Introduction to Model-Based User Interfaces

W3C Working Group Note 07 January 2014

This version:
Latest published version:
Latest editor's draft:
Gerrit Meixner (Heilbronn University)
Gaëlle Calvary, Joëlle Coutaz (University of Grenoble)


This is an introduction to Model-Based User Interfaces covering the benefits and shortcomings of the model-based approach, a collection of use cases, and terminology.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document was published by the MBUI working group and is being published to complement the specifications on Task Models and Abstract User Interfaces, which seek to define a basis for interoperable interchange of user interface designs between different tools at design-time and at run-time. If you wish to make comments regarding this document, please send them to public-mbui@w3.org (subscribe, archives). All comments are welcome.

Publication as a Working Group Note does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Table of Contents


The development of user interfaces (UIs), ranging from early requirements to software obsolescence, has become a time-consuming and costly process. Typically, the graphical user interface (GUI) of an interactive system represents about 48% of the source code, requires about 45% of the development time and 50% of the implementation time, and covers 37% of the maintenance time (Myers and Rosson, 1992). These figures, evaluated in the early nineties, are increasing dramatically with the spread of new interaction techniques such as vocal and gestural modalities, resulting in additional requirements (Petrasch, 2007).

UI development effort in waterfall model

Figure 1. Distribution of UI development effort in a waterfall development life cycle.

Today, developers of UI for interactive systems have to address multiple sources of heterogeneity:

  1. Heterogeneity of end users: an interactive system is normally used by several different end users. End users differ with respect to their preferences, capabilities, culture (e.g., speaking different languages) and level of experience.
  2. Heterogeneity of computing platforms, interaction modalities, input/output capabilities: there is a large diversity of computing platforms (e.g., smartphone, desktop PC, tablet, embedded devices) using different input capabilities (e.g., keyboard, mouse, (multi-)touch, data gloves, motion sensors, monitors, head-mounted displays) with different interaction modalities (e.g., graphics, speech, haptics, gesture, Brain-Computer-Interaction).
  3. Heterogeneity of programming/markup languages and widget toolkits: for developing a UI, developers use different programming/markup languages (e.g., Java, C++, HTML) with different widget libraries (e.g., Swing, Qt, GTK+).
  4. Heterogeneity of working environments: many workflows in the real world are supported by interactive systems through the pervasiveness of computing devices. As a result, developers have to consider different contextual constraints (e.g., noisy environments, mobility).
  5. Variability of the context of use (<user, platform, environment>). In addition to being heterogeneous, the context of use dynamically evolves, calling for plastic UIs, i.e. UIs capable of adaptation while preserving human values (Thevenin and Coutaz, 1999). The dimensions that characterize UI plasticity are presented in The Problem Space of UI adaptation, UI Plasticity.

Model-Based User Interface Development (MBUID) is one approach that aims at coping with the above mentioned challenges and at decreasing the effort needed to develop UIs while ensuring UI quality. The purpose of Model-Based Design is to identify high-level models that allow designers to specify and analyse interactive software applications from a more semantic oriented level rather than starting immediately to address the implementation level. This allows them to concentrate on more important aspects without being immediately confused by many implementation details and then to have tools which update the implementation in order to be consistent with high-level choices.

For a comprehensive overview of the history and evolution of MBUID, we refer to (Meixner, Paternó, and Vanderdonckt, 2011). Different frameworks have been developed to conceptually capture the important aspects of a MBUID process. As early as 1996, Szekely introduced a generic architecture for MBUID (Szekely, 1996). In 2000, Da Silva described an architecture for UI development using a MBUID approach (Da Silva, 2000). The first version of a reference framework for multiple contexts of use UIs in history using a model-based approach, appeared in (Calvary et al., 2001). This version was then extended with additional relationships and definitions to give rise to a revised reference framework published for the first time in July 2002 (Calvary et al., 2002) and in (Calvary et al., 2003). It was then named the Cameleon Reference Framework (CRF) when accepted as a new deliverable of the EU-funded FP 5 CAMELEON project, published in September 2002 (Calvary et al., 2002b). CRF has now become widely accepted in the HCI Engineering community as a reference for structuring and classifying model-based development processes of UIs that support multiple contexts of use. CRF covers both the design time and run time phases. In (Calvary et al., 2003) metamodels and the use of models at runtime are proposed for supporting UI plasticity.

