Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Ontology

The Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) provides flexible and interoperable mechanisms to support transparent and innovative use of digital content in publishing, distribution, and consumption of of digital media across all sectors and communities. The ODRL Policy model is broad enough to support traditional rights expressions for commercial transaction, open access expressions for publicly distributed content, and privacy expressions for social media.
Latest Version
http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/
Date
2014-05-12
Revision
2.0
Authors
Mo McRoberts (BBC), Víctor Rodríguez Doncel (OEG-UPM)
Contributors
ODRL Community Group

Status of this document

This DRAFT specification was published by the W3C ODRL Community Group. It is not a W3C Standard nor is it on the W3C Standards Track. Please note that under the W3C Community Contributor License Agreement (CLA) there is a limited opt-out and other conditions apply. Learn more about W3C Community and Business Groups.

The W3C ODRL Community Group publishes a Final Specification to indicate that the document is believed to be mature and stable for implementation by the wider community. This Draft Specification is not yet endorsed by the W3C ODRL Community Group as appropriate for widespread deployment and that promotes the Community Groups’s mission.

Discussion and feedback of this document takes place on the W3C ODRL Community Group mailing list (see Contributor Archive). Feedback from the public is encouraged and can be send to public-odrl@w3.org (see Public Archive).

Copyright © 2013 the Contributors to the Final Specification, published by the W3C ODRL Community Group under the W3C Community Final Specification Agreement (FSA). A human-readable summary is available.

Namespace URI

The namespace URI for ODRL 2.0 is http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/.

Alternative serialisations

The ODRL 2.0 vocabulary is published both in human- and machine-readable forms. A GET request made to the canonical namespace URI will cause HTTP Content Negotiation to occur, which means that the most appropriate variant will be served according to your request. However, if you explicitly wish to retrieve a particular serialisation, you can also do so using the following URLs:

ODRL20.html
HTML (this document)
ODRL20.ttl
RDF (Turtle)
ODRL20.rdf
RDF/XML
ODRL20.nt
RDF (N-Triples)
ODRL20.xsd
XML Schema Definition

Table of Contents

  1. 1 Summary of Terms
  2. 2 Groups
  3. 3 Examples of use
    1. 3.1 Set
    2. 3.2 Offer
    3. 3.3 Agreement
    4. 3.4 Request
    5. 3.5 Ticket
    6. 3.6 Offer and next policy
    7. 3.7 Privacy policy
    8. 3.8 Permission and prohibition
    9. 3.9 Inheritance
    10. 3.10 Social network
    11. 3.11 Multiple assets
  4. 4 Classes
  5. 5 Properties
  6. 6 Concept schemes
  7. 7 Concepts
  8. 8 Named individuals
  9. 9 Acknowledgements
  10. 10 References

Summary of Terms

This vocabulary defines 24 classes, 52 properties, one concept scheme, 54 concepts and 17 named individuals.

Classes
Action | Agreement | All | AllConnections | AllGroups | All2ndConnections | Asset | ConflictTerm | Constraint | Duty | Group | Individual | Offer | Operator | Party | Permission | Policy | Privacy | Prohibition | Request | Rule | Set | Ticket | UndefinedTerm
Properties
absolutePosition | absoluteSize | action | assignee | assigner | attributedParty | conflict | consentingParty | constraint | count | dateTime | deliveryChannel | device | duty | elapsedTime | event | fileFormat | function | industry | informedParty | inheritAllowed | inheritFrom | language | media | meteredTime | operator | output | payeeParty | payAmount | percentage | permission | product | prohibition | proximity | purpose | recipient | relation | relativePosition | relativeSize | resolution | rightOperand | spatial | status | system | target | timeInterval | timedCount | trackingParty | undefined | unit | version | virtualLocation
Concept schemes
actions
Concepts
acceptTracking | adHocShare | aggregate | annotate | anonymize | append | archive | attachPolicy | attachSource | attribute | commercialize | concurrentUse | copy | delete | derive | display | distribute | ensureExclusivity | execute | export | extract | extractChar | extractPage | extractWord | give | include | index | inform | install | lease | lend | license | modify | move | nextPolicy | obtainConsent | pay | play | present | preview | print | read | reproduce | reviewPolicy | secondaryUse | sell | share | shareAlike | textToSpeech | transform | translate | uninstall | watermark | write
Named individuals
eq | gt | gteq | hasPart | ignore | invalid | isA | isAllOf | isAnyOf | isNoneOf | isPartOf | lt | lteq | neq | perm | prohibit | support

Groups

Some terms can be organised into logical groups, as shown below:

ODRL 2.0 Ontology diagram

Group Expressed as
Policy types Sub-classes of Policy
Actions Instances of Action
Operators Instances of Operator
Operands Sub-properties of rightOperand
Functions Sub-properties of function
Scopes Sub-classes of Party
Conflict-handling terms Instances of ConflictTerm
Unsupported action-handling terms Instances of UndefinedTerm

Examples of use

The examples in this section are RDF expressions of the scenarios provided by the ODRL Version 2.0 Core Model.

