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The mission of the Educational Exercises and Activities Community Group is to develop standards for educational exercises and activities and to make recommendations with regard to other standards.

With respect to educational exercises and activities, a large number of scenarios are to be considered. Educational exercises and activities can be URL-addressable Web resources, resources in learning objects, resources in digital textbooks, and the items of quizzes and exams. Varieties of educational exercises of activities under discussion range from multiple choice questions to those having multiple steps, WebGL 3D graphics and mathematics handwriting recognition.

Educational exercises and activities can be made modular, portable and reusable.

Implementation Ideas

Educational exercises and activities can be composed of collections of hypertext and other multimedia files. Educational exercises and activities can also be represented as collections of such files in ZIP containers. Scenarios both with and without ZIP containers for collections of such files are in scope for this group.

ZIP containers for educational exercises and activities could utilize the EPUB Open Container Format.

Standardization activities could include specifying a new kind of package file for educational exercises and activities.

Reasons for providing the capability to include multiple variants of an educational exercise or activity in the same ZIP container include accessibility, internationalization and portability. With respect to accessibility, variants could provide different accessibility features. With respect to internationalization, variants could be in different languages. With respect to portability, variants could be designed for different technologies, feature sets or configurations. There could, then, be multiple variants of an educational exercise or activity with a package file for each in a ZIP container. Each variant's package file could be referenced in a container.xml file, per the Open Container Format, and such references could be differentiated via XML attributes. Variants of educational exercises and activities could also be described and differentiated via the metadata of a new kind of package file.

Different educational exercises and activities can be interrelated. For instance, educational exercises and activities sharing deep structure can be said to be isomorphic. An example pair of isomorphic tasks are Tower of Hanoi and Monsters and Globes.

We can envision playlists of educational exercises and activities, including with performance-based routes or progressions.

Educational exercises and activities can make use of hypertext-to-speech and media overlay functionalities.

Educational exercises and activities within ZIP containers might run in nested browsing contexts resembling those of object elements or inline frames. The JavaScript environments and API's available for such educational exercises and activities could be topics for specification. Some other topics pertaining to such uses of nested browsing contexts include styling the contents of nested browsing contexts, potentially the inheritance of styles and stylesheets, and the interoperation of hypertext-to-speech and media overlay functionalities across browsing contexts.

Automata could be of use for tasks including, but not limited to, processing user interface layer events into event streams (e.g. Experience API or Caliper) and processing such event streams. Graph-based technologies (e.g. flowcharts, activity diagrams and workflows) could be of use for tasks including, but not limited to, cognitive modeling. Technologies for discussion include semantically-annotated graphs and semantically-annotated automata.

Timed automata could function as the skeletons upon which software logic providing interactive exercises or activities could be constructed, upon which system behaviors could be attached, for example providing hints and feedback, and upon which assessment-related computations could occur. Timed automata could contain multiple routes of progression through exercises and activities. During learners' particular routes of progression, assessment objects could be constructed and updated. Assessment objects could be more complex than scalars, for example containing data pertaining to learners' timed routes of progression as well as notes. Timed automata, processing event streams into assessment objects while producing system behavior, could be processed on either a client or a server.

Discussion Topics




Routes of Progression through an Exercise or Activity

Cognitive Modeling

Hints and Feedback

Scoring and Assessment

Mental Chronometry

Event Streams

Real-time Event Streams

Experience API and Caliper


Timed Automata

EPUB Open Container Format

A New Kind of Package File

Modeling Exercises and Activities


Describing Variants of an Exercise and Activity


Describing Exercises and Activities

Kinds of Exercises and Activities
Academic Disciplines
Curricula Topics and Subtopics
Learning Objectives
Learning Object Metadata

Interrelating Different Exercises and Activities

Isomorphic Exercises and Activities

Indexing, Search and Retrieval





JavaScript API



Intelligent Tutoring Systems

Cognitive Tutors

Learning Management Systems

Learning Record Stores

Virtual Assistants

Office Software

Integrated Development Environments

Computer Algebra Systems

Learning Analytics

Educational Data Mining

Playlists and Collections


Dynamic and Adaptive

Routes of Progression Spanning Multiple Exercises or Activities





Digital Rights

Content Authoring

Automatic Item Generation

Existing Technologies

Main article: Existing Technologies