W3C Interaction

W3C Workshop on Device Independent Authoring Techniques

Workshop home page

Call for Participation

Statements of Interest (in a single file)

Index of Submissions

Participant Affiliation Statement of Interest Position Paper
Bert Bos W3C statement

The place of CSS in device-independent publishing

Stephane Boyera W3C statement  
Shlomit Ritz Finkelstein none statement  
Monica Gemo Catholique University of Louvain statement  
Fabio Giannetti HP Labs statement

Device Independence Web Application Framework (DIWAF)


A framework is presented for adapting content to make it suitable for delivery to many kinds of devices. The framework is founded on the "single authoring" principle of designing for the most capable device and automatically adapting the content for different device classes, based on author-provided metadata that guides the adaptation process. By separating content, layout and style, each can be reused whenever possible. Content alternatives allow better matching to device capabilities.

Alfred Gilman none statement  
Roger Gimson HP Labs statement  
Yoshihisa Gonno Sony Corporation statement  
Guido Grassel Nokia Research Center statement

Definition and prototyping of a Renderer-independent ML

John Hamard DoCoMo Euro-Labs statement  
Rotan Hanrahan Mobileaware Ltd statement Position Paper from Mobileaware Ltd


Mobileaware uses an annotation technique in its multi-device authoring and transformation solutions, and we would like to share our experience through the Device Independent Authoring Techniques workshop. It is our hope that this will demonstrate the simplicity of annotation and encourage an activity to develop an agreed approach.

Zdenka Hofman Hofman Image Management Ltd.    
Mario Jeckle DaimlerChrysler Research and Technology statement Device-Independent Web Applications Based on Web Services


With the advent of XML as a view of heterogeneous data which unifies the underlying sources syntactically, will Web services promise to bear the same potential for heterogeneous functionality? Due to their foundation on XML, Web services could be used to create a unified view of the specific functions (i.e. services) offered by the various systems without taking the specific internal implementations (such as programming languages, calling conventions, parameter passing, etc.) into account. Thus, XML and Web services tackle two different aspects of interaction with an IT system by the introduction of a new, well-defined abstraction layer.

Since neither Web Services nor plain XML offer any kind of interaction component, simply because they were both not developed to accommodate this feature, it now turns out that one of the most vital aspects of today's business systems is missing completely: the user interface.

Additionally, this drawback becomes even more aggravating when we consider that the results of a Web service execution are delivered not only to workstations but also to arbitrary devices including resource-constrained devices such as mobile phones. And in view of the extensions in the pipeline, at some point in the nearer future these services will need to be provided to small devices enabling ubiquitous computing. The main challenge thus becomes not just the support of all these devices and the ones potentially to come with some kind of content, but the creation of appropriate (i.e. consistent, usable, and easy to maintain) user interfaces. At the same time, content authors are increasingly being faced with the need to create interfaces which are geared for various user groups - in strong contrast to the technically focused adaptation to various display and interaction devices.

Kazuhiro Kitagawa W3C/Keio statement  
Johannes Koch & Pal Tamas Feher Pixelpark AG statement DICA: HTTP-Based Content Negotiation with Cocoon


DICA 2 is a research project for acquisition with its main focus on device independence.

From W3C Device Independence Principles WD:
Device independent Web page identifiers: A Web page identifier that provides a functional presentation via one access mechanism should also provide a presentation of equivalent functionality via any other access mechanism.
In other words, the intended function of a Web page is associated with the Web page identifier, and should apply to all presentations obtained from the Web page identifier, no matter what the access mechanism.

This principle is achieved in DICA by transforming content "on the fly". So there are no different URLs for accessing the content when using e.g. a desktop browser or a WAP phone.

Based on functional requirements, we chose a portal project implemented with Cocoon 2.

