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Topics for LLD Discussion and Use Cases


Occurrence of a nickname on a topic line indicates that the person has coined the topic or is interested in it.

CM. Conceptual Models and KOS

kc: This is the development of conceptual information models (like FRBR). These models do not determine particular technologies, but ideally would be developed iteratively with actual implementations.

  • Knowledge representation issues / Describing library and museum authorities and KOS resources as Linked Data [jyoung4, GordonD, dlukose, antoine, marcia] [CM.KNOWLEDGE-REPRESENTATION]
    • The FR's: FRBR, FRAD, FRSAR [CM.FRS]
      • Persons, families, corporate bodies, works [ahaffner, ndelaforge, emmanuelle, abartov]
      • FRBR group 1 entities [jyoung4, ahaffner, Jschneid4, wwaites2, kcoyle. jphipps, abartov], frbr entities in general [StuWeibel]
    • Types of library data other than bibliographic and authority [Jschneid4, keckert, aseiler] [CM.NON-BIBLIO]
      • administrative: circulation, statistics (COUNTER, SUSHI)
      • digital objects: full-text sources (e.g. DOAJ, Project Gutenberg, etc), digitised objects (how to describe nested aggregations of files with OAI-ORE) [abartov, aseiler]
    • Publishing citations, e.g. best practice for citations in RDF http://www.semanticoverflow.com/questions/963/best-vocabulary-for-converting-bibtex-to-rdf/971 [CM.CITATIONS]
    • "Application profiles" Specifying/documenting the content of metadata for use by other information producers and by information consumers [Tom, ahaffner, Jschneid4, keckert, kcoyle, jphipps, abartov] [CM.APP-PROFILES]

LLD. Applying SemWeb Technology to Library Data (Implementation)

kc: Some of the actual details that need to be resolved for our data. I like Jeff's suggestion that we use OWL as a measure. My experience is that the models that we do have in the library world (mainly the FR's) are under-modeled from a formal standpoint, and will need some modification to transform them from conceptual model to a formal model. The conceptual model will tell us what library thinkers intend, and it is important that the formal model adhere to that intention as much as possible. Ideally there would be some iteration with the developers of the FR's around implementation.

  • Legacy data [LLD.LEGACY]
    • Available pools of linked data (inventory): quality, granularity, link integrity, vocabulary usage [gneher, ahaffner, rsinger, antoine, kcoyle, jphipps, aseiler] [LLD.AVAILABLE-LINKED-DATA]
    • Status of library-related vocabularies in development (inventory: RDA, FR family, ISBD, MARC ...) [jyoung4, wwaites2, GordonD, rsinger, dlukose, emmanuelle, jphipps, abartov, aseiler] [LLD.VOCABS-STATUS]
    • Translation of data in MARC format to linked data [wwaites2, GordonD, rsinger, dlukose, antoine, kcoyle, StuWeibel, emmanuelle, jphipps, aseiler] [LLD.MARC2LLD]
    • Populating reference data models when legacy data is not perfectly fitting (see this thread on partial FRBR data) Characteristics of a common model that embraces the legacy of MARC data and the abstractions of FRBR, and makes evident how such a model could be grown coherently to include the varieties of other metadata relevant to the community? [jphipps, GordonD, abartov, aseiler, antoine] [LLD.REFERENCE-MODEL-FIT] (was also [LLD.COMMON-MODEL])
    • Integrating library concept of authorities into Semantic Web model; authority records as vocabularies, and/or as real-world entities. Best practice for the description of personal names and name variants [kcoyle, abartov, RayD] [LLD.AUTHORITIES] (was also [LLD.PERSON-NAMES])
  • Vocabularies [LLD.VOCABS]
    • Applying FRBR, FRAD, RDA, ISBD, MARC [jyoung4, ahaffner, Jschneid4, wwaites2, emmanuelle, abartov, aseiler] [LLD.SPECIFIC-VOCABS]
    • Check if and how to use SKOS to describe integrated KOS or mapping results. [marcia, keckert] [LLD.SKOS-FOR-INTEGRATED-KOS]
    • Confirm the use of SKOS for multilingual KOS vocabularies. [marcia, bvatant, keckert, jphipps, abartov] [LLD.SKOS-MULTILINGUAL]
    • Using SKOS to describe knowledge organization systems (KOS) that have been used by library, archive, and museum communities (LCSH, RAMEAU, AAT, RGN, TGM I and II, DDC, etc.) [marcia, bvatant, ndelaforge, keckert, GordonD, AMicsik, dlukose, jphipps] [LLD.SKOS-LIB-KOS]
    • Dilemma between skos:concept and foaf:person (rda:person, frbr:person, frad:person) for person authorities [jyoung4, ahaffner, bvatant, ndelaforge, keckert, wwaites2, rsinger, marma, emmanuelle, abartov] [LLD.PERSON-METADATA]
    • Check if SKOS extensions are needed for describing particular types of KOS (term list, name authority file (not limited to agents and works), digital gazetteer, list of subject headings, taxonomy, thesauri, classification, etc.) and provide SKOSified KOS examples. [marcia, keckert] [LLD.SKOS-EXTENSIONS]
  • Use of Identifiers for and in LLD [GordonD, dlukose, StuWeibel, emmanuelle] [LLD.IDENTIFIERS]
    • Identifiers for libraries and other institutions? ISIL, possibly urn:isil: namespace [StuWeibel, abartov, aseiler] [LLD.INSTITUTION-IDS]
    • Reuse or urlification of traditional identifiers [jyoung4, StuWeibel, aseiler] [LLD.LEGACY-IDS]
    • Namespace policies [keckert, StuWeibel, RayD, TomB] [LLD.NAMESPACES]

