Techniques for User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
8 July 2002
Note: W3C does not guarantee the stability of any of
the following references outside of its control. These references are included
for convenience. References to products are not endorsements of those products
- "How to
Develop Accessible Linux Applications", S. Snider, ed.
"Linux Accessibility HOWTO", M. de la Rue, S. Snider, eds.
- Refer to the following guidelines from Apple:
- The ATK
library provides a set of interfaces for accessibility in the GNOME
Helper Objects: The Browser the Way You Want It, D. Esposito,
January 1999. Refer also to
"Requirements for Accessible Software Design", US Department of
Education, version 1.1 March 6, 1997.
"EITAAC Desktop Software standards", Electronic Information
Technology Access Advisory (EITAAC) Committee.
- The Mozilla developers offer a FAQ that explains how to
communicate with Gecko, the rendering engine in the Windows platform.
- The GNOME
Accessibility Project. See in particular [Draft] How
to make GNOME 2.0 Applications Accessible.
Accessibility", IBM Special Needs Systems.. Refer to the IBM guidelines for
software accessibility, IBM guidelines for Java
- "The Inter-Client
communication conventions manual". A protocol for communication
between clients in the X Window system.
ICE Rendezvous Mechanism for X Window System Clients", W. Walker. A
description of how to use the ICE and RAP protocols for X Window clients.
- "IBM Guidelines for
Writing Accessible Applications Using 100% Pure Java", R.
Schwerdtfeger, IBM Special Needs Systems.
Accessibility Guidelines and Checklist". IBM Special Needs
- "The Java
Tutorial. Trail: Creating a GUI with JFC/Swing". An online tutorial
that describes how to use the Swing Java Foundation Class to build an
accessible user interface. Refer also to information on the Java Foundation Classes.
- Refer to information about
character encodings required by Java version 1.3.
- Information on Java Accessibility API can be found at Java
features of the MacIntosh
- The OSF/Motif
Software accessibility guidelines for Windows applications. Refer also to
- Information on keyboard
assistance for Internet Explorer and MS Windows.
Microsoft Windows Guidelines for Accessible Software Design".
Note: This page summarizes the guidelines and includes links
to the full guidelines in various formats (including plain text).
- Information on active accessibility can be found at the Microsoft Active
Accessibility home page. See also
About Active Accessibility Support for information about Active
Accessibility SDK support provided by the MSHTML component of Internet Explorer
(for HTML documents).
- "Lotus Notes
Accessibility" IBM Special Needs Systems.
"Describing and retrieving photos using RDF and HTTP", Y. Lafon and
B. Bos. The 3 May 2000 version of the W3C Note is
- Information on
Synchronized Accessible Multimedia Interchange (SAMI)
- Articles, Talks, and
Papers from Sun Microsystems about accessibility.
"Towards Accessible Human-Computer Interaction", Eric Bergman, Earl
Johnson, Sun Microsytems 1995. A substantial paper, with a valuable print
- (USA) National Information Standards
Organization. One activity pursued by this organization concerns Digital Talking Books. Refer to the
"Digital Talking Book
Features List" and "Digital Talking Book
Standards Committee Document Navigation Features List" drafts for
- "EZ ACCESS(tm) for
electronic devices V 2.0 implementation guide", C. M. Law, G. C.
Vanderheiden, 23 February 2000. This guide, developed by the Trace Research and Development Center,
describes a simple set of interface enhancements that can be applied to
electronic devices so that they can be used by people with disabilities, or
anyone who experiences difficulty using a device in the standard method of
Software Design Guidelines" compiled by G. Vanderheiden. A thorough
- "What is Accessible Software", James W. Thatcher, Ph.D., IBM,
1997. This paper, available at the IBM
Accessibility Center, gives a short example-based introduction to the
difference between software that is accessible, and software that can be used
by some assistive technologies.
- Information on accessibility
guidelines for Unix and X Window applications. The Open Group has various guides that
explain the Motif and Common Desktop Environment (CDE) with
topics like how users interact with Motif/CDE applications and how to customize
these environments. Note: In X, the terms client and server
are used differently from their use when discussing the Web.
A list of alternative
Web browsers (assistive technologies and other user agents designed for
accessibility) is maintained at the WAI Web site.
- access.adobe.com. Tools
and information about Adobe PDF and accessibility.
- The Altifier Tool
generates "alt" text intelligently.
- Amaya is W3C's test-bed browser and
- The Accessible Web Browser, senior project at the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana
- W3C's CSS Validator
- DirectDom technology, available from alphaWorks, allows a Java developer
to manipulate the live Document Object Model of a browser or Scalable Vector
Graphics plug-in to build rich graphical user interfaces.
- The G2 player version 7 for Windows.
- HelpDB is a test tool
for Web table navigation.
- Home Page Reader.
- Internet Explorer 5.0 for
Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT. Refer also to information on using COM with
IE. Refer also to
information about monitoring HTML events in the IE document
- JAWS for Windows.
- The Lynx Browser.
- The Mozilla browser.
Directory Project information on the W3C DOM.
- The Opera Browser.
- The QuickTime player.
table navigation script from the Trace Research Center.
- W3C's HTML/XML Validator
- ViaVoice voice
- "Braille Formats: Principles of
Print to Braille Transcription 1997" .
- The (USA) National Braille
- The (USA) National Braille Press.
- Recording for the Blind and
- Microsoft's Speech Application
- Speak to Write is a site about
using voice recognition to promote accessibility.
- "Codes for the representation of names of languages", ISO 639:1988. For
more information, consult
http://www.iso.ch/cate/d4766.html. Refer also to