Markus Lauff SAP AG statement

Definition and prototyping of a Renderer-independent ML

Tayeb Lemlouma INRIA Rhône-Alpes statement

Content Adaptation and Generation Principles for Heterogeneous Clients


In this paper, we propose a general framework for device independent authoring and presentation. Our approach relies on negotiated adaptation and generation techniques. These techniques allow the creation of customized presentations for different clients starting from a single and more abstract content representation. We focus on some key aspects of this framework through the learned lessons from an experimental system called NAC (Negotiation and Adaptation Core) under development in our project. A particular attention is given to the document model, the document transformation and media adaptation process. The role of the proxy in such a framework is also discussed.

Rhys Lewis Volantis Systems Ltd statement

A Device-Independent Method for Web Site Authoring


Volantis' Mariner product family is based on a number of principles that have proven themselves in the practical implementation of a large number of web sites and applications. Sites built using these principles can acccessed by devices that include a large number of WAP and i-mode mobile phones, various digital television systems, a wide range of Personal Digital Assistant's, personal computers, workstations and even systems that use voice as the only modality.

Volantis will describe a number of the fundamental principles on which their approach to device independence is based. Key for authors is the device independent markup language, based on familiar standards and incorporating powerful functional abstractions. Additional abstractions are used for device dependent information, such as stylistic specifications and data concerning the physical placement of presentation elements. These abstractions are organised in ways that allow authoring costs to be managed. Definitions can be reused and shared where appropriate, without compromising the ability to provide highly customised presentations where desired. The adaptation mechanism employs these abstractions together with delivery context. The delivery context includes information taken from a device repository in addition to information transmitted by the device itself. The adaptation process encapsulates device and user agent expertise, reducing the need for authors to be experts in the capabilities of the devices being supported.

Srinivas Mandyam Covigo Inc statement

User Interface Adaptations: Indispensible for Single Authoring


The World Wide Web is rapidly evolving into a medium that supports information access from a wide variety of information terminals. Single authoring enables the creation of web applications that adapt their user interfaces and interaction paradigms based on the delivery context. In this paper, we present a single authoring technique that optimizes content for an end user device, but without compromising on user interface design quality. Several user interface adaptation techniques, such as structural element transformations, pagination, disparate content sets, and customized navigation will be addressed here. We present an implementation and the problems addressed by the system. We conclude with the preliminary results that were achieved with the system.

Guido Menkhaus University of Salzburg statement

User Interface Tailoring using Semantic Information


Due to the diversity of display capabilities, mobile computing devices have caused a dramatic increase in the development effort of interactive services. User interface tailoring represents a promising concept for coping with this challenge. The position paper proposes a hybrid approach to the generation of adaptive user interfaces based on syntactic and semantic information. Syntactic information is represented by the user interface's size requirements and the semantic information is integrated with a semantic linking language.

Roland Merrick IBM statement  
Yehya Mohamad & Carlos Velasco Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Information Technology statement

Supporting device independent and accessible authoring by a next generation Web Publishing Framework


Users access information systems with a variety of devices, and with different interaction modes that depend on personal characteristics (including disabilities) and on the context of usage. Content and information providers must deal with this demand and search for the ideal of authoring once, delivering for multiple profiles. The paper will present a preliminary approach to implement User/Device profiles as Web Services within an Open Source Web Publishing Framework (Apache Cocoon) to flexibly deliver web content, support multimodality and reduce production costs for information providers.

Martin Nußbaumer & Martin Gaedke University of Karlsruhe statement  
David Ottina xCA NV statement  
Christos Papachristos ICS FORTH statement  
Ruben Samaey xCA statement  
Carmen Santoro I.S.T.I.-C.N.R. statement

An XML-based approach for designing nomadic applications (original .doc)


The wide variety of devices currently available, which is bound to increase in the coming years, poses a number of issues for the design cycle of interactive software applications. Model-based approaches can provide useful support in addressing this new challenge. In this paper we present and discuss our XML-based approach for designing nomadic applications and the related tool that we have developed, TERESA (Transformation Environment for inteRactivE Systems representAtions), whose aim is to provide a complete semi-automatic environment supporting the presented method and transformations. Particular attention will be paid to design a high-level control panel for designers so that they can focus on main design aspects and choices through effective representations without even knowing the basic underlying mechanisms and concepts that support the possible transformations.