Set

The following shows an instance of a set policy. The set shows a policy expression, stating that the asset, http://example.com/asset:9898, is the target of the permission to reproduce and the prohibition to modify.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:0099>
	a odrl:Set;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/asset:9898> ;
		odrl:action odrl:reproduce
	] ;
	odrl:prohibition [
		a odrl:Prohibition ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/asset:9898> ;
		odrl:action odrl:modify
	] .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Because all of the rules associated with this policy have the same target, and do not have any constraints or duties (requirements), one may abbreviate the expression of the policy and use the Dublin Core rights or license predicates to associate the asset with that policy:

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .
@prefix dct: <http://purl.org/dc/terms/> .

<http://example.com/asset:9898> dct:license <http://example.com/policy:0099> .

<http://example.com/policy:0099>
	a odrl:Set;
	odrl:permission odrl:reproduce ;
	odrl:prohibition odrl:modify .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Offer

The following shows the instance of an offer policy. The offer contains the music file http://example.com/music:4545 that is offered by the party http://example.com/sony:10 with the permissions to play and copy the file. The permission to copy is only granted once. The two permissions are offered in exchange for a payment of AUD$0.50.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:0231>
	a odrl:Offer ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/music:4545> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:10> ;
		odrl:action odrl:play ;
		odrl:duty _:requirements
	] ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/music:4545> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:10> ;
		odrl:action odrl:copy ;
		odrl:duty _:requirements ;
		odrl:constraint [
			a odrl:Constraint ;
			odrl:count 1 ;
			odrl:operator odrl:lteq
		]
	] .

_:requirements
	a odrl:Duty ;
	odrl:action odrl:pay ;
	odrl:target <http://example.com/ubl:AUD0.50> .

<http://example.com/sony:10> a odrl:Party .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Agreement

The following shows the instance of an agreement policy. The agreement contains all entities shown in the offer scenario above. A new party, http://example.com/billie:888 has been added. This party accepted the previous offer and thus is now the buyer of the permission play and copy: i.e. they are now linked as assignee of the permissions and duty entities.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:9001>
	a odrl:Agreement ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/music:4545> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:10> ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/billie:888> ;
		odrl:action odrl:play ;
		odrl:duty _:requirements
	] ;
	odrl:permission [
		odrl:target <http://example.com/music:4545> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:10> ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/billie:888> ;
		odrl:action odrl:copy ;
		odrl:duty _:requirements ;
		odrl:constraint [
			a odrl:Constraint ;
			odrl:count 1 ;
			odrl:operator odrl:lteq
		]
	] .

_:requirements
	a odrl:Duty ;
	odrl:action odrl:pay ;
	odrl:target <http://example.com/ubl:AUD0.50> .

<http://example.com/sony:10> a odrl:Party .
<http://example.com/billie:888> a odrl:Party .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Request

The following shows the instance of a request policy. The party http://example.com/guest:0589 has requested the permission to display the target asset, http://example.com/news:0099.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:04311>
	a odrl:Request ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:display ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/guest:0589> ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/news:0099>
	] .

<http://example.com/guest:0589> a odrl:Party .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Ticket

The following shows the instance of a ticket policy. The ticket expresses the play permission for the target asset, http://example.com/game:4589. The ticket is valid until the end of the year 2010. Any valid holder of this ticket may exercise this permission.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<http://example.com/policy:0811>
	a odrl:Ticket ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:play ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/game:4589> ;
		odrl:constraint [
			a odrl:Constraint ;
			odrl:operator odrl:lteq ;
			odrl:dateTime "2010-12-31"^^xsd:date
		]
	] .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Offer and next policy

The following shows the instance of an offer policy showing the next-policy structure.