SW. Semantic Web Environmental Issues

kc: these are issues that are generally not directly related to library data, but to the application of the Semantic Web principles to data. Some (most?) of these need to be resolved s we create LLD.

  • Use of Identifiers [GordonD, dlukose, StuWeibel, emmanuelle, jphipps, abartov] [SW.IDENTIFIERS]
    • HTTP URIs, DOIs, handles, ARKs, shorteners, hash, slash, 303 redirects, PURLs [jyoung4, ndelaforge, keckert, digikim, StuWeibel, emmanuelle, aseiler]
    • Identifiers for properties and classes, concepts, and "real world things" [bvatant, keckert, StuWeibel, RayD]
    • REST patterns for Linked Data [jyoung4, ndelaforge, keckert, digikim, AMicsik, jphipps, abartov] [SW.REST]
  • Linking across datasets [digikim, dlukose, antoine, jphipps, abartov] [SW.LINKING]
    • How much linking is there? What links to what? [Jschneid4, GordonD] [SW.LINKING-INVENTORY]
    • Alignment (cross-linking) of vocabularies [GordonD, AMicsik, dlukose, antoine, abartov] [SW.CROSS-LINKING-VOCABS]
      • Interoperability, "mapping frameworks", etc
      • Alignment of element sets [ahaffner]
      • Alignment of authorities [jyoung4, abartov]
    • Alignment of real-world-resource identifiers [bvatant, abartov] [SW.IDENTIFIERS-RWO]
  • The Linked Data paradigm and the Metadata Record paradigm [GordonD, AMicsik, dlukose, emmanuelle, jphipps] [SW.LD-V-RECORDS]
    • Models for packaging Linked Data in records, e.g., Named Graphs [jyoung4, keckert, StuWeibel, emmanuelle] [SW.LD-PACKAGING]
    • Provenance of Linked Data [keckert, wwaites2, rsinger, emmanuelle, jphipps, abartov, aseiler] [SW.PROVENANCE]

DATA. Management of data and distribution

kc: hosting, maintenance, system stability.

  • linked data management, hosting, and preservation [digikim, GordonD, kcoyle, emmanuelle, jphipps, aseiler] [DATA.GENERAL]
    • vocabulary-specific aspects of management, hosting, and presentation [digikim, GordonD, kcoyle, jphipps] [DATA.VOCABS]
    • Versioning, updates [bvatant, rsinger, antoine, emmanuelle] [DATA.VERSIONING]
    • Dissemination mechanisms: RDF schemas, RDFa, bulk download, feeds, SPARQL... [jyoung4, keckert, digikim, dlukose, antoine, jphipps] [DATA.DISSEMINATION]
    • Discuss how to reflect changes in a concept scheme in linked data set(s). What are new challenges and approaches? [marcia, bvatant, keckert] [DATA.CHANGES]
    • How to deal with obsolete concepts? [bvatant, ndelaforge, keckert, wwaites2] [DATA.OBSOLETE-VOCABS]
    • Caching strategies [ndelaforge, keckert, digikim] [DATA.CACHING]
  • Ontology discovery and dissemination [DATA.ONTOLOGY-DISCOVERY]
    • How to disseminate ontologies so that they will be discovered; how to discover ontologies for use. [kcoyle, jphipps]
  • Search Engine Optimization for Library Data Google Rich Snippets, Yahoo SearchMonkey, Facbook's OpenGraph Protocol [edsu, jphipps] [DATA.SEARCH-OPTIMISATION]