Cameleon Reference Framework

Figure 2. A simplified version of the Cameleon Reference Framework (CRF). Mappings and transformations between levels of abstraction depend on the context of use.

As depicted in Figure 2, the CRF makes explicit a set of UI models (e.g., Tasks, Abstract UI, Concrete UI, Final UI) and their relationships, to serve as a common vocabulary within the HCI Engineering community to discuss and express different perspectives on a UI.

The relationships between the CRF models include (Bouillon and Vanderdonckt, 2002): concretization, abstraction, translation, and reflexion.

The aforementioned relationships always preserve some dimension, either vertically (i.e., concretization and abstraction) or horizontally (i.e., translation, reflexion). In order to address non-horizontal/vertical transformations, Cross-cutting (Limbourg and Vanderdonckt, 2009) is a transformation of a model into another one at a different level of abstraction (higher or lower), while changing the context of use.

Orthogonal to the Task-Domain, AUI, CUI and FUI models, CRF makes explicit the context of use that may have an impact on the nature of the transformations used in the transformation process. The term “context of use” denotes an information space structured into three main models (see right side of Figure 2):

Although context of use is mainly defined based on information about users, platforms, and environments, there are also other dimensions that can be relevant to characterize context and to properly adapt an interactive system. The application domain, for instance, can also add relevant information that complete the characteristics of the context of use. For example, in a safety critical environment, knowing that the interactive system supports air traffic control or a nuclear power plant provides useful information about the level of attention that is required from end users.

Unlike the process initiated in the 1980s, which contained one entry point only at a high level of abstraction, CRF enables entry and exit points at any level of abstraction from which any combination of horizontal and vertical bottom-up and top-down transformations can be applied. This theoretical flexibility means that the stakeholders involved in the development of an interactive system can use the development process (e.g., human-centered development processes according to ISO 9241-210) that best suits their practice or the case at hand. Even when using a top down approach, developers can explore multiple development paths in parallel as illustrated in Figure 3. However, due to this high flexibility, developers have to ensure that models are not manipulated “by hand” after a transformation has been done. If so, developers have to ensure model consistency by e.g., using reverse transformations from a more concrete level to a more abstract level.

transformations across abstract layers

Figure 3. One example of possible transformations across the levels of CRF according to different contexts of use, starting from a unique Task and Domain Model.

Benefits from using Model Based UI Development

This section provides a list of potential benefits that are usually discussed for model-based development and Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) in general. Each potential benefit is then refined in the context of UI development. General MDE benefits are reported in (Hutchinson et al., 2011).

1. Benefits resulting from the existence of a step-wise development life cycle:

2. Benefits resulting from the use of explicit abstract models:

3. Benefits from exploring alternative designs:

4. Benefits resulting from code generation: the benefits associated with this appear when the method is enacted.

5. Benefits from using models at runtime:

6. Benefits for supporting method engineering:

7. Maintenance of modeling language and transformations:

Use Cases for Model-Based UI Design

This section provides a list of implemented use cases to illustrate different CRF-compliant development processes. Table 1 provides a synthetic view of the differentiating characteristics of these exemplars where lines refer to the level of abstraction used as the entry point from which transformations are performed, and where columns indicate whether these transformations are performed at design time or at run time. The document Complementary List of Use Cases provides additional examples.

Entry Point / Software Life Cycle Phase

Design Time

Run Time

Task & Domain

UC1 - Car Rental

UC2 - Digital Home

UC3 - Minimalistic UIs

Abstract UI

UC4 Story Editor

UC5 - Post WIMP Widgets

Concrete UI

UC6 - Automotive Industry (Infotainment system design)

UC7- Photo-Browser

Final UI

UC8 - Tourism Web Site (TWS)

1. Car Rental System


1.1 Introductory Description

The car rental example consists of a scenario in which the interactive system permits users to rent a car. In this sense, various contextual information can be used to adapt application aspects, and to properly display the list of cars to rent, enabling users to make choices and to accomplish the main task.

The key functional requirements to support this task include the capacity to:

Two contexts of use are targeted:

1) Context 1: Physical environment is that of a home, platform is a Desktop PC, and the user is an English speaker who does not know the city where the car has to be rented.