The party http://example.com/sony:99 assigns the permission distribute directly to the potential buyer of the permission who will pay €1,000. The distribute permission is also constrained to the country Italy. The potential assignee may then distribute the target asset according to the next-policy target asset linked directly from this duty. In this case, the next policy asset stipulates that the potential assignee may only offer the display permission to downstream consumers.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:5531>
	a odrl:Offer ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:distribute ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/wallpaper:2321> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:99> ;
		odrl:constraint [
			a odrl:Constraint ;
			odrl:operator odrl:eq ;
			odrl:spatial <http://ontologi.es/place/IT>
		] ;
		odrl:duty <http://example.com/duty:01>, <http://example.com/duty:02>
	] .

<http://example.com/duty:01>
	a odrl:Duty ;
	odrl:action odrl:pay ;
	odrl:target <http://example.com/ubl:EU1000.00> .

<http://example.com/duty:02>
	a odrl:Duty ;
	odrl:action odrl:nextPolicy ;
	odrl:target <http://example.com/policy:7777> .

<http://example.com/policy:7777>
	a odrl:Set ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:display ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/wallpaper:2321>
	] .

<http://example.com/sony:99> a odrl:Party .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Privacy policy

The following shows the instance of a privacy policy.

The target asset is personal data and the assignee is allowed to distribute the asset only for the purpose of contacting the subject of the personal data. The purpose value is taken from the P3P privacy purpose vocabulary.

Additionally, the assigner (the party who the personal data is about) has stipulated that the assignee must delete the asset after a 30 day period (retention policy).

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .
@prefix p3p: <http://www.w3.org/2002/01/p3prdfv1#> .
@prefix xsd: <http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#> .

<http://example.com/policy:1111>
	a odrl:Privacy ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:distribute ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/billie:888:personal-data> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/billie:888> ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/gov:health:au> ;
		odrl:duty [
			a odrl:Duty ;
			odrl:action odrl:delete ;
			odrl:constraint [
				a odrl:Constraint ;
				odrl:operator odrl:eq ;
				odrl:dateTime "P30D"^^xsd:dateTime 
			]
		] ;
		odrl:constraint [
			a odrl:Constraint ;
			odrl:operator odrl:eq ;
			odrl:purpose p3p:contact
		]
	] .

<http://example.com/billie:888> a odrl:Party .
<http://example.com/gov:health:au> a odrl:Party .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Permission and prohibition

The following shows the instance of an agreement policy with both a permission and a prohibition. The party http://example.com/sony:10 assigns the permission play to the party http://example.com/billie:888 at the same time they are prohibited from utilising the target asset as a mobile:ringtone. Additionally, in case of any conflict, the conflict attribute is set to perm indicating that the permission entity will take precedence.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .
@prefix mobile: <http://example.com/mobile#> .

<http://example.com/policy:3433>
	a odrl:Agreement ;
	odrl:conflict odrl:perm ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:play ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/billie:888> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:10> ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/music:1234908>
	] ;
	odrl:prohibition [
		a odrl:Prohibition ; 
		odrl:action mobile:ringtone ;
		odrl:assignee </http://example.combillie:888> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/sony:10> ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/music:1234908>
	] .

<http://example.com/billie:888> a odrl:Party .
<http://example.com/sony:10> a odrl:Party .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Inheritance

The following shows the instance of a (child) policy http://example.com/policy:9999 inheriting from another (parent) policy http://example.com/policy:5531. The inherit-from attribute of the (child) policy has the same identifier as the (parent) policy's own identifier.

In this inheritance example, the parent policy allows the party http://example.com/billie:888 to print the parent’s target asset. The child policy allows the party http://example.com/class:IT01 (a group of people) to display the child’s target asset. Since the child policy also inherits from the parent policy, then the party http://example.com/class:IT01 can also print the parent’s target asset.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:5531>
	a odrl:Agreement ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:print ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/report:2321> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/pub:88> ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/billie:888> ;		
	] .
	
<http://example.com/policy:9999>
	a odrl:Agreement ;
	odrl:inheritFrom <http://example.com/policy:5531> ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:display ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/report:2333> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/pub:88> ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/class:IT01>
	] .

<http://example.com/pub:88> a odrl:Party .
<http://example.com/billie:888> a odrl:Party .
<http://example.com/class:IT01> a odrl:Group .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Social network

The following shows the instance of an agreement policy for a social network scenario.

The target asset are photos posted to a social network site and the assigner is the owner of the photos. The assignee is a group and represents the football network members on the social network, who are each allowed to display the photos.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .

<http://example.com/policy:5109>
	a odrl:Agreement ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:display ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/myPlace:billie:photos:football2010> ;
		odrl:assigner <http://example.com/myPlace:billie> ;
		odrl:assignee <http://example.com/myPlace:network:football>
	] .

