XHTML™ Modularization 1.1 - Second Edition

W3C Recommendation 29 July 2010

This version:
Latest version:
Previous version:
Diff-marked version:
Shane McCarron, Applied Testing and Technology, Inc. shane@aptest.com
Version 1.1 Editors:
Daniel Austin, Sun Microsystems
Subramanian Peruvemba, Oracle Corporation
Shane McCarron, Applied Testing and Technology, Inc. shane@aptest.com
Masayasu Ishikawa, W3C
Mark Birbeck, webBackplane mark.birbeck@webBackplane.com
Version 1.0 Editors:
Murray Altheim, Sun Microsystems
Frank Boumphrey, HTML Writers Guild
Sam Dooley, IBM
Shane McCarron, Applied Testing and Technology
Sebastian Schnitzenbaumer, Mozquito Technologies AG
Ted Wugofski, Openwave (formerly Gateway)

Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections.

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: Single HTML file, PostScript version, PDF version, ZIP archive, or Gzip'd TAR archive.

See also translations.


This document is the second edition of version 1.1 of XHTML Modularization, an abstract modularization of XHTML and implementations of the abstraction using XML Document Type Definitions (DTDs) and XML Schemas. This modularization provides a means for subsetting and extending XHTML, a feature needed for extending XHTML's reach onto emerging platforms. This specification is intended for use by language designers as they construct new XHTML Family Markup Languages. This specification does not define the semantics of elements and attributes, only how those elements and attributes are assembled into modules, and from those modules into markup languages. This update includes several minor updates to provide clarifications and address errors found in version 1.1.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document is a W3C Recommendation. It supersedes the previous edition of XHTML Modularization 1.1. It reflects minor corrections to ensure consistency among various markup languages that rely upon XHTML Modularization. Most significant among these are:

  1. Changing the datatype of the class attribute so that it permits an empty value - historically the class attribute was permitted to be empty.
  2. Moving the name attribute for the form and img elements out of the legacy module and into their base modules - this attribute is required for some scripting constructs.
  3. Changing the datatype for the usemap attribute from IDREF to URIREF - most user agents require that map references be relative URIs that are local to the document.

Due to the nature of XHTML Modularization, the decision to advance to Proposed Edited Recommendation did not involve new implementation information. Previous implementation experience is documented at http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/2008/xhtml-m12n-11-implementation.html. A version that shows the specific changes from that Recommendation is available in diff-marked form. A disposition of comments document is available.

This document has been reviewed by W3C Members, by software developers, and by other W3C groups and interested parties, and is endorsed by the Director as a W3C Recommendation. It is a stable document and may be used as reference material or cited from another document. W3C's role in making the Recommendation is to draw attention to the specification and to promote its widespread deployment. This enhances the functionality and interoperability of the Web.

Members of the public are invited to send comments on this Recommendation to www-html-editor@w3.org (archive). It is inappropriate to send discussion email to this address. Public discussion may take place on www-html@w3.org (archive).

This document has been produced by the W3C XHTML 2 Working Group as part of the HTML Activity. The goals of the XHTML 2 Working Group are discussed in the XHTML 2 Working Group charter.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent.

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