2) Context 2: Physical environment is a busy street, platform is a smartphone, and the user is walking fast (busy eyes).

Figures UC1.1 and UC1.2 show screenshots for the two targeted contexts of use.

Home PC user interface - car info

Home PC user interface - customer data

Figure UC1.1. A Concrete User Interface for Context1 “Home, PC, English speaker familiar with the location”.

smart phone UI for car rental smart phone UI for car data smart phone UI for customer data smart phone UI for preferences

Figure UC1.2. A Concrete User Interface for Context2 “Noisy street, SmartPhone, English speaker walking fast, not familiar with the location”.

1.2 Diagram and Discussion

Figure UC1.3 illustrates how a MBUI approach can be applied using successive concretization transformations starting from a single Task and Domain Model to different Abstract User Interfaces (each one corresponding to a specific context of use) and iteratively down to Final User Interfaces.

UI models

Figure UC1.3. Models involved in the car rental use case and the process.

task models

Figure UC1.4. Task models for the two targeted contexts of use.

2. Digital Home


2.1 Introductory Description

Digital home refers to a residence with devices that are connected through a computer network. A digital home has a network of consumer electronics, mobile, and PC devices that cooperate transparently. All computing devices and home appliances conform to a set of interoperable standards so that everything can be controlled by means of an interactive system. Different electronic services can be offered by a digital home system, including but not limited to e.g., manage, synchronize and store personal content, family calendars and files; upload, play and show music, videos and pictures on a home screen (e.g., a TV) using a mobile phone as a remote control; use a mobile phone as a remote control for the other devices, for example a thermostat.

These functionalities are made available through context sensitive user interfaces. In fact, such UIs are capable of adapting to different computing platforms (touch-based devices, web, mobile, TV, PDA, DECT handset, voice portal …), users (children, teenagers, adults, elderly, disabled people, …) and environments or situations (at home, away, at night, while music is playing, …). The final aim is to provide a seamless and unified user experience, which is critical in the digital home domain. To this regard, different automatic UI adaptations can be possible: e.g., zooming the UI if the user has visual problems; enabling multimodal interactions (ex. voice interaction) because the user is doing another task at the same time.

The key functional requirements for this application are the following:

This application may be used in different contexts of use:

1) Context 1: Physical environment is that of a home, platform is a Desktop PC, and the user controls the home devices without accessing directly the physical controls.

2) Context 2: Physical environment is a street, and the user is moving. The user controls the home devices remotely, in order to e.g. start heating the home before coming back.

In this use case, the context dimension considered is limited to the platform aspect.

Figures UC2.1 and UC2.2 show screenshots of the Digital Home for two targeted contexts of use.

desktop UI for digital home

Figure UC2.1: The desktop version of the Digital Home application.

mobile UI for digital home

Figure UC2.2: The mobile version of the Digital Home application.

2.2 Diagram and Discussion

The models involved in the Digital Home use case as well as the process involving them are depicted in Figure UC2.3.

UI models

Figure UC2.3. Models involved in the Digital Home use case and the process.

The use case considered in the Digital Home exemplar (Mori et al., 2008) starts from the task model shown in Figure UC2.4. Because we consider the platform as the only dimension of the context of use, the other context aspects have been greyed out in Figure UC2.3. From the task model, it is possible to derive an Abstract UI for each targeted context of use. Let’s consider a desktop PC. On the one hand, this AUI will be expressed using a modality and platform -independent vocabulary (also shared by other AUIs addressing different computing platforms), on the other hand, this AUI will include only the abstract interaction units that make sense in that considered computing platform (a desktop PC). From this AUI, it is possible to obtain a Concrete UI and then a Final UI in a specific implementation language suitable for that computing platform. A similar process is followed to obtain a Final UI for a different platform (e.g., the mobile one). From the filtered CTT task model, an Abstract UI is derived and then a CUI and finally an implemented UI expressed in a language supported by the mobile platform is built.

task model

Figure UC2.4. The Task Model for the Digital Home.

