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Live Audio-only:
Understanding SC 1.1.2

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1.1.2 Live Audio-only: All live audio-only content has a text alternative [1944] (Level AAA)

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Intent of this Success Criterion

The intent of this success criterion is to make information conveyed by live audio, such as video conferencing, live speeches and radio webcasts, accessible through the use of a text alternative. A live text caption service will enable live audio to be accessible to people who are Deaf or hard of hearing, or who cannot otherwise hear the audio. Such services use a trained human operator who listens in to what is being said and uses a special keyboard to enter the text with only a small delay. They are able to capture a live event with a high degree of fidelity, and also to insert notes on any non spoken audio which is essential to understanding the event. A transcript is sometimes a possibility if the live audio is following a set script; but a live caption service is preferred because it plays out at the same pace as the audio itself, and can adapt to any deviations from the script that might occur.

Using untrained operators, or providing a transcript which differs markedly from what actually happens would not be considered meeting this success criterion.

Examples of Success Criterion 1.1.2

Related Resources

Resources are for information purposes only, no endorsement implied.

Techniques and Failures for Success Criterion 1.1.2 [Live Audio-only]

Each numbered item in this section represents a technique or combination of techniques that the WCAG Working Group deems sufficient for meeting this success criterion. The techniques listed only satisfy the success criterion if all of the WCAG 2.0 conformance requirements have been met.

Sufficient Techniques

  1. Providing a viewport to a live text service which is being created by a trained stenographer who transcribes the spoken audio with minimal errors (future link)

  2. Providing a link to a text transcript of a prepared statement or script if the script is followed (future link)

Additional Techniques (Advisory)

Although not required for conformance, the following additional techniques should be considered in order to make content more accessible. Not all techniques can be used or would be effective in all situations.

Metadata Techniques
  • Using metadata to associate text transcriptions with audio-only content (future link)

    • EXAMPLE: Providing, in metadata, URL(s) that point to several text transcripts (English, French, Dutch) of an audio file.


The following are common mistakes that are considered failures of Success Criterion 1.1.2 by the WCAG Working Group.

(No failures currently documented)