- 1 Introduction
- 2 Use Cases
- 3 Implementation Ideas
- 4 Discussion Topics
- 4.1 Accessibility
- 4.2 Internationalization
- 4.3 Portability
- 4.4 Routes of Progression through an Exercise or Activity
- 4.5 Cognitive Modeling
- 4.6 Hints and Feedback
- 4.7 Scoring and Assessment
- 4.8 Mental Chronometry
- 4.9 Event Streams
- 4.10 Automata
- 4.11 Packages
- 4.12 Modeling Exercises and Activities
- 4.13 Schemas
- 4.14 Metadata
- 4.14.1 Describing Variants of an Exercise and Activity
- 4.14.2 Describing Exercises and Activities
- 4.14.3 Interrelating Different Exercises and Activities
- 4.15 Indexing, Search and Retrieval
- 4.17 Security
- 4.18 Interoperability
- 4.19 Learning Analytics
- 4.20 Educational Data Mining
- 4.21 Playlists and Collections
- 4.22 Routes of Progression Spanning Multiple Exercises or Activities
- 4.23 Digital Rights
- 4.24 Content Authoring
- 4.25 Automatic Item Generation
- 5 Existing Technologies
- 6 Hyperlinks
The mission of the Educational Exercises and Activities Community Group is to develop standards for educational exercises and activities and to make recommendations with regard to other standards.
With respect to educational exercises and activities, a large number of scenarios are to be considered. Educational exercises and activities can be URL-addressable Web resources, resources in learning objects, resources in digital textbooks, and the items of quizzes and exams. Varieties of educational exercises of activities under discussion range from multiple choice questions to those having multiple steps, WebGL 3D graphics and mathematics handwriting recognition.
Educational exercises and activities can be made modular, portable and reusable.
Educational exercises and activities are utilized across educational scenarios.
Training Data for Artificial Intelligence Systems
We can envision artificial intelligence systems utilizing educational exercises and activities as training data.
Educational exercises and activities can be composed of collections of hypertext and other multimedia files. Educational exercises and activities can also be represented as collections of such files in ZIP containers. Scenarios both with and without ZIP containers for collections of such files are in scope for this group.
ZIP containers for educational exercises and activities could utilize the EPUB Open Container Format.
Standardization activities could include specifying a new kind of package file for educational exercises and activities.
Reasons for providing the capability to include multiple variants of an educational exercise or activity in the same ZIP container include accessibility, internationalization and portability. With respect to accessibility, variants could provide different accessibility features. With respect to internationalization, variants could be in different languages. With respect to portability, variants could be designed for different technologies, feature sets or configurations. There could, then, be multiple variants of an educational exercise or activity with a package file for each in a ZIP container. Each variant's package file could be referenced in a container.xml file, per the Open Container Format, and such references could be differentiated via XML attributes. Variants of educational exercises and activities could also be described and differentiated via the metadata of a new kind of package file.
Metadata and Ontology
Different educational exercises and activities can be interrelated. For instance, educational exercises and activities sharing deep structure can be said to be isomorphic. An example pair of isomorphic tasks are Tower of Hanoi and Monsters and Globes.
Educational exercises and activities can make use of hypertext-to-speech and media overlay functionalities.
Automata could be of use for tasks including, but not limited to, processing user interface layer events into event streams (e.g. Experience API or Caliper) and processing such event streams. Graph-based technologies (e.g. flowcharts, activity diagrams and workflows) could be of use for tasks including, but not limited to, cognitive modeling. Technologies for discussion include semantically-annotated graphs and semantically-annotated automata.
Timed automata could function as the skeletons upon which software logic providing interactive exercises or activities could be constructed, upon which system behaviors could be attached, for example providing hints and feedback, and upon which assessment-related computations could occur. Timed automata could contain multiple routes of progression through exercises and activities. During learners' particular routes of progression, assessment objects could be constructed and updated. Assessment objects could be more complex than scalars, for example containing data pertaining to learners' timed routes of progression as well as notes. Timed automata, processing event streams into assessment objects while producing system behavior, could be processed on either a client or a server.
We can envision playlists of educational exercises and activities, including with performance-based routes or progressions.
Routes of Progression through an Exercise or Activity
Hints and Feedback
Scoring and Assessment
Real-time Event Streams
Experience API and Caliper
Modeling Exercises and Activities
Describing Variants of an Exercise and Activity
Describing Exercises and Activities
Kinds of Exercises and Activities
Curricula Topics and Subtopics
Learning Object Metadata
Interrelating Different Exercises and Activities
Isomorphic Exercises and Activities
Indexing, Search and Retrieval
Intelligent Tutoring Systems
Learning Management Systems
Learning Record Stores
Integrated Development Environments
Computer Algebra Systems
Educational Data Mining
Playlists and Collections
Dynamic and Adaptive
Routes of Progression Spanning Multiple Exercises or Activities
Automatic Item Generation
Main article: Existing Technologies