3. Omitting minimalistic UIs through the use of an universal interaction device in production environments


3.1 Introductory Description

The SmartFactoryKL (see Figure UC3.1) is an arbitrarily modifiable and expandable (flexible) intelligent production environment, connecting components from multiple manufacturers (networked), enabling its components to perform context-related tasks autonomously (self-organizing), and emphasizing user-friendliness (user-oriented). The SmartFactoryKL is the first ambient intelligent production environment for demonstration and development purposes worldwide. Development of user interfaces is a secondary field in the production industry, but the impact of user interface quality is increasingly independent of the application domain, which is a significant factor of success for the entire product. After three years of research, a first prototype has been finished that allows for controlling the production line using a single universal interaction device able to adapt to varying field devices according to the actual context of use, in a complex, model-based approach. To handle the resulting diversity of user interfaces, we developed a universal interaction device – the SmartMote – which is capable of providing control over various devices in these environments. Depending on the context of use, the visualization of the SmartMote is generated and adapted during run-time in order to provide a homogeneous intra-device user experience.

smart factory

Figure UC3.1. The SmartFactoryKL

The key functional requirements for this application are the following:

The SmartMote may be used in one context

1) Context 1: Physical environment is that of a production environment (industrial factory), platform is a tablet PC (+ modules or field devices from different vendors), one single user

SmartMote UI

Figure UC3.2. Screenshot of a rendered (final) UI with the SmartMote (Seissler, 2013)

3.2 Diagram and Discussion

For the specification of the context-sensitive UI a model-based architecture has been developed that consists of two core models (AUI-model and CUI-model). The AUI-model is specified using the “Useware Dialog Modeling” Language (useDM) that enables the abstract, modality-independent specification of the user interface. This model is refined via a CUI-model that uses the User Interface Markup Language (UIML) 4.0 for the platform-independent description of the graphical user interface. Adaptation rules are further used to specify the adaptation that can be applied on those models at run-time. To generate the final user interface (FUI) a java-based Renderer – SmartMote – has been developed.

UI models

Figure UC3.2. Models involved in the Minimalist-UI use case and the process.

4. Story Editor


4.1 Introductory Description

The production of e-learning tools for deaf people meets with several difficulties, connected to the need to resort only to the visual channel, without saturating it, and to the adoption of different cognitive strategies developed within the community. From a field study conducted with deaf people in the context of a national project involving cognitive scientists, linguists, and computer scientists, we adopted the metaphor of a learning story as the basis for organising different types of learning material: videos, pictures, texts, accompanied by translation in the Italian Sign Language. We report on the use of a user interface abstract model in the development of the interactive story editor, to be used by tutors and teachers to organise the course material and path, and which generates interactive pages for the students.

The key functional requirements to support developers of course include:

The context of use is that of the generation of a course by a teacher, possibly involving in the process tutors who will then have to assist the learners. Learners and tutors will then interact with the generated web pages (Bottoni et al., 2012).

The development relies on an abstract model of the learning domain, in which stories are seen as workflows: (learning) processes in which tasks are assigned to actors (e.g., students and tutors). Stories can be recursively composed by sub-stories, paths define sequences or alternatives for exploration of stories, with transitions connecting sub-stories, and tasks either are defined as simple stories to be explored individually or in a laboratory, or require the exploration of sub-stories. Each story has a single entry point and a single exit point, signalling completion by the student.

Stories are classified with respect to the exploration strategy and associated with abstract patterns. For example, in a star topology tasks can be performed in any order. For each type, the story editor provides a specialised form of interaction, guiding the teacher to define the story according to that type, and a template is used to generate the appropriate main page for the story accordingly. Figure UC4.1 (left) presents the workflow for a story with three sub-stories organised in a star topology. Figure UC4.1 (right) shows the generated page for a story with star topology providing access to five sub-stories. The lateral bars are generated according to a general template.

star-story workflow star story generated page

Figure UC4.1: The workflow for a star-story (left) and a generated page for a star-story (right).

4.2 Diagram and Discussion

The models involved in the Digital Home use case as well as the process involving them are depicted in Figure UC4.2.

The design of the interaction with the Story Editor and of the templates for the generated pages derives from the representation of tasks in the form of patterns composed by specific task trees. For each pattern, the story editor will constrain the interaction to create instances of that pattern, and will generate the specific workflow to be followed while interacting with the generated page. Moreover a corresponding pattern of interaction elements to be included in the generated page is provided as an abstract user interface model.

The target platform is that of Web pages with associated JavaScript components for the interaction with the specific learning content.

