The following notes describe algorithms and other strategies which can be used by software developers when converting content to and from the formats required by features in the SVG language.
To be consistent with other path segment notation, arcs in SVG paths are defined in terms of start and end points on the curve.
This parameterization of elliptical arcs will be referred to as endpoint parameterization. One of the advantages of endpoint parameterization is that it permits a consistent path syntax in which all path commands end in the coordinates of the new "current point".
However, this is not the only way of describing arc geometry used in software or mathematics. This section describes the alternative center parameterization, and how to convert it from and to SVG's endpoint parameterization.
An elliptical arc, as represented in the SVG path command, is described by the following parameters in order:
(x_{1}, y_{1}) are the absolute coordinates of the current point on the path, obtained from the last two parameters of the previous path command.
r_{x} and r_{y} are the radii of the ellipse (also known as its semimajor and semiminor axes).
φ is the angle from the xaxis of the current coordinate system to the xaxis of the ellipse.
f_{A} is the large arc flag, and is 0 if an arc spanning less than or equal to 180 degrees is chosen, or 1 if an arc spanning greater than 180 degrees is chosen.
f_{S} is the sweep flag, and is 0 if the line joining center to arc sweeps through decreasing angles, or 1 if it sweeps through increasing angles.
(x_{2}, y_{2}) are the absolute coordinates of the final point of the arc.
An arbitrary point (x, y) on the elliptical arc can be described by the 2dimensional matrix equation:
(eq. 3.1)x = rx*cos(θ)*cos(φ)  ry*sin(θ)*sin(φ) + cx y = rx*cos(θ)*sin(φ) + ry*sin(θ)*cos(φ) + cy
(c_{x}, c_{y}) are the coordinates of the center of the ellipse.
r_{x} and r_{y} are the radii of the ellipse (also known as its semimajor and semiminor axes).
φ is the angle from the xaxis of the current coordinate system to the xaxis of the ellipse.
θ is the angle around the arc that the point (x, y) lies at, and ranges from:
If one thinks of an ellipse as a circle that has been stretched and then rotated, then θ_{1}, θ_{2} and Δθ are the start angle, end angle and sweep angle, respectively of the arc prior to the stretch and rotate operations. This leads to an alternate parameterization which is common among graphics APIs, which will be referred to as center parameterization. In the next sections, formulas are given for mapping in both directions between center parameterization and endpoint parameterization.
Given the following variables:
c_{x} c_{y} r_{x} r_{y} φ θ_{1} Δθ
the task is to find:
x_{1} y_{1} x_{2} y_{2} f_{A} f_{S}
This can be achieved using the following formulas:
$$\left(\begin{array}{c}{x}_{1}\\ {y}_{1}\end{array}\right)=\left(\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}\\ \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}\end{array}\right)\cdot \left(\begin{array}{c}{r}_{x}\mathrm{cos}{\mathit{\theta}}_{\mathit{1}}\\ {r}_{y}\mathrm{sin}{\mathit{\theta}}_{\mathit{1}}\end{array}\right)+\left(\begin{array}{c}{c}_{x}\\ {c}_{y}\end{array}\right)$$

(eq. 4.1) 
$$\left(\begin{array}{c}{x}_{\mathit{2}}\\ {y}_{\mathit{2}}\end{array}\right)=\left(\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}\\ \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}\end{array}\right)\cdot \left(\begin{array}{c}{r}_{x}\mathrm{cos}\left({\mathit{\theta}}_{\mathit{1}}+\mathit{\Delta}\mathit{\theta}\right)\\ {r}_{y}\mathrm{sin}\left({\mathit{\theta}}_{\mathit{1}}+\mathit{\Delta}\mathit{\theta}\right)\end{array}\right)+\left(\begin{array}{c}{c}_{x}\\ {c}_{y}\end{array}\right)$$

(eq. 4.2) 
$${f}_{A}=\left\{\begin{array}{c}1\mathit{}\mathit{}\text{if}\mathit{}\mathit{}\left\Delta \mathit{\theta}\right\mathit{}180\mathrm{\xb0}\\ \text{0}\mathit{}\mathit{}\text{if}\mathit{}\mathit{}\left\Delta \mathit{\theta}\right\le 180\mathrm{\xb0}\end{array}\right.$$