<http://example.com/myPlace:billie> a odrl:Party .
<http://example.com/myPlace:network:football> a odrl:Group .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Multiple assets

The following shows an instance of a set policy utilising multiple asset entities.

The index permission is granted to the target asset. Additionally, the x:collection asset specifies which database the index outcome should be stored in.

@prefix odrl: <http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/> .
@prefix x: <http://example.com/x#> .

<http://example.com/policy:881212>
	a odrl:Set ;
	odrl:permission [
		a odrl:Permission ;
		odrl:action odrl:index ;
		odrl:target <http://example.com/archive/2010> ;
		x:collection <http://example.com/x/database>
	] .

Download this example as Turtle, RDF/XML, or N-Triples.

Classes

Asset

Asset is anything which can be subject to a policy. Asserting that something the target of a policy implies that it is an Asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Asset
Label: Asset
Status: testing
Sub-classes: Policy
In range of: output, relation, target

Party

An entity which can participate in policy transactions. Use an instance of the Party class where it's necessary to associate a Scope with the relationship; in other cases, simply reference the party directly.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Party
Label: Party
Status: testing
Sub-classes: All, All2ndConnections, AllConnections, AllGroups, Group, Individual
In range of: assignee, assigner, function

Policy

A top level entity for describing policies.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Policy
Label: Policy
Status: testing
Sub-classes: Agreement, Offer, Privacy, Request, Set, Ticket
Parent class: Asset
Properties: conflict, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom, permission, prohibition, undefined
In range of: inheritFrom

ConflictTerm

Instances of ConflictTerm describe policies for resolving conflicts.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ConflictTerm
Label: Conflict term
Status: testing
In range of: conflict
Instances: invalid, perm, prohibit

UndefinedTerm

Instances of UndefinedTerm describe policies for processing unsupported actions.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/UndefinedTerm
Label: Undefined values
Status: testing
In range of: undefined
Instances: ignore, invalid, support

Rule

An abstract common ancestor to Permissions, Prohibitions and Duties.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Rule
Label: Rule
Status: testing
Sub-classes: Duty, Permission, Prohibition
Properties: action, constraint, function, output, relation, target

Permission

A Permission is a rule which indicates the actions the assignee is permitted to perform on the associated asset. In other words, what the assigner (supplier) has granted to the assignee (consumer).

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Permission
Label: Permission
Status: testing
Parent class: Rule
Properties: duty
Inherited Properties: relation, output, target, function, action, constraint

Prohibition

A Prohibition is a rule which indicates the Actions that the assignee is prohibited to perform on the related Asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Prohibition
Label: Prohibition
Status: testing
Parent class: Rule
Inherited Properties: relation, output, target, function, action, constraint

Duty

A Duty is a rule which indicates requirements which must be fulfilled in order to receive the permission.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Duty
Label: Duty
Status: testing
Parent class: Rule
Inherited Properties: relation, output, target, function, action, constraint

Action

Instances of Action are things one might be permitted to do or prohibited from doing to a work.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Action
Label: Action
Status: testing
Parent class: skos:Concept
In range of: action
Instances: acceptTracking, adHocShare, aggregate, annotate, anonymize, append, archive, attachPolicy, attachSource, attribute, commercialize, concurrentUse, copy, delete, derive, display, distribute, ensureExclusivity, execute, export, extract, extractChar, extractPage, extractWord, give, include, index, inform, install, lease, lend, license, modify, move, nextPolicy, obtainConsent, pay, play, present, preview, print, read, reproduce, reviewPolicy, secondaryUse, sell, share, shareAlike, textToSpeech, transform, translate, uninstall, watermark, write

Constraint

Parent class of all Constraints.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Constraint
Label: Constraint
Status: testing
Parent class: owl:Thing
Properties: operator, rightOperand, status, unit
In range of: constraint

Operator

Instances of the Operator class represent boolean operators

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Operator
Label: Operator
Status: testing
Parent class: owl:Thing
In range of: operator
Instances: eq, gt, gteq, hasPart, isA, isAllOf, isAnyOf, isNoneOf, isPartOf, lt, lteq, neq

Agreement

Policy expressions that are formal contracts (or licenses) stipulating all the terms of usage and all the parties involved.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Agreement
Label: Agreement
Status: testing
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, undefined, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom

Offer

An instance of Offer is a Policy expression that proposes terms of usage from an Asset owner.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Offer
Label: Offer
Status: testing
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, undefined, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom

Privacy

An instance of Privacy is a Policy expression that stipulates the terms of usage over personal information.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Privacy
Label: Privacy
Status: testing
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, undefined, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom

