This Wiki page is edited by participants of the WCAG Working Group. It does not necessarily represent consensus and it may have incorrect information or information that is not supported by other Working Group participants, WAI, or W3C. It may also have some very useful information.
In the 3 December 2013 WCAG meeting the following people were assigned to review failure techniques. Please put your comments for the techniques under the section heading with your name in it.
F1 to F20
- F1: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.2 due to changing the meaning of content by positioning information with CSS
- F2: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 due to using changes in text presentation to convey information without using the appropriate markup or text.
Role of heading would pass?
- F3: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 due to using CSS to include images that convey important information
Alternate text via labelled by or aria-label could provide an alternative? this relates with F65 although marco says should be treated separately from f65 to which I agree… we could allow it and still not change f65, but it muddies the waters?
- F4: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.2 due to using text-decoration:blink without a mechanism to stop it in less than five seconds
- F7: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.2 due to an object or applet, such as Java or Flash, that has blinking content without a mechanism to pause the content that blinks for more than five seconds
- F8: Failure of Success Criterion 1.2.2 due to captions omitting some dialogue or important sound effects
- F9: Failure of Success Criterion 3.2.5 due to changing the context when the user removes focus from a form element
- F10: Failure of Success Criterion 2.1.2 and Conformance Requirement 5 due to combining multiple content formats in a way that traps users inside one format type
- F12: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.5 due to having a session time limit without a mechanism for saving user's input and re-establishing that information upon re-authentication
- F13: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 and 1.4.1 due to having a text alternative that does not include information that is conveyed by color differences in the image
- F14: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.3 due to identifying content only by its shape or location
- F15: Failure of Success Criterion 4.1.2 due to implementing custom controls that do not use an accessibility API for the technology, or do so incompletely
ARIA TF covering
- F16: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.2 due to including scrolling content where movement is not essential to the activity without also including a mechanism to pause and restart the content
- F17: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 and 4.1.1 due to insufficient information in DOM to determine one-to-one relationships (e.g., between labels with same id) in HTML
- F19: Failure of Conformance Requirement 1 due to not providing a method for the user to find the alternative conforming version of a non-conforming Web page
- F20: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 and 4.1.2 due to not updating text alternatives when changes to non-text content occur
F21 to F40
F39: possible ARIA impact?
Not sure about Failure Example 2:
„A user clicks on a link, and a new window appears. The original link has no associated text saying that it will open a new window.“ SR-Users know when target=“blank“ is used. This failure example would mean, that the a text of a link must have an „(new window)“, or? Aren’t users familiar with new windows (as long as the focus don’t move tot he window?
F24: Failure of Success Criterion 1.4.3, 1.4.6 and 1.4.8 due to specifying foreground colors without specifying background colors or vice versa
Probably this one needs some discussion. When a user override all font and color settings for websites (Appearance -> Accessibility -> Ignore colors specified on webpages) than and under these conditions it’s not a problem and it works nicely. I’m not sure if this should be a failure, because a user needs just one click more for appearance in preferred colors .
F25: Failure of Success Criterion 2.4.2 due to the title of a Web page not identifying the contents
Probably we could include „Website“ as sixth example after „New Page 1"
F26: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.3 due to using a graphical symbol alone to convey information
Think this one needs some attention. Is it also a failure when an alternate text (alt) is given or not? When graphical symbols alone are used to convey information aren’t they ambigous to users in general?
F27, F28, F29 NA
Don't think that ARIA impact is really needed.
F37: Failure of Success Criterion 3.2.2 due to launching a new window without prior warning when the status of a radio button, check box or select list is changed
IE6 is mentioned, but I think there is no need to revise this failure.
F38: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 due to omitting the alt-attribute for non-text content used for decorative purposes only in HTML
Think this one should be clear. Anyway, as example we just have „Failure Example 1: Decorative images that have no alt attribute“ Probably we should include one or two real world examples.
I think we need to move H33 technique to advisory. The link text and title compete for the AccName and so the title text is not read... In JAWS there is an option not on by default to crawl the DOM and select the title attribute, but both cannot be selected and it is a heuristic hack given that the accessibility API doesn’t get this... there are extensive user agent notes on the technique, about where it doesn’t work, and none of this has been fixed in the 5 years since we published the technique.
- F41: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.1, 2.2.4, and 3.2.5 due to using meta refresh with a time-out
- F42: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 and 2.1.1 due to using scripting events to emulate links in a way that is not programmatically determinable
- Okay, but Example 2 code would be clearer if it showed IMG element and not just attributes!
- F43: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 due to using structural markup in a way that does not represent relationships in the content
- Okay. Four examples are included. We might want to brainstorm to see if there are a few more we could add.
