Web 3.0 and Linked Data

Tim Berners-Lee, <timbl+mit@w3.org>

This talk


  1. "Web 2.0" -- Definition; Issues
  2. Understand the data layer
  3. Linked Open Data movement
  4. Architectures for open data sharing


The web's value added was the unexpected reuse of information.

Web 1.0: The original plan

A shared read-write hypertext space


Any link must be able to go to any other document.

One Web.

Web 1.0 - result


"Web 2.0"

Meme from Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly

Not a release!

Based on: URI, HTTP, HTML, CSS, PNG, Javascript, DOM, JS access to HTTP

Social Networking in Web 2.0

Social Silo problem


David Simonds/Economist, used by permission

Web 3.0 difference: value from linking data

Metcalfe's Law: The value of something in a network is rises with the number of other things in the network.

With semantic web technology, data items become part of a network.

Therefore much greater value is achieved by connecting your data to much more.

Therefore it is important to make your data available for other data to connect to it.

Calendaring example

The best web 3.0 ap. pre linked data? (2009)

but alas:

My requirements for Web 3.0



Understanding the data layer

Layers: Link

link level

Layers: Net hides links

net level

Layers: Web hides computers

web level

Layers: Web hides computers

web level

Layers: Linked Data

sem web level

Layers: Data

sem web level

Layers: Linked Data

graph level

Layers: Linked Data

graph2 level

Social Silos - architecture


Open Social Networking - architecture


Identity - Personas

For decentralized social networking on the WWW, identifiers for users and groups must be URIs

Goal: To involve groups and users on any other system in, for example, access control.

Generalizing: Linked Data

Linked Data essentials

  1. Use URIs
  2. Use HTTP URIs
  3. Serve useful information using SPARQL, RDF standards
  4. Mention URIs of related objects

(Branch: Detailed talk on Linked Open Data, 2008)

Linked Data everywhere

Hans Rosling
Hans's slide
Flower with roots in data
Flourishing with Linked Data Bus
Wikipedia to Dbpedia
LOD cloud: dbpedia.org seed
LOD cloud: 18 datasets
LOD cloud: 24 datasets
LOD cloud: 35 datasets
LOD cloud: ~45 datasets

Enterprise Data

Enterprise Applications

N by N problem without RDF

Enterprise Application Integration

N by N problem without RDF

Issue: N2 connections

Using hub

N by 1 problem with a hub

Issue: Give me my data back!

Using hub and standards

N by 1 problem with a hub

Issue: Connect to other enterprises

Global Integration bus

N by 1 problem with RDF

Motivation for Enterprise linked data

Scientific Data

LOD cloud: Adding Life Sci
Life Science question
Search result
Query result

Community Data

OpenStreetMap.org 1
OpenStreetMap.org 2
OpenStreetMap.org 3
OpenStreetMap.org 4
OpenStreetMap.org 5
OpenStreetMap.org 6
OpenStreetMap.org Car Map
OpenStreetMap.org Cycle Map
Flourishing with Linked Data Bus

Linked Open Data March 2009

Lots of linked bubbles representing the LOD cloud

Why does this work? Scale free systems

Branch: (detailed talk)

Message mixes vocabulary from many cultures

Why? Cultural Boundaries

Tradeoffs between harmony and diversity

New: SW allows data mixing: Term by term

dc:titleData Integration and Transparency
cc:license <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/>
foaf:nameTim Berners-Lee
dt:summaryW3C-WSRI eGovernment workshop

One item may involve data from many ontologies

Total Cost of Ontologies (TCO)

Assume :-) ontologies evenly spread across orders of magnitude; committee size as log(community), time as committee^2, cost shared across community.
Scale Eg Committee size Cost per ontology (weeks) My share of cost
0 Me 1 1 1
10 My team 4 16 1.6
100 Group 7 49 0.49
1000 10 100 0.10
10k Enterprise 13 169 0.017
100k Business area 16 256 0.0026
1M 19 361 0.00036
10M 22 484 0.000048
100M National, State 25 625 0.000006
1G EU, US 28 784 0.000001
10G Planet 31 961 0.000000

Total cost of 10 ontologies: 3.2 weeks. Serious project: 30 ontologies, TCO = 10 weeks.
Lesson: Do your bit. Others will do theirs.
Thank those who do working groups!


Scale-free systems are not just observed, they should be enhgineered for.

Engineering for them gives us the best tradeoff between diversity and harmony.

Sem Web technology allows us to do this.

Key points

  1. Value of data, unexpected reuse, hampered by silos
  2. Linked Open Data movement
  3. Data: Personal, Government, Enterprise, Scientific, Social, Community,...
  4. Many communities => mix voacularies.
  5. Do your bit, others will do theirs.

2009 is the year to just do it.



Web 2.0 meme: Dale Dougherty and Tim O'Reilly
Product label: (c) Giant Eagle, Inc.

This talk: http://www.w3.org/2009/Talks/0427-web30-tbl