notifications, synced up when the device goes on-line.

These various capabilities are brought the Web platform through different mechanisms.

Although the notion of installed Web applications is still not well-defined, there are several components to the notion of installation that are under development.

Packaging on the Web describes a Web-adapted format to make Web content available in a singe file for ease of download, sharing or archiving.

Whether packaged or not, users rely on a variety of metadata (name, icons) to identify the apps they want to use among their list of regularly used applications. The JSON-based manifest format lets developers group all these metadata in a single JSON file.

HTML5’s ApplicationCache enables access to Web applications off-line through the definition of a manifest of files that the browser is expected to keep in its cache.

While relatively well deployed, the current approach has shown some strong limitations in terms of how much developers can control what gets cached when. The Web Applications Working Group has thus been developing a more powerful approach, ServiceWorker.

Not only does Service Worker enables Web applications to work seamlessly off-line or in poor network conditions, it also creates a model for Web applications to operate when they have not been opened in a browser window, or even if the browser itself is not running.

That ability opens the door for Web applications that run in the background and can react to remotely triggered events.

The Task Scheduler API makes it possible to trigger a task at a specified time via the Web app service worker. While the System Applications Working Group in which this API was developed has closed, the ServiceWorker-based approach taken in the specifications may make it an interesting starting point for further work in this space.

Similarly, the new geofencing API enables to wake up a Web app when a device enters a specified geographical area.

The Push API enables Web applications to subscribe to remote notifications that, upon reception, wake them up. Native applications have long enjoyed the benefits of greater user engagement that these notifications bring, and soon Web applications will share that ability.

Likewise, the Web Background Synchronization specification will enable Web applications to keep their user data up to date seamlessly, by running network operations in the background.

The Page Visibility specification lets developers detect when their application is in the foreground, and thus adapt their operations and resource consumption accordingly.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
PackagingPackaging on the WebTAG and
Web Applications
WDEarly draftLast updated February 2015
Editing activity for Last updated February 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 1 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 3 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 2 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for packagingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A
Manifest for a web applicationWeb ApplicationsWDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 28 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 15 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 13 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 18 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 6 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 16 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 27 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 11 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 14 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 10 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 2 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for manifestjsonNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 2727+ Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 3939+
N/A
Offline Web AppsApplicationCache in HTML5HTMLRECStable (but Service Workers will be the preferred approach when available)FinishedWell deployed
Support for manifestSupported in Safari on iOS from version 3.23.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
None
Service WorkersWeb ApplicationsWDEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 45 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 35 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 15 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 26 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 24 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 19 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 20 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 11 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 11 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 12 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 18 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 3 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for serviceworkerNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
Scheduled tasksTask Scheduler API SpecificationSystem ApplicationsRetiredEarly draftLast updated October 2014
Editing activity for Last updated October 2014 October 2014O 7 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for task-schedulerNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
GeofencingGeofencing APIGeolocationWDJust startedLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 2 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 6 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 2 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 5 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for geofencingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Remote NotificationsPush APIWeb ApplicationsWDEarly draft, now with Service WorkersLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 12 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 7 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 4 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 11 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 3 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 21 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 4 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 3 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 12 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for pushNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4242+
N/A
Background SyncWeb Background SynchronizationN/AEarly draftLast updated April 2015
Editing activity for Last updated April 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 8 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 16 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 10 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 9 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 7 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for background-syncNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Foreground detectionPage VisibilityWeb PerformanceRECFinishedWell deployed
Support for visibilitychangeSupported in Safari on iOS from version 7.07.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 12.112.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage

7. Payment and Services

Native mobile application stores have made it much easier for developers to monetize some of their applications, either by selling the application itself to users, or by providing in-app purchases.

While Web applications can use well-known on-line payment solutions, these solutions have so far proved much harder to use on mobile devices.

In March 2014, W3C organized a workshop on Web payments to identify ways in which standards could help make that payment experience much simpler, in particular on mobile devices. In Octobober 2014, W3C chartered the Web Payment Interest Group to drive work in this space, and that group released its sense of priority use cases for Web payments.

A charter for a Web Payments Working Group is now under review by the W3C Advisory Committee: this group, if chartered, would develop a browser API to facilitate payment operations in Web apps.

Meanwhile, HTML5.1 provides specific help for autocomplete of credit card details, making it easier to pay via credit cards once these details have been entered once.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Integrated paymentCredit card details autocomplete in HTML 5.1HTMLWDEarly draftLast updated July 2015
Very limited
Support for autocomplete-ccSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android from version 3131+
None

8. Performance & Tuning

Due to their limited CPU, and more importantly to their limited battery, mobile devices require a lot of attention in terms of performance.