Request

An instance of Request is a Policy expression that proposes terms of usage to an Asset owner.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Request
Label: Request
Status: testing
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, undefined, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom

Set

An instance of Set is a Policy expression that consists of entities from the complete model.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Set
Label: Set
Status: testing
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, undefined, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom

Ticket

An instance of Ticket is a Policy expression that stipulates the terms of usage and is redeemable by any Party who currently holds the Ticket in their possession.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Ticket
Label: Ticket
Status: testing
Parent class: Policy
Inherited Properties: conflict, undefined, permission, prohibition, inheritAllowed, inheritFrom

All

Specifies that the scope of the relationship is all of the collective individuals within a context.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/All
Label: All
Status: testing
Parent class: Party

All2ndConnections

Specifies that the scope of the relationship is all of the second-level connections to the Party.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/All2ndConnections
Label: All second-level connections
Status: testing
Parent class: Party

AllConnections

Specifies that the scope of the relationship is all of the first-level connections of the Party.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AllConnections
Label: All connections
Status: testing
Parent class: Party

AllGroups

Specifies that the scope of the relationship is all of the group connections of the Party.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/AllGroups
Label: All groups
Status: testing
Parent class: Party

Group

Specifies that the scope of the relationship is the defined group with multiple individual members.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Group
Label: Group
Status: testing
Parent class: Party

Individual

Specifies that the scope of the relationship is the single Party individual.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/Individual
Label: Individual
Status: testing
Parent class: Party

Properties

conflict

Relates a conflict-resolution mechansim to a Policy. If no mechanism is specified, the default is invalid.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/conflict
Label: conflict
Status: testing
Range: ConflictTerm
Domain: Policy

undefined

Relates the mechanism used for handling undefined actions to a Policy. If no mechanism is specified, the default is invalid.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/undefined
Label: undefined
Status: testing
Range: UndefinedTerm
Domain: Policy

permission

Relates the description of an individual Permission to a Policy. A permission can be specified either in terms of an Action alone, or an instance of Permission relating an Action and one or more other attributes.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/permission
Label: permission
Status: testing
Range: Action, Permission
Domain: Policy

prohibition

Relates the description of an individual Prohibition to a Policy. A prohibition can be specified either in terms of an Action alone, or an instance of Prohibition relating an Action and one or more other attributes.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/prohibition
Label: prohibition
Status: testing
Range: Action, Prohibition
Domain: Policy

inheritAllowed

A boolean value indicating whether this policy can be inherited from.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inheritAllowed
Label: inheritance allowed
Status: testing
Range: xsd:boolean
Domain: Policy

inheritFrom

Relates a policy to another policy from which terms are inherited.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inheritFrom
Label: inherits from
Status: testing
Range: Policy
Domain: Policy

relation

Relation is an abstract property which creates an explicit link between an Action and an Asset. Sub-properties of relation are used to define the nature of that link.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relation
Label: relation
Status: testing
Sub-properties: output, target
Range: Asset
Domain: Rule

output

The output property specifies the Asset which is created from the output of the Action.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/output
Label: output
Status: testing
Parent property: relation
Range: Asset
Domain: Rule

target

The target property specifies the Asset upon which the Action is performed.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/target
Label: target
Status: testing
Parent property: relation
Range: Asset
Domain: Rule

function

Function is an abstract property whose sub-properties define the roles which may be fulfilled by a party in relation to a Rule.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/function
Label: function
Status: testing
Sub-properties: assignee, assigner, attributedParty, consentingParty, informedParty, payeeParty, trackingParty
Range: Party
Domain: Rule

action

The operation relating to the asset for which permission is being granted. A permission must include exactly one action.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/action
Label: action
Status: testing
Range: Action
Domain: Rule

constraint

One or more constraints which affect the validity of the Permission; e.g. if the Action play is only permitted for a certain period of time.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/constraint
Label: constraint
Status: testing
Range: Constraint
Domain: Rule

duty

A Duty indicates requirements which must be fulfilled in order to receive the permission.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/duty
Label: duty
Status: testing
Range: Action, Duty
Domain: Permission

unit

The unit of measurement used for the constraint value.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/unit
Label: unit
Status: testing
Range: rdfs:Resource
Domain: Constraint

operator

The Boolean operator applied to a constraint and its operand.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/operator
Label: operator
Status: testing
Range: Operator
Domain: Constraint