UI model layers

Figure UC4.2. Models involved in the Story Editor use case and the process.

As shown in Figure UC4.3, a StoryContainer will present several individual components, providing context for the interaction, and a PresentationContainer, composed of several different “page contents” in a mutual emphasis relation so that they cannot be shown together). The specific composition of the presentation container will depend on the type of story to be presented, as prescribed by the Task Model, where either an individual component or a container is associated with each task.

abstract structure

Figure UC4.3: The overall abstract structure of story containers.

5. Post – WIMP Widgets


5.1 Introductory Description

With the introduction of technologies like HTML5, CSS3, and SVG, the way people can interact with the web has been fundamentally enhanced. Designers are no longer required to use a predefined set of basic widgets. Instead, interaction can nowadays be driven by self-designed widgets specifically targeted at some specific user needs or specific application requirements. These Post-WIMP widgets are designed to support different combinations of modes and media and can guarantee a certain quality-in-use upon context changes. Based on ubiquitous availability of browsers and corresponding standardized W3C technologies Post-WIMP widgets can be easily designed and manipulated (e.g. SCXML, ECMA), instantly reflect continuous context changes (e.g. by WebSockets) and consider different multimodal setups (e.g. XHTML+Voice, SMIL, and the MMI-Architecture).

The fact that the control and appearance of Post-WIMP widgets is designed with a high degree of freedom has an impact on MBUID approaches: the toolkit and therefore the target of a model transformation can no longer been assumed as static (a fixed set of widgets). The same models (task model, AUI model, CUI model) known from MBUID can be applied to design individual Post-WIMP interactors. Additionally, a statechart-based behavior description captures the enhanced interaction capabilities of a Post-WIMP interactor. As an example we consider two use-cases of Post-WIMP interactors running inside a web application: A mixed reality furniture online shop that can be controlled by gestures and supports inter-reality migration of interactors and an interactive music sheet that can be controlled by head movements.

Web Furniture Shop

In the web furniture shop, a customer can choose between different furniture and fill up a shopping cart. By a drag-and-drop gesture using both hands one can drag furniture interactors virtually out of the monitor displaying the web shop and drop them into an augmented reality to see if the furniture really matches in space and color to the user’s environment. An augmented reality frame that surrounds the shopping cart allows to seamlessly switch between realities while crossing it during the drag and drop gesture.

shopping cart

Figure UC5.1: Shopping cart web application with reality frame.

Figure UC5.1 shows the actual shopping cart that is part of a typical online shop and has been enhanced by a Reality Frame. To enable a reality crossing Drag-and-Drop, the Reality Frame needs to be activated, which triggers a calibration of the system that identifies the monitor’s physical location in the environment of the user using a camera and a visual marker.

Two handed gestureTwo handed gesture

Figures UC5.2a(left) and UC5.2b (right): Two handed gesture to pick and drop furniture.

Figures UC5.2a and UC5.2b depict a user dragging furniture using the left hand for pointing and the right hand for picking up an object in the browser. After the users has crossed the reality frame of the shopping cart in the browser, the web page changes to the augmented scene enabling her to position the furniture in her own environment.

mouse based gesture

Figure UC5.3: Using a mouse to drag and drop furniture into the environment of the user.

Figure UC5.3 shows an adaptation of the interactors that support the same interaction using a classical mouse and keyboard setup.

The key functional requirements for support the user of the online furniture shop include:

Three contexts of use are targeted:

  1. Physical environment is the home of the user, platform is a desktopPC to be controlled by a mouse, and user is the online shop customer
  2. Physical environment is the home of the user, platform is a desktopPC to be controlled by an interaction technique that requires hand gestures with both hands.
  3. Physical environment is the home of the user, platform is a desktopPC to be controlled by an interaction technique that requires hand gestures using just one hand.
Interactive Music Sheet

When learning to play a musical instrument, or when playing one, a music sheet is used to give guidance as to how to perform the musical piece. However, as songs become longer and more intricate they may span across several sheets, forcing the player to stop playing to turn the page. Although this may become easier as one becomes more experienced with the instrument, it is a barrier for inexperienced players that can be tackled easily using a different mode to turn the pages other than your hand.

music sheet in usemusic sheet app screen shot

Figure UC5.4 (left): Music sheet control setup Figure UC5.5 (right): Music sheet web application

We propose a UI to turn music sheets with simple head movements that can be captured by a basic VGA webcam, a common part of modern notebooks. The considered setup is shown in Figure UC5.4 and a screenshot of the web browser displaying the music sheet is depicted in Figure UC5.5.