- F44: Failure of Success Criterion 2.4.3 due to using tabindex to create a tab order that does not preserve meaning and operability
- F45: NA
- F46: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 due to using th elements, caption elements, or non-empty summary attributes in layout tables
- Okay, but only one example when title includes three failures.
- F47: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.2 due to using the blink element
- F48: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 due to using the pre element to markup tabular information
- F49: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.2 due to using an HTML layout table that does not make sense when linearized
- F50: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.2 due to a script that causes a blink effect without a mechanism to stop the blinking at 5 seconds or less
- Okay. Is value of 450 4.5 seconds? (No, .45 sec, the script alternates between the show and hide functions on the .45 s interval)
- F51: NA
- F52: Failure of Success Criterion 3.2.1 and 3.2.5 due to opening a new window as soon as a new page is loaded
- F53: NA
- F54: Failure of Success Criterion 2.1.1 due to using only pointing-device-specific event handlers (including gesture) for a function
- Okay but even if keyboard event handler were added to example, wouldn't example still be fail? (See F42)
- Perhaps we should add a note that indicates this concern? An author could use ARIA's role attribute to make this a button or link (http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/Using_a_WAI-ARIA_role_to_expose_the_role_of_a_user_interface_component)
- F55: Failure of Success Criteria 2.1.1, 2.4.7, and 3.2.1 due to using script to remove focus when focus is received
- Okay but is this.blur() really the only way to cause the problem?
- F56: NA
- F57: NA
- F58: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.1 due to using server-side techniques to automatically redirect pages after a time-out
- Okay, but cited tests are to Firefox 1.0 and IE 6
- may be able to generalize the statement at this point.
- F59: Failure of Success Criterion 4.1.2 due to using script to make div or span a user interface control in HTML
- We should probably discuss. These seem identical to F42 to me.
- Updated by ARIA TF and approved by group: http://www.w3.org/WAI/GL/wiki/ARIA-edit:_F59:_Failure_of_Success_Criterion_4.1.2_due_to_using_script_to_make_div_or_span_a_user_interface_control_in_HTML
- F60: Failure of Success Criterion 3.2.5 due to launching a new window when a user enters text into an input field
- Okay, but could benefit from code example rather than just description of behavior
F61 to F80
F61: Failure of Success Criterion 3.2.5 due to complete change of main content through an automatic update that the user cannot disable from within the content
- Might be worth noting that the control to disable updates should also allow re-enabling
F62: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 and 4.1.1 due to insufficient information in DOM to determine specific relationships in XML
- Covers similar criteria to F17 and F77. Possibly add both to “Realted Techniques” or possibly consider potentially merging the related techniques together since they cover similar ground.
- ARIA TF covering?
F63: ARIA TF covering
F65: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 due to omitting the alt attribute on img elements, area elements, and input elements of type "image"
- A hot topic that is currently unresolved with division over whether or not to “loosen” the second test procedure to include aria attributes. (do we have a reference we can link to with compiled views on this?)
- ARIA TF covering
F68: ARIA TF covering
F72: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 due to using ASCII art without providing a text alternative
- I wonder if this is missing any similar media to ASCII art? (come back to)
F77: Failure of Success Criterion 4.1.1 due to duplicate values of type ID
- See F62 comment.
F80: Failure of Success Criterion 1.4.4 when text-based form controls do not resize when visually rendered text is resized up to 200%
- Possibly useful to reference F69 under Related Techniques
Note from AWK: Peter, can you look at F62, F77, and F17 together? They seem connected. (agreed AWK :)
F85: on ARIA Tech TF list
F86: on ARIA Tech TF list
F87: on ARIA Tech TF list
F89: on ARIA Tech TF list
F91: Already includes an ARIA reference. Clarifies the question of whether <td scope="col"> would suffice or not (it is sufficient). Need to clarify procedure #1 from "headers marked up with table header (th) elements, optionally with scope attributes" to "headers marked up with table header (th) elements, including scope attributes unless the table has headers only in the first row or column."
Other Failure Techniques
- F69 Example
- Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 due to using elements within data tables that obscure structural relationships
- Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 due to not using headers and id attributes to associate data cells to multiple headings
- Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 for not correctly marking up table headers
- Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 for incorrectly associating table headers and content via the headers and id attributes
- F59 - needs to be updated to not exclude conforming when ARIA used; see  for WG comments
- F38: Failure of Success Criterion 1.1.1 due to omitting the alt-attribute for non-text content used for decorative purposes only in HTML
- F76: Failure of Success Criterion 3.2.2 due to not advising, or not providing a link to the advice prior to the control that causes a change in context or not providing advice that is programatically associated with the control.
Also see Category:Failure Techniques.