(eq. 4.3) 
$${f}_{S}=\left\{\begin{array}{c}1\mathit{}\text{if}\mathit{}\Delta \mathit{\theta}\mathrm{}\text{}0\mathrm{\xb0}\\ \text{0}\mathit{}\text{if}\mathit{}\Delta \mathit{\theta}\mathrm{}\text{}0\mathrm{\xb0}\end{array}\right.$$

(eq. 4.4) 
Given the following variables:
x_{1} y_{1} x_{2} y_{2} f_{A} f_{S} r_{x} r_{y} φ
the task is to find:
c_{x} c_{y} θ_{1} Δθ
The equations simplify after a translation which places the origin at the midpoint of the line joining (x_{1}, y_{1}) to (x_{2}, y_{2}), followed by a rotation to line up the coordinate axes with the axes of the ellipse. All transformed coordinates will be written with primes. They are computed as intermediate values on the way toward finding the required center parameterization variables. This procedure consists of the following steps:
Step 1: Compute (x_{1}′, y_{1}′)
$$\left(\begin{array}{c}{{x}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\mathit{\prime}}\\ {{y}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\mathit{\prime}}\end{array}\right)=\left(\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}\\ \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}\end{array}\right)\cdot \left(\begin{array}{c}\frac{{x}_{\mathit{1}}\mathit{}{x}_{\mathit{2}}}{\mathit{2}}\\ \frac{{y}_{\mathit{1}}\mathit{}{y}_{\mathit{2}}}{\mathit{2}}\end{array}\right)$$

(eq. 5.1) 
Step 2: Compute (c_{x}′, c_{y}′)
$$\left(\begin{array}{c}{{c}_{x}}^{\prime}\\ {{c}_{y}}^{\prime}\end{array}\right)=\pm \sqrt{\frac{{{r}_{x}}^{2}\text{}{{r}_{y}}^{2}{{r}_{x}}^{2}{\left({{y}_{1}}^{\prime}\right)}^{2}{{r}_{y}}^{2}{\left({{x}_{1}}^{\prime}\right)}^{2}}{{{r}_{x}}^{2}{\left({{y}_{1}}^{\prime}\right)}^{2}+{{r}_{y}}^{2}{\left({{x}_{1}}^{\prime}\right)}^{2}}}\left(\begin{array}{c}\frac{{r}_{x}\text{}{{y}_{1}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{y}}\\ \frac{{r}_{y}\text{}{{x}_{1}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{x}}\end{array}\right)$$

(eq. 5.2) 
where the + sign is chosen if f_{A} ≠ f_{S}, and the − sign is chosen if f_{A} = f_{S}.
Step 3: Compute (c_{x}, c_{y}) from (c_{x}′, c_{y}′)
$$\left(\begin{array}{c}{c}_{x}\\ {c}_{y}\end{array}\right)=\left(\begin{array}{cc}\mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}\\ \mathrm{sin}\mathit{\phi}& \mathrm{cos}\mathit{\phi}\end{array}\right)\cdot \left(\begin{array}{c}{{c}_{x}}^{\text{'}}\\ {{c}_{y}}^{\text{'}}\end{array}\right)+\left(\begin{array}{c}\frac{{x}_{1}+{x}_{2}}{2}\\ \frac{{y}_{1}+{y}_{2}}{2}\end{array}\right)$$

(eq. 5.3) 
Step 4: Compute θ_{1} and Δθ
In general, the angle between two vectors (u_{x}, u_{y}) and (v_{x}, v_{y}) can be computed as
$$\angle \left(\begin{array}{ccc}\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{u}& \mathrm{,}& \stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{v}\end{array}\right)=\pm \mathrm{arccos}\left(\frac{\stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{u}\cdot \stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{v}}{\Vert \stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{u}\Vert \Vert \stackrel{\rightharpoonup}{v}\Vert}\right)$$