MGT. Community and Management Issues

kc: questions that are more political and organizational than technical

What obstacles do libraries, museums, archives, publishers, currently face in publishing and managing Linked Data? How can the obstacles be removed? What role for libraries? [jyoung4, ndelaforge, digikim, GordonD, rsinger, dlukose, StuWeibel, emmanuelle]

  • Rights [MGT.RIGHTS]
    • Licenses, IP, DRM, other availability/rights/access restriction info (e.g., http://openbiblio.net/principles/) [antoine, kcoyle, emmanuelle, aseiler] [MGT.LICENSES]
  • Strategic guidance [MGT.GUIDANCE]
    • Workflows or roadmaps for different kinds Linked Data projects [keckert, emmanuelle] [MGT.WORKFLOWS]
    • Examples of business models of managing linked library resources (metadata, vocabulary, and KOS resources) [digikim] [MGT.BIZ-MODELS]
    • Common patterns in Linked Data, with examples, and with best practices for "Linked Data friendly" output from traditional library data - to provide guidance and save time - maybe several best practices when there are several good ways to solve a problem. [MGT.PATTERNS]
  • Community-building, education and outreach [MGT.COMMUNITY-BUILDING]
    • Need for training and documentation (a Linked Data primer for libraries ?) [gneher, Jschneid4, keckert, digikim, antoine, emmanuelle, aseiler] [MGT.TRAINING]
    • Mapping Linked Data terminology to library terminology and concepts [kcoyle] [MGT.LEGACY-MAPPING]
    • Liaison with standardisation bodies and initiatives (ISO and national bodies, IFLA, International Council on Archives, CIDOC...) [GordonD, emmanuelle] [MGT.STANDARDS-PARTICIPATION]
    • Outreach to other communities (archives, museums, publishers, the Web) [Jschneid4, GordonD, antoine] [MGT.OUTREACH]
    • How to announce new efforts, build appropriate communities around those efforts, get the right players to the table. [kcoyle] [MGT.NEW-EFFORTS]
  • Next steps [MGT.NEXT-STEPS]
    • Future working groups? In W3C, in library world, or elsewhere? [digikim, StuWeibel, emmanuelle] [MGT.FUTURE-WGS]
    • Set up other groups to define best practices - what is needed to make that doable for other groups with more time/broader scope? [MGT.BEST-PRACTICES-GP]

USE. Consuming and using library data

  • pulling in linked data for end users [USE.END_USERS]
  • Computational use of library linked data [USE.COMPU]
  • Linked data to enhance professional processes or workflows, for librarians, cataloguers, etc. [USE.PRO]


  • abartov = Asaf Bartov, Project Ben-Yehuda; Wikimedia Israel
  • antoine = Antoine Isaac, VUA & Europeana, Netherlands
  • aseiler = Anette Seiler, hbz, Germany
  • bvatant = Bernard Vatant, Mondeca
  • digikim = Kim Viljanen, Aalto University, Finland
  • dlukose = Dickson Lukose, MIMOS BHD, Malaysia
  • edsu = Ed Summers, Library of Congress
  • emmanuelle = Emmanuelle Bermes, BnF
  • GordonD = Gordon Dunsire
  • jar =jrees = Jonathan Rees, Creative Commons, US
  • jphipps = Jon Phipps, JES & Co.
  • jodi=JSchneid4 = Jodi Schneider, DERI Galway
  • jyoung4 = Jeff Young, OCLC Research
  • kcoyle = Karen Coyle
  • LarsG = Lars G. Svensson, DNB, Germany
  • marcia = Marcia Zeng, Kent State U. US
  • markva = Mvanasse = Mark van Assem, VU University, Amsterdam
  • matolat = Tod Matola, OCLC
  • ndelaforge = Nicolas Delaforge, INRIA Sophia-Antipolis France
  • rayd = Ray Denenberg, Library of Congress
  • rsinger = Ross Singer, Talis
  • tomb = Tom Baker
  • whalb = Wolfgang Halb, JOANNEUM RESEARCH
  • gneher = Günther Neher, University of Applied Sciences Potsdam
  • monica = Monica Duke, UKOLN representing JISC, UK
  • fsasaki = Felix Sasaki (DFKI / Univ. of appl. Sciences Potsdam)

Use Cases vs. Topics Table

See here.