Namit Sharma NIIT Ltd    
David Shrimpton University of Kent at Canterbury statement  
Axel Spriestersbach SAP AG statement

Definition and prototyping of a Renderer-independent ML

Luu Tran Sun Microsystems Inc statement

Authoring Device Independent Portal Content


Web portals integrate and aggregate information and applications. Several standards are emerging from the Java Community Process (JCP) [1] and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) [2] that will define how portal servers operate and how portal content is delivered. Authoring content for portals typically involves developing HTML [3]. However, authoring content for a device independent portal requires special attention. In particular, authors need to consider the relationship between device independence and the personalization and aggregation features of a portal server when developing device independent portal content.

Developing Device IndependentJava Applications with JSR 188


The Java Community Process (JCP) [1] is the way the Java platform evolves. Java Specification Request (JSR) 188 [2] was recently submitted to the JCP [1] to enable interoperability between web servers and access mechanisms, and to facilitate development of device independent web applications. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) [3] defines a standard known as Composite Capabilities/Preferences Profile (CC/PP) [4] to describe device capabilities and user preferences that can be used to guide the adaptation of content presented to that device. JSR 188 [2] will define a set of APIs for accessing CC/PP [4] information. This information can be used by developers to build device independent web applications or web content adaptation systems.

Krishna Vedati Covigo Inc statement

User Interface Adaptations: Indispensible for Single Authoring

Benno Volk University of Heidelberg    
Michael Wasmund IBM statement

Definition and prototyping of a Renderer-independent ML

Jason Williams
(not attending)
Web Commerce Group statement

Content Adaptation with the Add-on Technique


Along with the advent of the wireless Internet has emerged a unique set of challenges for the Web author. Not only does the developer have a much smaller screen on which to present his content, the devices that his audience may use to view the content are increasingly varied. It is becoming impractical to design multiple versions of a web site, each of which is geared toward a particular device or set of devices.

This position paper presents an alternative adaptation technique for delivering content and application to multiple devices, which takes advantage of device capabilities for a better user experience while keeping maintenance cost low and reuse of authored contents high.

Candy Wong DoCoMo USA Labs statement

A Single-Authoring Technique for Building Device-Independent Presentations with Minimum Layout Effort (.pdf)


One of the biggest challenges in the prevailing web page development is device heterogeneity. Currently, devices such as cell phones, PDAs, and PCs are already capable of providing access to the Internet. In the near future, we are expecting other devices such as car navigation systems, braille, etc, to have the same capabilities. As the number of these devices increases, the traditional approach of developing a separate web page for each device becomes non-scalable. It would take too much effort for authors to learn different device-specific markup languages and tools, and then to implement and maintain a large number of device-specific web pages of the same web service. To meet this challenge, we propose a single-authoring technique called ScalableWeb. It allows authors to build a device-independent presentation at design time. The device-independent presentation can be transformed into device-specific presentations at runtime, with a minimum layout effort required from authors.

Gottfried Zimmermann Trace R&D Center statement

Technical Requirements for a Delivery Context Independent User Interface Model


This position paper describes technical requirements for user interface models which can be used to construct concrete user interfaces (in real time) that match the preferences and constraints of users. These constraints can be the result of the user's current environment, the device the user is currently employing, or the abilities (or disabilities) of the user. These requirements can be used to identify authoring techniques for specifying user interface models that can be rendered into a wide variety of user interfaces as appropriate for specific users, devices, and environments.

This paper focuses on requirements. On the workshop, the authors also indend to share preliminary ideas and concepts to meet these requirements, as currently being discussed within V2. V2 is a technical committee of ANSI / INCITS (InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards), and is working on an alternative interface access standard including a specification for a Universal Remote Console.