(eq. 5.4) 
where the ± sign appearing here is the sign of u_{x} v_{y} − u_{y} v_{x}.
This angle function can be used to express θ_{1} and Δθ as follows:
$${\mathit{\theta}}_{1}=\angle \left(\begin{array}{ccc}\left(\begin{array}{c}1\\ 0\end{array}\right)& \mathit{,}& \left(\begin{array}{c}\frac{{{x}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}{{c}_{x}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{x}}\\ \frac{{{y}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}{{c}_{y}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{y}}\end{array}\right)\end{array}\right)$$

(eq. 5.5) 
$$\Delta \mathit{\theta}\equiv \angle \left(\begin{array}{ccc}\left(\begin{array}{c}\frac{{{x}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}{{c}_{x}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{x}}\\ \frac{{{y}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}{{c}_{y}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{y}}\end{array}\right)& \mathit{,}& \left(\begin{array}{c}\frac{{{x}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}{{c}_{x}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{x}}\\ \frac{{{y}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}{{c}_{y}}^{\prime}}{{r}_{y}}\end{array}\right)\end{array}\right)\mathit{}\mathrm{mod\; 360}\xb0$$

(eq. 5.6) 
where Δθ is fixed in the range −360° < Δθ < 360° such that:
if f_{S} = 0, then Δθ < 0,
else if f_{S} = 1, then Δθ > 0.
In other words, if f_{S} = 0 and the right side of (eq. 5.6) is greater than 0, then subtract 360°, whereas if f_{S} = 1 and the right side of (eq. 5.6) is less than 0, then add 360°. In all other cases leave it as is.
This section describes the mathematical adjustments required for outofrange r_{x} and r_{y}, as described in the Path implementation notes. Algorithmically these adjustments consist of the following steps:
Step 1: Ensure radii are nonzero
If r_{x} = 0 or r_{y} = 0, then treat this as a straight line from (x_{1}, y_{1}) to (x_{2}, y_{2}) and stop. Otherwise,
Step 2: Ensure radii are positive
Take the absolute value of r_{x} and r_{y}:
$$\begin{array}{l}{r}_{y}\leftarrow \left{r}_{y}\right\\ \\ {r}_{y}\leftarrow \left{r}_{y}\right\end{array}$$

(eq. 6.1) 
Step 3: Ensure radii are large enough
Using the primed coordinate values of equation (eq. 5.1), compute
$$\mathit{\Lambda}=\frac{{\left({{x}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}\right)}^{\mathit{2}}}{{{r}_{x}}^{\mathit{2}}}+\frac{{\left({{y}_{\mathit{1}}}^{\prime}\right)}^{\mathit{2}}}{{{r}_{y}}^{\mathit{2}}}$$

(eq. 6.2) 
If the result of the above equation is less than or equal to 1, then no further change need be made to r_{x} and r_{y}. If the result of the above equation is greater than 1, then make the replacements
$$\begin{array}{l}{r}_{x}\leftarrow \sqrt{\mathit{\Lambda}}\mathit{}{r}_{x}\\ \\ {r}_{y}\leftarrow \sqrt{\mathit{\Lambda}}\mathit{}{r}_{y}\end{array}$$

(eq. 6.3) 
Step 4: Proceed with computations
Proceed with the remaining elliptical arc computations, such as those in the Conversion from endpoint to center parameterization algorithm. Note: As a consequence of the radii corrections in this section, the equation (5.2) for the center of the ellipse always has at least one solution (i.e. the radicand is never negative). In the case that the radii are scaled up using equation (eq. 6.3), the radicand of (eq. 5.2) is zero and there is exactly one solution for the center of the ellipse.
This section is informative.
The real number precision of SVG is singleprecision. conforming SVG generators handling technical data where expression of information exceeding single precision is desired, such as maps and technical drawings, are encouraged to follow the process outlined in this section to ensure consistent display in conforming SVG viewers.
Presentation with an effective precision higher than singleprecision may be obtained by taking advantage of the fact that at least doubleprecision floating point must be used when generating a CTM (See CTM generation processing in the Conforming SVG Viewers section). The steps for generating content that takes advantage of this are:
Before Splitting  After Splitting  

Step 1 : Splitting content  Step 5 : Arranging tiles with smaller effective digits and appropriate translate  

This example provides the significant figure of eight digits using tiles with the user coordinate system of seven digits. 