Mobile checker

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This page serves to document the proposed updates to the mobileOK checker as part of the work of a Task Force evaluation in the Headlights2012 process.

Current Limitations of the checker

Parsing and fetching with a headless browser

Headless browsers:

  • phantomjs (webkit-based, but doesn't grok e.g. gzip correctly]
  • Mephisto (firefox-based)

New tests for updated checker

  • viewport: is there a meta viewport declaration? if not, explain that page will be displayed on a ~850px wide viewport (simple markup analysis)
  • media queries: are there media queries? what are the "breakpoints"? if no media queries, explain how they can be useful (use CSSOM and DOM Style à la http://tylergaw.com/articles/reacting-to-media-queries-in-javascript )
  • single column layout? (not sure how)
  • time to load: identify bottlenecks, suggest improvements (Mephisto provides timing info)
  • compression: if not used, explain how and why (Mephisto provides headers of requests)
  • appcache: detect if app cache is used; if it is, look if the resources linked in there exists; if it isn't, explain why and how to use it (markup analysis, + parsing of manifest (via headless browser? manually?)
  • mouse vs touch: detect if JavaScript uses non-touch compatible mouse events (e.g. mouseover), and doesn't have touch events either (static analysis via CaJa http://code.google.com/p/google-caja/ ? or simple but error-prone keyword search in scripts?)
  • new input types, datalist: try to detect with heuristics if some input types would deserve the new HTML5 types; suggest datalist? (heuristics, e.g. based on field names, and markup analysis)
  • surface for links (CSS): try to determine the hit surface of links, and how well separated links are; if surface too small, explain difficult of touch based interaction; if links too close, likewise (use computedStyle on links to determine pixel size of elements)
  • detect unused JS libraries: (e.g. HTML5 boilerplate with libraries-pre loaded but script not doing anything) (use CaJa?)
  • cookies cost: look if cookies are sent for presumably static resources (e.g. images, javascript, css) (simple headers analysis)
  • page reflows/repaints: detect how many reflows/repaints are needed to display the page, and suggest possible improvements (hard stuff)
  • network usage after page load: detect network usage after page load and note issues with mobile network stack (use AT&T's ARO stuff?)
  • JS UA sniffing: if window.userAgent is used, warn about brittleness of ua-sniffing on client (CaJa?)
  • incomplete prefixing: detect if CSS uses prefixes for one rendering engine when the properties exist in others (DOM Style analysis)
  • image munshing: detect embedded thumbnail in JPEG, embedded EXIF, etc (use jhead?)
  •  :hover: not usable on touch based interfaces (DOM Style analysis)
  • <label> for input: detect if radio buttons/checkboxes are within a label tag or linked to a label tag (make them much easier to hit) (simple markup analysis

Analysis of existing mobileOK tests

The following sections describe the messages currently given by the checker for its various tests, and classifies them in 4 sections:

  • Keep: we should keep the tests, they're important
  • Keep, lower priority: we should keep the tests if it's easy, but they shouldn't be in our priority list
  • Drop: these tests don't provide relevant information
  • Modify: these tests highlight a relevant aspect, but they need to be adapted to current Web usage

Keep

  • "Cache-Control" HTTP header is present and contains value "no-cache", or contains value "max-age=0"
  • The document is served without caching information ("Expires" or "Cache-Control" header)
  • The document's caching information is not provided in the HTTP headers
  • The "Pragma" header contains the value "no-cache"
  • The "Expires" header contains a date in the past
  • A cache related header or a meta http-equiv value (PLACEHOLDER_1) contains an invalid value (PLACEHOLDER_2)
  • There is an error in the "Last-Modified" header
  • There is an error in the "ETag" header
  • There are nested tables
  • Table contains only one row
  • Table contains only one column
  • A "javascript:" link is used
  • The alt attribute is missing
  • The height or width specified is greater than the corresponding dimension of the image
  • The height or width specified is less than the corresponding dimension of the image
  • A pop-up was detected
  • More than 25% of the page characters are extraneous (whitespaces or comments)
  • More than 10% of the page characters are extraneous (whitespaces or comments)

Keep, lower priority

  • The document uses an applet
  • The document uses a markup-based redirection
  • The document uses an auto-refresh
  • There is no type attribute in <object>
  • A table cell contains only an image whose actual dimensions are 2x2 or less
  • The Internet media type of the retrieved resource, as indicated by its Content-Type HTTP header does not match that stated in the type attribute
  • An input element with type attribute set to "image" is present
  • A usemap attribute is present
  • An ismap attribute is present
  • The character encoding is specified in more than one way, and not all values are the same
  • The image served as PLACEHOLDER_1 does not match that format
  • The CSS style sheet is served as "PLACEHOLDER_1" instead of "text/css"
  • The PLACEHOLDER_1 CSS stylesheet is not syntactically valid CSS
  • The document is not valid to its stated doctype: PLACEHOLDER_1
  • There is a bigger than 2 pixels transparent image
  • There is more than one input element in this group set to "checked"
  • There is more than one option selected by default
  • There is no page title