rightOperand

The operand applied to an instance of a constraint. Do not use the right-operand property directly within a Constraint. Instead, a Constraint instance must contain exactly one triple which makes use of one of the sub-properties of right-operand.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/rightOperand
Label: right-operand
Status: testing
Sub-properties: absolutePosition, absoluteSize, count, dateTime, deliveryChannel, device, elapsedTime, event, fileFormat, industry, language, media, meteredTime, payAmount, percentage, product, proximity, purpose, recipient, relativePosition, relativeSize, resolution, spatial, system, timeInterval, timedCount, version, virtualLocation
Domain: Constraint

status

The current value of the constraint. The range of the status property is identical to that of the operand property selected used in the constraint.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/status
Label: status
Status: testing
Domain: Constraint

absolutePosition

A point defined with absolute coordinates.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/absolutePosition
Label: absolute position
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

absoluteSize

The absolute dimension that the Asset may be resized.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/absoluteSize
Label: absolute size
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: xsd:decimal

count

The numeric count indicating the number of times the corresponding entity may be exercised

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/count
Label: count
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: xsd:nonNegativeInteger

dateTime

The date (and optional time and timezone) representing a point in time or period.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/dateTime
Label: date/time
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: xsd:date, xsd:dateTime

deliveryChannel

The delivery channel used for storing or communicating the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/deliveryChannel
Label: delivery channel
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

device

An identifiable computing system.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/device
Label: device
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

elapsedTime

A period of time in which the policy action can be exercised.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/elapsedTime
Label: elapsed time
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: rdfs:Literal

event

Specification of a defined event applicable to the asset usage.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/event
Label: event
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

fileFormat

The file format applicable to the Asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/fileFormat
Label: file format
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

industry

The defined industry sector applicable to the asset usage

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/industry
Label: industry
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

language

The natural language applicable to the asset usage

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/language
Label: language
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

media

The media type in which the asset may be used.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/media
Label: media
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

meteredTime

The maximum period of metered usage time.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/meteredTime
Label: metered time
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: rdfs:Literal

payAmount

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/payAmount
Label: payment amount
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: xsd:decimal

percentage

The amount (as a percentage) of the action applicable to the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/percentage
Label: percentage
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: xsd:decimal

product

The specified Product or Service name.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/product
Label: product
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: xsd:string

purpose

Specification of a defined purpose applicable to the asset usage.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/purpose
Label: purpose
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

recipient

The party that receives the result of the Action on the Asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/recipient
Label: recipient
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

relativePosition

A point defined with reference to another position.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relativePosition
Label: relative position
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

relativeSize

The relative dimension that the Asset may be resized.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/relativeSize
Label: relative size
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

resolution

The resolution at which the asset may be used.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/resolution
Label: resolution
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

spatial

A code representing a geospatial area.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/spatial
Label: spatial
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

system

An identifiable computing system.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/system
Label: system
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

timeInterval

Recurring period of time in which the usage may be exercised.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/timeInterval
Label: time interval
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: rdfs:Literal

version

The scope of versions for the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/version
Label: version
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

virtualLocation

Specification of a digital locale.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/virtualLocation
Label: virtual location
Status: testing
Parent property: rightOperand

assignee

The Party is the recipient of the policy statement.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assignee
Label: assignee
Status: testing
Parent property: function
Range: Party

assigner

The Party is the issuer of the policy statement.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/assigner
Label: assigner
Status: testing
Parent property: function
Range: Party

attributedParty

The Party to be attributed.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attributedParty
Label: attributed party
Status: testing
Parent property: function

consentingParty

The Party to obtain consent from.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/consentingParty
Label: consenting party
Status: testing
Parent property: function

informedParty

The Party to be informed of all uses.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/informedParty
Label: informed party
Status: testing
Parent property: function

payeeParty

The Party is the recipient of the payment.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/payeeParty
Label: payee party
Status: testing
Parent property: function

trackingParty

The Party is the usage tracker.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/trackingParty
Label: tracking party
Status: testing
Parent property: function

proximity

An value indicating the closeness or nearness.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/proximity
Label: proximity
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: oma:proximity
Parent property: rightOperand

timedCount

The number of seconds after which timed metering use of the asset begins.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/timedCount
Label: timed count
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: oma:timed-count
Parent property: rightOperand
Range: rdfs:Literal

Concept schemes

actions

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/actions
Label: ODRL Actions vocabulary
Concepts: acceptTracking, adHocShare, aggregate, annotate, anonymize, append, archive, attachPolicy, attachSource, attribute, commercialize, concurrentUse, copy, delete, derive, display, distribute, ensureExclusivity, execute, export, extract, give, include, index, inform, install, lease, lend, license, modify, move, nextPolicy, obtainConsent, pay, play, present, preview, print, read, reproduce, reviewPolicy, secondaryUse, sell, share, shareAlike, textToSpeech, transform, translate, uninstall, watermark, write

