XHTML™ 1.1 - Module-based XHTML - Second Edition

W3C Recommendation 23 November 2010

This version:
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Previous version:
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Previous recommendation:
Diff-marked version from previous recommendation:
Shane McCarron, Applied Testing and Technology, Inc. shane@aptest.com
Masayasu Ishikawa, (until March 2007 while at W3C)
Version 1.1 Editors:
Murray Altheim, Sun Microsystems
Shane McCarron, Applied Testing and Technology

Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. See also translations.

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: Single XHTML+RDFa 1.0 file, PostScript version, PDF version, ZIP archive, and Gzip'd TAR archive.


This specification defines an XHTML document type that is based upon the module framework and modules defined in XHTML Modularization [XHTMLMOD]. The purpose of this document type is to serve as the basis for future extended XHTML 'family' document types, and to provide a consistent, forward-looking document type cleanly separated from the deprecated, legacy functionality of HTML 4 [HTML4] that was brought forward into the XHTML 1.0 [XHTML1] document types. This document type is most similar to XHTML 1.0 Strict, built using XHTML Modules. This means that many facilities available in other XHTML Family document types (e.g., XHTML Frames) are not available in this document type. These other facilities are available through modules defined in XHTML Modularization, and document authors are free to define document types based upon XHTML 1.1 that use these facilities (see [XHTMLMOD] for information on creating new document types).

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.

This document supersedes the previous edition of XHTML 1.1. It reflects clarifications and corrections as a result of many years of use by the community. It also includes an XML Schema implementation of the language, and integrates the lang attribute to increase compatibility with User Agents and Assistive Technologies. A version that shows the specific changes from the previous Recommendation is available in diff-marked form.

This document has been produced by the W3C XHTML 2 Working Group as part of the HTML Activity. The goals of the XHTML 2 Working Group are discussed in the XHTML 2 Working Group charter.

This document is governed by the 24 January 2002 CPP as amended by the W3C Patent Policy Transition Procedure. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent.

Public discussion of HTML takes place on www-html@w3.org (archive). To subscribe send an email to www-html-request@w3.org with the word subscribe in the subject line.

Please report errors in this document to www-html-editor@w3.org (archive).

The English version of this specification is the only normative version. Information about translations of this document is available at http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/translations.

A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documents can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR.

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