The work started by the Web Performance Working Group on Navigation Timing, Resource Timing, Performance Timeline and User Timing, gives tools to Web developers for optimizing their Web applications. The work on the Frame Timing API aims at providing detailed information on the frame-per-second obtained when an application is running on the user device.

The Resource Hints and Preload specifications let developers optimize the download of resources by enabling to delay either the download or the execution of the downloaded resource.

The proposed work on Efficient Script Yielding offers the opportunity to Web developers to use more efficiently asynchronous programming, but has so far gained very limited traction.

The requestIdleCallback API similarly proposes a way for scheduling an operation at the next opportunity when the app is not processing another operation.

The API to determine whether a Web page is being displayed (Page Visibility API) can also be used to adapt the usage of resources to the need of the Web application, for instance by reducing network activity when the page is minimized. Likewise, the Timing control for script-based animations API can help reduce the usage of resources needed for playing animations.

Beyond optimization of resources, the perceived reactivity of an application is also a critical aspect of the mobile user experience. The thread-like mechanism made possible via Web Workers allows keeping the user interface responsive by offloading the most resource-intensive operations into a background process.

The battery API allows adjusting the use of resources to the current level of power available in the battery of a mobile device.

The Mobile Web Application Best Practices provide general advice on how to build Web applications that work well on mobile devices, taking into account in particular the needs for optimization. The opportunity to update these best practices is under discussion in the Web and Mobile Interest Group.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Timing hooksNavigation TimingWeb PerformanceRECFinishedWell deployed
Support for nav-timingSupported in Safari on iOS from version 88+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 44+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Resource TimingWDStableLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 1 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 4 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 2 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 8 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 5 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 6 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 2 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 2 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 2 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for res-timingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
Performance TimelineRECFinishedLimited
Support for perf-timelineSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android from version 3030+
Started
User TimingRECFinishedGrowing
Support for user-timingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
Frame TimingWDEarly draftLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 5 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 4 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 13 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 3 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 6 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 4 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for frame-timingNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Network prioritizationResource HintsWDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 2 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 2 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 4 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 1 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 1 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 19 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 1 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 2 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 2 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing deployment
Support for res-hintsNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 44+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
None
PreloadWDEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 2 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 2 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 3 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 7 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 3 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 6 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 4 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 1 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None?
None
Priority handlingEfficient Script YieldingedEarly draftLast updated April 2014
Very limited
Support for setimmediateNot supported in Safari on iOSX Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Cooperative Scheduling of Background TasksedEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 10 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 4 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Experimental
None
Page Visibility detectionPage VisibilityRECFinishedWell deployed
Support for visibilitychangeSupported in Safari on iOS from version 7.07.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 12.112.1+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Animation optimizationTiming control for script-based animationsCRStableLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 1 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for animation-timingSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Well started
ThreadingWeb WorkersWeb ApplicationsCRStableLast updated May 2014
Well deployed
Support for webworkersSupported in Safari on iOS from version 5.05.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.12.1+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 1111+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.org
W3DevCampus
Good coverage
Battery StatusBattery Status APIDevice APIsCRStableLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 1 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 2 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Growing
Support for batteryNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Good coverage
Optimization Best PracticesMobile Web Application Best PracticesMobile Web Best PracticesRECFinishedN/A

W3DevCampus
N/A

9. Security & Privacy

Mobile devices follow their users everywhere, and hold some of their most private or confidential data (contacts, pictures, calendar, etc.) As a result, it is critical for users to be able to rely on their phones to keep that data safe from attackers.

W3C specifications are reviewed for their security and privacy impact as part of their progress through the Recommendation track; the Privacy Interest Group and the Web Security Interest Group in particular are coordinating reviews on their respective fields.

Many sensitive APIs are gated by a request for user consent; while these requests give control to the user, they can be sometimes hard to integrate in the overall user experience without visibility on which permission has been granted or denied. The Permissions API aims at fixing this.

But beyond these cross-technology considerations, a number of ongoing work items address needs for additional protection.

The first line of defense for users, and the unit of isolation for Web apps is the same-origin policy that roughly limits what a Web application can access to content and data hosted on the same origin, i.e. the combination of URL scheme, domain name and port.

For legacy reasons, this policy is not as stringent on some parts of the Web platform, exposing users to greater attack surface via cross-site scripting or cross-site request forgery. To enable Web application authors to reduce the attack surface beyond what legacy requires, the Content Security Policy (level 2) offers hooks that severely limits damages that an attacker could hope to achieve.

To further strengthen the integrity of their applications, Web developers can make use of the proposed Subresource integrity mechanism, that makes it possible to block man-in-the-middle attacks or compromised third-parties providers.