Head Tracking Interactor

Figure UC5.6: Head Tracking Interactor

A head movement mode interactor supports detecting tilting the head to the side, right and left, as the controller to pass to the next page or return to the previous page, respectively. Figure UC5.6 shows a screenshot of the head tracker. The left side of the figure shows the debugging user interface in that a moving arrow represents the direction of the head movement (mirrored).

The key functional requirements for support the user of the online furniture shop include:

Three contexts of use are targeted:

  1. Physical environment is the home of the user, platform is a desktopPC to be controlled by an interaction technique that involves tilting the head to the left and to the right.
  2. Physical environment is the home of the user, platform is a desktopPC to be controlled by an interaction technique that involves turning the head to the left and to the right.
  3. Physical environment is the home of the user, platform is a desktopPC to be controlled by an interaction technique that requires nodding.

5.2 Diagram and Discussion

The process starts at the final user interface and identifies interface elements (widgets) that should be enhanced to be controllable via various modalities, e.g., gestures or body movements. For each FUI element, a mapping is then defined that identifies the abstract Interface interactor (from a pre-existing abstract interactor model - http://www.multi-access.de/mint/aim) that matches best the behavior of the FUI element. Then, concrete user interface interactors are specified that represent the FUI element’s behavior as a model (by a state chart). Finally, the modeled behavior is precisely mapped to the Final UI element (http://www.multi-access.de/mint/mim).

Further control modes or interactor representing media that have been derived from the same AUI interactor and for that already CUI model interactors have been defined can then be used as an additional control mode or representation for the new FUI element (http://www.multi-access.de/mint/irm) (Feuerstack, 2012a).

Different to the other approaches the main intention of the process is to identify and specify interactors on the abstract, concrete and final user interface level to form an interactor repository of re-usable interface elements that synchronize themselves over various control modes and media representations (http://www.multi-access.de/mint-2012-framework/) (Feuerstack2012b)

UI models

Figure UC5.7. Models used for the Post-WIMP widgets use case, and the process.

6. UI development in the automotive industry to handle UI varieties and to increase efficiency of UI development processes


6.1 Introductory Description

Car infotainment systems are currently developed using huge textual specifications that are refined iteratively while parallel being implemented. This approach is characterized by diverging specifications and implementation versions, change request negotiations and very late prototyping with cost-intensive bug fixing. Number and variety of involved actors and roles lead to a huge gap between what the designers and ergonomists envision as the final version, what they describe in the system specification and how the specification is understood and implemented by the developers.

Model-based user interface development could speed up the iterative implementation while reducing implementation efforts due to automatic generation of prototype interfaces. Different models could be used to establish a formal and efficient communication between designers, functionality specialists (e.g. Navigation, Telephone and Media), developers and other stakeholders. The resulting reduction of development time would make car infotainment systems more competitive and would narrow the gap to innovation cycles in the field of consumer electronics.

Another large aspect of modern car infotainment systems is the quality assurance that is performed by the vendors. The complexity of modern infotainment systems (more than 1000 different screens and different modalities) requires large efforts to develop formal test models on the basis of the system specification. The test models are then used by the vendor to test the implementation coming from the supplier. This procedure results in another time and cost-intensive gap that could be bridged by performing consistency checks on the models used to generate the infotainment system instead of testing the implementation.

Moreover, vehicles and their infotainment systems have to be accessible. Even though model-based user interface development could speed up the iterative implementation, a further step is needed to enforce the accessibility of the cars: the description of the user. If user-interface description languages can also describe the user efficiently, including elderly and people with disabilities, then the two definitions (UI & user) could be used in frameworks performing automatic/simulated accessibility evaluation of the prototype interfaces of a car.

The key functional requirements to support UI development in the automotive industry include the capacity to:

Two contexts of use are targeted:

1) Context 1: Physical environment is that of an automotive company office, platform is a desktop PC and user is a developer.

