Tim Berners-Lee
Date: 2009-16-08, last change: $Date: 2018/01/19 14:57:05 $
Status: personal view only. Editing status: Not finished at all @@

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Read-Write Linked Data

There is an architecture in which a few existing or Web protocols are gathered together with some glue to make a world wide system in which applications (desktop or Web Application) can work on top of a layer of commodity read-write storage. The result is that storage becomes a commodity, independent of the application running on it.


The Linked Data article gave simple rules for putting data on the web so that it is linked. This article follows on from that to discuss allowing applications to write as well as read data.

It is part of a series: future notes discuss socially-aware decentralized access control of reading and of writing to linked data, and of notification of changes. The overall goal is one in which storage with the necessarily functionality is a ubiquitous commodity, and application growth becomes dramatic as the provision of storage is decoupled from the design and deployment of applications. The storage is aware of different people and groups which may want access; it is aware of metadata such as licensing and appropriate uses of the data, so to help agents behave responsibly; and it can alert those who are interested when data changes. Without looking ahead too much, though, here let us look at protocol options for writing to the web of data.

Motivating Writing

I hope I do not have to motive here the fact that the Web in general should be read-write. That has been done in many places, from 'Weaving the Web', to the Read-Write Web blog. (I actually realize that in 20 year of writing these articles, I haven't written a separate page on that topic! ) Let me summarize here by saying the WWW was originally developed with the goal to be a collaborative space in which people could collectively design, discuss, share and manage things. Being able to impart one's knowledge, or put down a new design or correct or annotate existing work, is I think a key functionality of the Web. Even better, can it be a place we we are creative jointly ("intercreativeâ„¢") .

This applies to data as much as to documents. To take just one example, shared calendar systems are one example of shared data systems which, while they are silos within the domain of calendaring, they have a classic burning need for multi-person collaboration and the need to be able to create and modify as well as read. In fact, collaboratively figuring out people's intersecting calendars is a classic challenge task. The goal is to make an infrastructure which will make it easy to write powerful collaborative applications. Also, I like the maxim that wherever you have access to information which you have the authority to correct or extend, there should be an easy way for you to do at that place. This clearly applies as much to data as to documents.

Outstanding issues

This article does not deal with the database-like storage APIs and specifically with atomic transactions, or fine-grained access control.


The linked data world has a simple model. A set of documents in the Web each have a URI and a graph of linked RDF triples. Modification to this space consists of modification the triples in one more documents. We will consider here the question of small incremental changes, and not consider the question of large atomic changes which must be performed as an atomic transaction. @@

File write-back

The model is that all data is stored in a document (virtual or actual file) named with a URI. One way of changing the data is to overwrite the whole file with an HTTP PUT operation. Whereas typical Apache servers are not configured out of the box to accept PUT, when they are configured for WebDAV (The Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning specs) then they do. For historical reasons*, they advertise that they support with PUT with an HTTP header line

MS-Author-Via: DAV

For a while we advertized the ability to handle patches in SPARQL form like this:

MS-Author-Via: DAV, SPARQL

Now the right way to he ability to handle patches in SPARQL/Update form like this:

Accept-Patch: application/sparql-update


An alternative protocol for doing a change is to send just a small change as a patch back to the server. The patch fill is a small file which describes the change necessary to the graph. The patch may be generated directly by a user interface action, or an inference result, or alternatively the change may have been made in copy local to the client, and the patch file of the differences generated automatically. For compatibility with the above, An HTTP server advertises that it supports with SPARQL/Update with an HTTP header line

MS-Author-Via: SPARQL

The change in the resource is described in SPARQL UPDATE message, which is posted to the URI of the data file itself.

The SPARQL update message only uses the default graph, which is the graph of the document in question. The SPARQL GRAPH directive is not used.

The query is sent using SPARQL in the body of the HTTP POST. A content-type header must be sent. The content type is application/sparql-update **. (The following single line curl command is an example).

curl -d 'INSERT DATA \
{ <http://dig.csail.xvm.mit.edu/2007/wiki/people/JoeLambda#JL> \
             <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/age> 66 }' \
 -H Content-type:application/sparql-query \

Note that a WHERE clause may well be used, as when modifications to the document are made which involve blank nodes, it may be necessary to give enough context to unambiguously identify the blank nodes.

(A server may also support SPARQL queries as well as SPARQL updates. if this is so, note the content-type header is the same, and the request body must be parsed to know whether it matches the query or the update grammar.)

Note: 409 Conflict

A SPARQL update message often contains both a DELETE and then an INSERT. This may be used to update a field from one value to another. When more than one application or user is using the same data, there may arise times when the DELETE fails because another user has already deleted the same data. In this case it very important that the delete does not fail silently. The HTTP server MUST return error status 409. ("409 Conflict" indicates that the request could not be processed because of conflict in the request, such as an edit conflict). The client can then for example inform the user by backing out the change the user was trying to make, or it can retry a reservation later. The atomicity of the DELETE,INSERT function can be used to provide various mutual exclusion systems, such as reserving a resource or generating unique sequential numbers, and so on.

A Data Wiki

The protocols above can be used to implement a data wiki. This is a piece of URI space in which any data can be edited by anyone, just as a text wiki can be. To make a data wiki, also one needs this extra rule:

Whenever a client requests a page which doesn't previously exist, instead of returning a "400 Not found" error, the server returns 200 OK, and a valid data document (in RDF/XML or N3) which contains zero triples. (This does not mean a zero length document in RDF/XML, but it can be in N3)


The world of linked data can be extended to a world of read-write linked data easily. The existing protocols and formats HTTP, WebDav, RDF and SPARQL can be connected together as defined above, with a little glue from the reuse of existing HTTP headers. This creates a space in which new applications can easily be written to operate using shared linked data.

Of course for many real-world applications, one does not want a data wiki in which anyone can write. We therefore need to extend the system to include access control. This is discussed in the article on Socially-aware Cloud Storage.


The Editing Data wiki page is a place to list clinet and server implementations, and pointer to more inoformation


* Microsoft introduced a completely proprietary protocol for write-back called the "Microsoft Frontpage Extensions". Later, this MS-Author-Via header was introduced by Microsoft to allow Microsoft clients to turn off the front page extensions and use WebDAV. As a result, most WebDAV servers in 200X provided that header. It was natural therefore natural to use the same header to adverize the availablity of SPARQL. Perhaps the MS stands for "modification service".

** This was application/sparql-query until 2013. This was changed as the code out there changed to track the LDP work. A liberal server accepts both application/sparql-query and application/sparql-update. It is possible that a patch language and patch MIME type are developed for this.


See references in next article.

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Tim BL