Drop

  • The document uses a Refresh HTTP header to redirect to a different page
  • The document is served with a Refresh HTTP header
  • A Table element exists
  • The document contains one of basefont, bdo, center, del, dir, font, ins, menu, s, strike or u elements
  • The documents uses one of b, big, i, small, sub, sup or tt elements
  • The style attribute is used
  • All styles are restricted to CSS media types other than "handheld" or "all"
  • The CSS Style contains at-rules (other than the @media at-rule, and the presentation media type list of the @import at-rule), properties, or values that are not recognized as being specified in CSS Level 1, or the value of a recognized CSS Level 1 property is incompatible with the property: (PLACEHOLDER_1)
  • The CSS Style sheet contains rules referencing the position, display or float properties
  • The document uses scripting
  • An element uses an event attribute
  • The object element is empty
  • The content of the object element consists only of white space
  • The Internet media type indicated by the Content-Type HTTP Header of the retrieved resource is not "image/jpeg" or "image/gif"
  • The alt attribute consists only of white space
  • The height or width is not specified in pixels
  • This resource is served as "PLACEHOLDER_1" but does not specify UTF-8 as character encoding (PLACEHOLDER_2)
  • The document is served as "PLACEHOLDER_1", instead of one of "application/xhtml+xml", "application/vnd.wap.xhtml+xml", or "text/html"
  • The document is served as "PLACEHOLDER_1" instead of the recommended "application/xhtml+xml"
  • The document is not an HTML document (root element is PLACEHOLDER_1)
  • The root html element does not declare its namespace
  • The document does not validate against the XHTML Basic 1.1 DTD nor MP 1.2: PLACEHOLDER_1
  • The document uses a non-XML doctype (PLACEHOLDER_1)
  • The document uses an XHTML doctype that is not a well-known mobile-friendly doctype (PLACEHOLDER_1)
  • There is a small fully transparent image
  • The inputmode attribute is invalid
  • There are more than one fully transparent images
  • There is no inputmode attribute on this text entry element
  • The inputmode attribute is invalid
  • There is no inputmode attribute on this text entry element
  • There is no default selected option element
  • The linked resource PLACEHOLDER_2 is in a format (PLACEHOLDER_1) that may not be appropriate for a mobile device
  • The linked resource PLACEHOLDER_2 is served with a character encoding (PLACEHOLDER_1) that may not be appropriate for a mobile device
  • The internal reference PLACEHOLDER_1 has no matching target
  • The HTTP status (in response to the resource PLACEHOLDER_1) indicates redirection (status code 3xx) and the URI identified by the HTTP Location header is a relative URI
  • The HTTP status code is 404 or 5xx (in response to the resource PLACEHOLDER_1) and the response relates to a request for a linked resource
  • A matching HTTP response header does not exist for a meta http-equiv=PLACEHOLDER_1
  • A matching HTTP response header (PLACEHOLDER_1) exists but its value differs from the content attribute value

Modify

  • The size of the document's markup (PLACEHOLDER_1) exceeds 10 kilobytes

=> larger size

  • The total size of the page (PLACEHOLDER_1) exceeds 20 kilobytes (PLACEHOLDER_2)

=> Larger size

  • None of the nested object elements are image/gif or image/jpeg and the innermost nested object element is non-empty and does not consist of text an img element that refers to a image/gif or image/jpeg image

=> More accepted types

  • The document contains a frame, frameset or iframe element

=> Don't mind iframe

  • The HTTP Content-Type header specifies a character encoding other than UTF-8

=> check encoding is valid; maybe suggest utf-8 as better option

  • The HTTP Content-Type header does not specify a character encoding but it specifies an Internet media type starting with "text/" and there is no meta element with http-equiv attribute that specifies UTF-8 character encoding

=> make sure there is a declared encoding

  • The document is not valid UTF-8

=> (but done by another tool?)

  • The document does not contain a DOCTYPE declaration

=> Warn on quirks mode? Defer to HTML5 validation?

  • The embedded image or object is not of type image/gif or image/jpeg (PLACEHOLDER_1)

=> larger set of formats

  • There are more than 20 embedded external resources
  • There are more than 10 embedded external resources

=> tweak max #?


FAQ

  • Will the new checker come with new work on best practices?

At this time, the tests of that new checker are not expected to be determined through a formal standardization process as the mobileOK Basic tests were.

It is expected that a number of the tests the tool will conduct will still be based on the Mobile Web Best Practices and the Mobile Web Application Best Practices. But others may be unrelated to either of these documents.

  • Who decides what the tool tests?

At this time, input on what to test is sought in the public-mobileok-checker mailing list.

Overtime, it would probably be bound to feedback from tool users, maybe complemented with a supporting Community Group.

The definition and standardization of mobileOK Basic 1.0 tests required a level of detail and precision that is well beyond what is needed to develop a single tool. At this time, this project is only focused on developing a better tool, not on replacing the standard that backs the existing tool.