Tim Berners-Lee
Date: 1998, last change: $Date: 2017/03/01 07:47:24 $
Status: personal view only. Editing status: first draft.

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Webizing existing systems

This discusses the introduction of URIs as names in a system to scale it to the web.

The web is extended in two ways - by adding new bits of technology to the existing stuff, and by "webizing" existing applications and systems. Webizing is really important, not only as a way of bootstrapping the web using large amount of legacy information, but because the existing systems have been researched and designed over the years and it is really important we do not lose the knowledge accrued during that process.

The essential process in webizing is to take a system which is designed as a closed world, and then ask what happens when it is considered as part of an open world. Practically, this effect on a computer language is to replace the names/tokens/identifiers for URIs. Thus, where before reference could only be made to something in the same document/program/module one can with equal ease make reference to something in a different one somewhere in that abstract space which is the Web.

In a clean case, this will be done so that the URI for an object is rather naturally related to its representation in the original language. For example, the element with ID "foo" in bar.xml is bar.xml#foo. However, to do the same for an attribute defined in a DTD or schema is more difficult, because of the complex nature of the spaces and subspaces for element and attribute names in XML. It is great when the webized language is very similar to the original language, and ideal when it actually compiles. Dan Connolly's 2000/8 webization of KIF uses URIs for identifiers, but to be accurate because URIs are case sensitive and KIF tokens not, lower case letter had to be marked with escaped with backslashes in the translation which made the result less readable. Changing the underlying language in small ways can make the translation much less cumbersome!.

Here is a slightly flippant view on the webize() function, each row of which probably needs an essay of explanation, but provided here without any.

x webize(x)
Hypertext WWW
Data Linked data
Top-down structured design Bottom-up ontology design
Data Hiding Data Re-use
Goto Considered Harmful Goto drives the economy
unix file system ACL'd r/w linked data
Large-scale structure: Hierachy Large-scale structure Scale free
"Tired" "Wired"

Example - webizing a database

Imagine that a database is to be made available on the web in RDF. Suppose the database itself will have a URI of http://weather.org/current An SQL database is essentially a closed world, in that the various thing in it were not designed to be linked to from outside. An SQL statement

SELECT temp, zip  FROM weather WHERE temp  > 30

makes reference to terms which have meaning within the database. There is no reference in that statement to the database - that is simply part of the context.

Now suppose we determine what the URI will be for the pieces of the database, perhaps current/weather for a table, and current/weather.temp for a column in a table. We could then expend the syntax (excuse my SQL - I am making this up)

USING c FOR http://weather.org/current
USING u FOR http://places.org/usa
SELECT c:readings.temp, u:location.lat, u:location.long FROM JOIN c:readings, u:location WHERE c:readings.zip = u:location.zip AND c:readings.temp > 30;

This is an (incorrect I expect @@@) SQL which links out of the local database to combine it with information from a remote one. This syntax I am sure won't work in practice, but should illustrate the principle. Namespaces c and u are introduced for two reasons: for brevity, as repeating them in the code would have been too cumbersome; and for syntactic reasons as URIs tend to contain characters which would be ambiguous with other syntax is allowed in SQL column names.

Of course, whether actually SQL on a set of scattered databases is valuable may be questionable - it may not optimize as well as some other query languages. However, suddenly the things defined by the database are available to the outside world. For example, the concept of temperature reading as used by weather.org in its database of current conditions


is now a concept, an RDF property in fact, which is available for all the world to refer to. These references need not all be in SQL. Because the schema for the database will declare it to be an RDF property or something equivalent, many different systems can use the information and refer to the concept.

Notes specifically on this example

I note, before we leave this example, that there are two concepts important to a table. One is the type of thing described by a row. A row in the reading table, for example, defined a weather reading, something which had a location and temperature and humidity and place. The other concept is the set of objects which are actually in the table. In the classic SQL example of the employees table, there is a rdf:class employee, subclass of person, and also the fact that someone works for the company iff they are in the table.

A second note on exporting databases. When you really put something on the web, there is often, for flexibility and security, a layer between what you expose and the internal storage. Just as web pages are not files though often closely related to files, and have the same form - a string of bytes and a MIME type. Exposed remote operations are not local procedures though closely related to them, and have the same form -- a service URI and a method name and parameters. Similarly one would probably export a derived view of a database in many cases - one which would have the form of a database. This allows different engineering decisions to be made on the external manifestation (persistent and what the customer wants) and the internal form (efficient and convenient for you).

Webizing nested languages

Sometimes this is easy and sometimes it is hard. It is hard, for example, when the language uses nested scoping to great effect. In this case there is a very large amount of context which is completely different between the beginning and end of such a link. The go to instruction is considered harmful [ref] by Dijkstra because it "as it stands is just too primitive; it is too much an invitation to make a mess of one's program." This of course is true of the hypertext link too, in a way. Both allow an open webbed world which typically, if used with no restraint, remove rules which give sanity and analysability to a language and allow optimization of the code compiled. So, just as some languages prevent one from jumping into or out of an inner loop of a program, so it may make no sense to allow a link to be made into something within a nested structure, because the referenced thing just does not have any meaning when taken out of context.

When dealing with language which have nested context, it may be necessary either to define how something inside represented independently of context, or to make it impossible.

Be careful, though, before jumping to this conclusion. In many cases, it is important to webize nested objects completely. For example, in a 3d scene language, an object may be within a scene within an object within a scene and still have identity which is important to be able to refer to. In a hypertext document, there is a nested context which for example affects the style, and the reference is made to the destination anchor not as a isolated piece of hypertext, but in the context of the whole document.

The principle that on the Web, anything must be able to say anything about anything means that these innermost nested objects must have URIs.

It may also be the case that an attempt to webize a language reveals bad points in the design which really need to be ironed out anyway for the cause of good software engineering. If a name in some module has in fact quite different meanings when used in different contexts, then it isn't suitable for webizing as it is, and maybe two separate derived URIs should be made in the mapping. Maybe the language should actually be cleaned up so that the concepts are distinct.

A very simple case is in a documentation control system, when humans use the same document name ("the pipe size draft") to refer to a particular document and also to the set of documents from

An exercise for the reader is to contemplate and determine whether it is webized, and if not, what it would take, and what would be the cleanest way of going it. Try looking at XML schemas (what is the URI of an element type?).

When stuck, recourse to common sense. Ask what the construct actually represents in a global context, if anything. This might mean clarifying the language itself.


Webizing a language involves turning from a system which assumes a closed world to one which will operate as part of the open web. Some cases are easier than others. Webizing one application gets one a good idea of what sorts of design decisions force a closed world assumption and make webizing difficult, and what by contrast makes a weblike application which immediately benefits from the rest of everything out there.


GTCH: Edsger W. Dijkstra, "Go To Statement Considered Harmful", Communications of the ACM, Vol. 11, No. 3, March 1968, pp. 147-148.

Connolly, Dan, "Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF) as an RDF Schema", 2000/8

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Tim BL