Concepts

acceptTracking

The act of accepting that the use of the asset may be recorded. The collected information may be tracked by the assigner, or may link to a Party with role function 'trackingParty'.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/acceptTracking
Label: Accept tracking
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

aggregate

The act of using the asset (or parts of it) as part of a composite collection.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/aggregate
Label: Aggregate
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

annotate

The act of adding notations/commentaries to the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/annotate
Label: Annotate
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

anonymize

The act of anonymising the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/anonymize
Label: Anonymize
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

append

The act of adding to the end of an asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/append
Label: Append
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

archive

The act of persistently storing the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/archive
Label: Archive
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

attribute

The act of attributing the asset to a party.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attribute
Label: Attribute
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

concurrentUse

The act of multiple concurrent use of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/concurrentUse
Label: Concurrent use
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

copy

The act of making an exact reproduction of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/copy
Label: Copy
Status: testing
Equivalent to: reproduce
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

delete

The act of permanently removing the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/delete
Label: Delete
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

derive

The act of creating a new derivative asset from the asset

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/derive
Label: Derive
Status: testing
Equivalent to: modify
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

display

The act of making a transient visible rendering of the asset

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/display
Label: Display
Status: testing
Equivalent to: execute
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

distribute

The act of publicly distributing, displaying and/or performing the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/distribute
Label: Distribute
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

ensureExclusivity

The act of requiring the Assigner to ensure the Permission on the asset is unique to the Assignee.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ensureExclusivity
Label: Ensure exclusivity
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

execute

The act of making a transient visible rendering of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/execute
Label: Execute
Status: testing
Equivalent to: display
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

export

The act of transforming the asset into a new form.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/export
Label: Export
Status: testing
Equivalent to: transform
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

extract

The act of extracting (replicating) unchanged parts of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extract
Label: Extract
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

give

The act of giving away the asset in perpetuity without exchange of value.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/give
Label: Give
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

include

The act of including other related assets to fulfill the function.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/include
Label: Include
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

index

The act of indexing the asset into a collection of assets.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/index
Label: Index
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

inform

The act of informing a party that an action has been performed on the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/inform
Label: Inform
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

install

The act of loading the asset onto storage device ready for operation.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/install
Label: Install
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

lease

The act of making available the asset to a third-party for a fixed period of time with exchange of value.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lease
Label: Lease
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

license

The act of granting the right to use the asset to a third-party.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/license
Label: License
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

lend

The act of making available the asset to a third-party for a fixed period of time without exchange of value.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lend
Label: Lend
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

modify

The act of creating a new derivative asset from the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/modify
Label: Modify
Status: testing
Equivalent to: derive
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

move

The act of moving the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/move
Label: Move
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

nextPolicy

The act of specifying an asset (which must be a Policy) as the Policy terms for third-party use of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/nextPolicy
Label: Next policy
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

obtainConsent

The act of requiring explicit consent from a party to perform the action on the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/obtainConsent
Label: Obtain consent
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

pay

The act of paying a financial amount to a party for use of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/pay
Label: Pay
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

play

The act of rendering the asset into audio and/or video form.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/play
Label: Play
Status: testing
Equivalent to: present
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

present

The act of rendering the asset into audio and/or video form.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/present
Label: Present
Status: testing
Equivalent to: play
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

preview

The act of providing a short preview of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/preview
Label: Preview
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

print

The act of rendering the asset onto paper or hard copy form.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/print
Label: Print
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

read

The act of obtaining data from the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/read
Label: Read
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

reproduce

The act of making an exact reproduction of the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/reproduce
Label: Reproduce
Status: testing
Equivalent to: copy
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

reviewPolicy

The act of performing a manual review of the terms associated with the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/reviewPolicy
Label: Review policy
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

secondaryUse

The act of using the asset for a purpose other than the purpose it was intended for.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/secondaryUse
Label: Secondary use
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

sell

The act of trading the asset in exchange of value.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/sell
Label: Sell
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

textToSpeech

The act of a system reading the text of the asset out loud.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/textToSpeech
Label: Text-to-speech
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

transform

The act of transforming the asset into a new form.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/transform
Label: Transform
Status: testing
Equivalent to: export
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

translate

The act of translating the asset into a new natural language.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/translate
Label: Translate
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