2) Context 2: Physical environment is that of an automotive company office, platform is a Virtual Reality CAVE and user is a designer.

6.2 Diagram and Discussion

The models involved in the automotive industry scenario, as well as the process involving them, are depicted in Figure UC6.1.

UI models

Figure UC6.1. Models used in the Automotive Industry use case, and the process

In the automotive industry UIs are developed starting at the CUI level. Normally developers start with sketches, mock-ups or paper prototypes and iterate. On the basis of mock-ups interaction and graphical designers refine the mock-ups to wireframes and finally develop the graphical design e.g., with Adobe Photoshop. In the end the prototypes are manually transferred into a final UI for a specific infotainment system. The project automotiveHMI (http://www.automotive-hmi.org/) is developing a process and a UIDL to integrate the working artifacts of the involved developers to generate the FUI automatically.

7. Photo-Browser


7.1 Introductory Description

Photo-Browser supports photo browsing in a centralized or distributing way depending on the availability of a dynamic set of interactive devices (http://iihm.imag.fr/demo/photobrowser/). These include a multi-touch interactive table, a projected display on a wall, an Android SmartPhone, and a kinect to track gestures. As shown in Figure UC7.1, the UI of Photo-Browser is dynamically composed of the following components: a Tcl-Tk component running on the multipoint interactive surface (Fig. UC7.1d), a component that transforms an HTLM-like CUI into HTML code to serve as input to a Web browser (this code supports the task “sequential navigation through the image portfolio”) (Fig. UC7.1c), a Java component that provides a list of the photo names (Fig. UC7.1b), and a Java component running on the SmartPhone to navigate through the photos sequentially using the Next and Previous buttons.

screen shots

Figure UC7.1. Photo-browser: a dynamic composition of executable and transformable components managed by a dynamic set of interconnected factories (a) running on different platforms (Windows, MacOS X, and Android).

When the user, say Alice, enters the room, the interactive table starts automatically and shows Bob’s last opened photo portfolio. By performing a “wipe” gesture from the table to the wall, the current selected photo of the table is replicated on the wall. As Alice brings her SmartPhone in contact with the table, the phone can be used as a remote controller (Figure UC7.2). Using a wipe gesture over the table provokes the table to shut down. Alice can carry on her task using the wall as a large display and the SmartPhone as a remote controller. Here, a meta-UI has (Coutaz, 2006) been developed to support two classes of functions: (a) Dynamic software deployment in the ambient interactive space, and (b) UI redistribution across interactive devices including on-the-fly generation from a CUI HTML-like to native HTML code.

The key functional requirements to support UI migration for photo-browser include the capacity to:

Four contexts of use are targeted:

1) Context 1: Physical environment is that of an office, platform is an interactive table PC, one single user.

2) Context 2: Physical environment unchanged, platform is composed of an interactive table and of a PC equipped with a beamer, one single user.

3) Context 3: Physical environment unchanged, platform is composed of an interactive table, a PC equipped with a beamer, and a SmartPhone, and a single user

4) Context 4: Physical environment unchanged, platform is composed of a PC equipped with a beamer, and a SmartPhone, and a single user.

photos of some one using the app

Figure UC7.2. (Left) Connecting a SmartPhone to the interactive space by laying it down on the interactive table. (Right) Using the SmartPhone as a remote-controller to browse photos displayed by the HTML-based UI component of Figure UC7.1c and video-projected on the wall.

In this scenario, “Alice entering the room” corresponds to a situation that the Context Manager is able to recognize: “it is User Alice and Alice has entered Room Ambient Space”. The action that the Context Manager must perform has been specified earlier by Alice using an end-user development tool (or has been learnt automatically by the ambient space and confirmed by Alice). For example, using a pseudo-natural language programming language, Alice has instructed the context manager that “when I enter Room Ambient Space, please start the table with my last opened photo roll”. This sentence is then translated into an Architectural Description Language (ADL) whose interpretation by a middleware at runtime automatically deploys or stops the appropriate software components.

The UI of the meta-UI includes the recognition of three gestures: (1) a “wipe” gesture that allows the user to command the migration of the current selected photo from the table to the wall, (2) a “wipe” gesture that commands the system to shut down the table, and (3) the contact of the SmartPhone with the interactive table.