Entry Point Regulation provides another layer of strengthening and offers to filter the type of HTTP requests that can be made from external sites, reducing risks of cross-site script and cross-site request forgery.

In applications that aggregate content from multiple (possibly untrusted) sources, the HTML5 iframe sandbox makes it possible to restrict what kind of interactions third-party embedded content can make use of.

As described earlier, the Web Cryptography API provides the necessary tools to encrypt data for storage and transmission from within Web applications, with access pre-provisioned keys via the WebCrypto Key Discovery API.

There are discussions to bring the capabilities of hardware-security modules to the Web, to enable access to high-security operations for encryption, payment, identity proof, etc., embodied in a draft charter for a Hardware Security Working Group.

For users that wish to indicate their preferences not to be tracked across Web applications and sites, the Tracking Preference Expression (also known as Do No Track) enables browsers to communicate explicitly their wish to content providers, and to determine whether a given content provider asserts fulfilling that wish.

To facilitate the authentication of users to on-line services, the Web Application Security Working Group is proposing a credential management API that lets developers interact more seamless with user-agent-managed credentials.

Feature Specification Working Group Maturity Stability Latest editors draft Current implementations Developers doc Test suite
Permission managementThe Permissions APIWeb Application SecurityWDEarly draftLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 2 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 6 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 1 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 20 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 4 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 17 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 1 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for permissionsNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
N/A
Strengthened securityContent Security Policy Level 2CRStableLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 32 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 14 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 1 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 2 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 6 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well-deployed
Support for cspSupported in Safari on iOS from version 6.06.0+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 4.44.4+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
WebPlatform.orgWell started
Subresource IntegrityWDJust startedLast updated August 2015
Editing activity for Last updated August 2015 October 2014O 1 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 20 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 6 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 39 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 7 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 23 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 43 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 45 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 21 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 18 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 11 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Limited
Support for subres-integrityNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4545+
None
Entry Point RegulationWDJust startedLast updated June 2015
Editing activity for Last updated June 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 0 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 14 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 3 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for eprSupported in Safari on iOS unknown? Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone unknown? Supported in Firefox mobile unknown? Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android unknown?
None
Sandboxed iframe in HTML5HTMLRECStableFinishedWidely deployed
Support for iframe-sandboxSupported in Safari on iOS from version 4.24.2+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1010+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 4040+ Supported in Android browser from version 2.22.2+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
None
EncryptionWeb Cryptography APIWeb CryptographyCRStableLast updated November 2014
Editing activity for Last updated November 2014 October 2014O 32 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 15 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 0 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 0 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 0 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 0 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 0 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 0 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 0 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 0 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
Well deployed
Support for cryptoSupported in Safari on iOS from version 88+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 1111+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 1919+ Supported in Android browser from version 4444+ Supported in Opera mobile from version 3030+ Supported in Chrome for Android from version 4444+
Early start
WebCrypto Key DiscoveryWDEarly workLast updated May 2014
None
Support for cryptokeyNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
None
Tracking protectionTracking Preference Expression (DNT)Tracking ProtectionCRStabilizingLast updated June 2015
Good deployment
Support for dntSupported in Safari on iOS from version 55+ Supported in Internet Explorer on Windows Phone from version 99+ Supported in Firefox mobile from version 66+ Supported in Android browser unknown? Supported in Opera mobile unknown? Supported in Chrome for Android from version 2323+
None
Identity managementCredential Management Level 1Web Application SecurityWDEarly draftLast updated September 2015
Editing activity for Last updated September 2015 October 2014O 0 commits in October 2014 November 2014N 2 commits in November 2014 December 2014D 0 commits in December 2014 January 2015J 8 commits in January 2015 February 2015F 2 commits in February 2015 March 2015M 9 commits in March 2015 April 2015A 28 commits in April 2015 May 2015M 8 commits in May 2015 June 2015J 3 commits in June 2015 July 2015J 1 commits in July 2015 August 2015A 0 commits in August 2015 September 2015S 10 commits in September 2015 2014 2015 Commits on ed. draft
None
Support for credential-managementNot supported in Safari on iOSX Not supported in Internet Explorer on Windows PhoneX Not supported in Firefox mobileX Not supported in Android browserX Not supported in Opera mobileX Not supported in Chrome for AndroidX
N/A

Acknowledgments

Thanks to Art Barstow, Anssi Kostiainen, Jo Rabin, J. Manrique López, Mounir Lamouri, Marcos Caceres, François Daoust and Ronan Cremin for their contributions to this document.

This document is produced through the HTML5Apps project, funded by the European Union through the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2013-2015) under grant agreement n°611327 - HTML5 Apps.