uninstall

The act of unloading the asset from storage device.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/uninstall
Label: Uninstall
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

watermark

The act of applying a watermark to the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/watermark
Label: Watermark
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

write

The act of writing to the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/write
Label: Write
Status: testing
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

adHocShare

The act of sharing the asset to parties in close proximity to the owner. This action may be used to express [OMA] Sharing semantics.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/adHocShare
Label: Ad-hoc sharing
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: oma:adhoc-share
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

extractChar

The act of extracting (replicating) unchanged character(s) from the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extractChar
Label: Extract character
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: onix:extract-char
Class: Action

extractPage

The act of extracting (replicating) unchanged page(s) from the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extractPage
Label: Extract page
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: onix:extract-word
Class: Action

extractWord

The act of extracting (replicating) unchanged word(s) from the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/extractWord
Label: Extract word
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: onix:extract-page
Class: Action

attachPolicy

The act of keeping the policy notice with the asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attachPolicy
Label: Attach policy
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: cc:Notice
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

attachSource

The act of attaching the source of the asset and its derivatives.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/attachSource
Label: Attach source
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: cc:SourceCode
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

shareAlike

The act of distributing any derivative asset under the same terms as the original asset.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/shareAlike
Label: Share-alike
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: cc:ShareAlike
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

commercialize

The act of using the asset in a business environment.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/commercialize
Label: Commercialize
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: cc:CommercialUse
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

share

The act of the non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the asset to third-parties.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/share
Label: Share
Status: deprecated
Deprecated by: cc:Distribution
Class: Action
Concept scheme: actions

Named individuals

perm

Permissions take precedence over prohibitions.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/perm
Label: Permissions
Status: testing
Class: ConflictTerm

prohibit

Prohibitions take precedence over permissions.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/prohibit
Label: Prohibit
Status: testing
Class: ConflictTerm

ignore

Undefined actions should be ignored.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/ignore
Label: Ignore
Status: testing
Class: UndefinedTerm

invalid

The policy is invalidated.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/invalid
Label: Invalid
Status: testing
Class: ConflictTerm, UndefinedTerm

support

Undefined actions do not invalidate the policy, but notification for review must occur.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/support
Label: Support
Status: testing
Class: UndefinedTerm

eq

Indicating that a given value equals the operand of the Constraint.

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/eq
Label: Equal to
Status: testing
Class: Operator

gt

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/gt
Label: Greater than
Status: testing
Class: Operator

gteq

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/gteq
Label: Greater than or equal to
Status: testing
Class: Operator

hasPart

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/hasPart
Label: Has part
Status: testing
Class: Operator

isA

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isA
Label: Is a
Status: testing
Class: Operator

isAllOf

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isAllOf
Label: Is all of
Status: testing
Class: Operator

isAnyOf

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isAnyOf
Label: Is any of
Status: testing
Class: Operator

isNoneOf

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isNoneOf
Label: Is none of
Status: testing
Class: Operator

isPartOf

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/isPartOf
Label: Is part of
Status: testing
Class: Operator

lt

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lt
Label: Less than
Status: testing
Class: Operator

lteq

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/lteq
Label: Less than or equal to
Status: testing
Class: Operator

neq

URI: http://www.w3.org/ns/odrl/2/neq
Label: Not equal to
Status: testing
Class: Operator

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge feedback and contributions to this document from members of the W3C ODRL Community Group.

This document was generated using phpspecgen written by Nicholas J. Humfrey and modified by Yves Raimond, and subsequently modified by Mo McRoberts.

References

[ODRL-MODEL]
R. Iannella, S. Guth, D. Paehler & A. Kasten (eds.) Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Version 2.0 - Core Model. Final Specification, W3C ODRL Community Group, 24 April 2012. http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/two/model/
[ODRL-VOCAB]
S. Guth & R. Iannella (eds). Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Version 2.0 – Common Vocabulary. Final Specification, W3C ODRL Community Group, 19 April 2012. http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/two/vocab/
[ODRL-XML]
R. Iannella (ed.). Open Digital Rights Language (ODRL) Version 2.0 – XML Encoding. Final Specification, W3C ODRL Community Group, 19 April 2012. http://www.w3.org/community/odrl/two/xml/
[RDF-PRIMER]
E. Manola & E. Miller (eds.). RDF Primer. W3C Recommendation, 10 February 2004. http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-primer-20040210/
[TURTLE]
D. Beckett, T. Berners-Lee. Turtle - Terse RDF Triple Language. W3C Team Submission, 28 March 2011. http://www.w3.org/TeamSubmission/turtle/