Default Mapping to RDFS/OWL

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The default mapping also consist of transforming the relational database schema into a RDF(S) or OWL ontology.

Representing relational schemas

The following predicate symbols are used to represent the schema and the instances of a relational database. These predicates can be automatically computed, and they are necessary for the database-instances-and-schema mapping, as this language takes into consideration both the instances and the schema of a relational database.

RDB-schema predicates

Rel(r) = r is a relation 
Attr(x, r, t) = x is an attribute in relation r of type t 
PK(x, r) = attribute x is the primary key of relation r
FK(x, r, y, s) = attribute x is a foreign key in relation r that references attribute y in relation s

Continuing our running example, the following RDB-schema predicates are used to represent the schema of the database:

Attr(s_id, student, int)
Attr(name, student, string)
Attr(c_id, course int)
Attr(title, course, string)
Attr(d_id, course, int)
Attr(s_id, enrolled, int)
Attr(c_id, enrolled, int)
Attr(d_id, department, int)
Attr(title, department, string)
PK(s_id, student)
PK(c_id, course)
PK(d_id, department)
FK(d_id, course, d_id, department)
FK(s_id, enrolled, s_id, student)
FK(c_id, enrolled, c_id, course)

Formal definition of the language

A database-instances-and-schema mapping is a Datalog program over { Rel, Att, PK, FK } with built-in predicates { generateURI }.

In what follows, we show how to translate relational schema into RDFS/OWL ontology through database-schema-only mapping.

Representing ontologies (RDFS/OWL)

In the database-instances-only mapping language, the user can define any number of additional predicates by writing Datalog programs over the RDB-schema. In this section, we show some predicates that can be generated in this way. The predicates and the rules defining them are useful when mapping relational schema into RDFS/OWL, and they could be generated automatically as they are generic.

Auxiliary rules: Are useful when defining the ontology predicates

ExistsFK(x, r) ← FK(x, r, _, _)
NonFK(x, r) ← Att(x, r, _), not ExistsFK(x, r)

Notice that ExistsFK(x, r) holds if attribute x is a foreign key in relation r, while NonFK(x, r) holds if x is an attribute of relation r that is not a foreign key in r.

Rule 1: Identify Binary Relations

BinRel(r, s, t) ← Rel(r), FK(p, r, _, s), FK(q, r, _, t), p ≠ q, not ExistThreeFK(r), not ExistsNonFKAtt(r)
ExistThreeFK(r) ← FK(p1, r, _, _), FK(p2, r, _, _), FK(p3, r, _, _),  p1 ≠ p2, p1 ≠ p3, p2 ≠ p3
ExistsNonFKAtt(r) ← NonFK(x, r)

Notice that ExistThreeFK(r) holds if relation r has at least three distinct foreign keys, and ExistsNonFKAtt(r) holds if relation r has at least one attribute that is not a foreign key of r.

Rule 2: Identify Ontology Classes (relations that are not binary relations)

Class(r) ← Rel(r), not IsBinRel(r)
IsBinRel(r) ← BinRel(r, _, _)

Notice that Class(r) holds if relation r represents a class, and IsBinRel(r) holds if relation r is a binary relation.

Rule 3: Identify Object Properties through binary relations

ObjP(r, s, t) ← BinRel(r, s, t), not IsBinRel(s), not IsBinRel(t)

Notice that ObjP(r, s, t) holds if relation r represents an object property with domain s and range t

Rule 4: Identify Object Properties through a foreign key relationship

ObjP(x, s, t) ← FK(x, s, y, t), not IsBinRel(s), not IsBinRel(t)

Rule 5: Identify Datatype Properties

DTP(x, r, t)  ← NonFK(x, r), Att(x, r, t)

Notice that DTP(x, r, t) holds if attribute x represents a data type property with domain r and range t.

The following is the result of applying the previous rules to our running example:

Auxiliary rules:

ExistsFK(d_id, course)
ExistsFK(s_id, enrolled)
ExistsFK(c_id, enrolled)
NonFK(s_id, student)
NonFK(name, student)
NonFK(c_id, course)
NonFK(title, course)
NonFK(d_id, department)
NonFK(title, department)

Rule 1:

BinRel(enrolled, student, course)

Rule 2:


Rule 3:

ObjP(enrolled, student, course)

Rule 4:

ObjP(d_id, course, department)

Rule 5:

DTP(name, student, string)
DTP(title, course, string)
DTP(title, department, string)