7.2 Diagram and Discussion

The diagram of Figure UC7.3 makes explicit the use of models at runtime: full coverage of the context of use, and remolding performed by on-the-fly transformation of one single component: that of the HTML-like CUI to the native HTML code of the target browser running on the PC. The other components are not transformed but are meta-described and dynamically recruited as resources of the platform.

UI models

Figure UC7.3. Models used in the Photo-Browser use case, and the process.

8. Tourist Web Site (TWS): Migratory UI under Human Control


8.1 Introductory Description

The Tourist Web Site (TWS) provides tourists with information for visiting and sojourning in the Sedan-Bouillon area, including a selection of hotels, camping, and restaurants. The UI of TWS is centralized when used from a PC workstation. Preparing a trip for vacation is an exciting experience when shared by a group of people (Figure UC8.1-left). However, one single PC screen does not necessarily favor collaborative exploration. By dynamically logging to the same website with a SmartPhone, users are informed on the SmartPhone that they can distribute the UI components of the site across the interaction resources currently available. Using a form, the user asks for the following configuration: the title of Web pages must appear on the SmartPhone as well as on the PC (the title slots are ticked for the two browsers available), whereas the content should stay on the PC whose screen is projected on the wall, and the navigation bar should migrate to the SmartPhone (Figure UC8.1-right). This form, which allow users to reconfigure the UI of TWS is the user interface of the meta-UI of the system (Coutaz, 2006).

The key functional requirements to support UI migration for TWS include the capacity to:

Two contexts of use are targeted:

1) Context 1: Physical environment is that of a home, platform is a Desktop PC, one family member as a single user.

2) Context 2: Physical environment is that of a home, platform is composed of a Desktop PC and of a SmartPhone, family members as users.

screen shotscreen shot

Figure UC8.1. The TWS web site. UI centralized on a PC screen (left). The control panel of the meta-UI to distribute the presentation units across the resources of the interactive ambient space (right). The lines of the matrix correspond to the pieces of content that can be redistributed, and the columns denote the browsers currently used by the same user.

At any time, the user can ask for a reconfiguration of the UI by selecting the “meta-UI” link in the navigation bar (Figure UC8.2). The UI will be reconfigured accordingly. In this example, the function supported by the meta-UI is UI redistribution using a typical form-based interaction technique.

screen shot

Figure UC8.2. The TWS web site when distributed across the resources of the ambient interactive space. The MetaUI link allows users to return to the configuration panel shown on the right of Figure UC8.1.

8.2 Diagram and Discussion

As shown in Figure UC8.3 for the TWS example, the Final UI is abstracted away at run time up to the AUI level. In turn, this AUI serves as input for retargeting and redistribution using a combination of the user’s request produced by the way of the meta-UI and of the platform model maintained in the context of use. The diagram shows the transformation process going from the PC centralized version to the distributed version. The reverse process holds when moving from distributed to centralized use.

UI models

Figure UC8.3. Models used in the TWS use case, and the process.

Common Generic Requirements

This section presents a list of non-functional requirements that must drive the process of producing various models defined at different abstraction levels found in the CRF and that are applicable to any meta-modelling approach. They were identified based on the aforementioned use cases. These requirements are not assumed to be exhaustive, but rather are intended to be constructive in order to ensure the quality of meta-models and models produced according to these meta-models. Each respective meta-model may refine any generic requirement into a specific requirement that precises how to address each requirement in each specific case.

Refers to the ability of a (meta-)model to abstract all real world aspects of interest via appropriate concepts, attributes, and relationships. In theory, completeness is aimed at producing a (meta-)model that covers all real world aspects of interest. In practice however, it may turn out that not all aspects of interested could be captured in a (meta-)model. For this reason, completeness is sometimes reduced to expressiveness, which refers to the ability of a (meta-)model models to abstract a significant subset of real world aspects of interest that is considered enough for the purpose of its usage. A sub-property of completeness, respectively expressiveness, is the graphical completeness, respectively graphical expressiveness. Both refer to the ability of a (meta-)model to represent abstractions relevant for this (meta-)model through appropriate graphical representations of the concepts, attributes, and relationships. Note that it is not necessary that all the concepts, attributes, and relationships of a (meta-)model should be represented graphically. Therefore, graphical completeness is often substituted by graphical expressiveness.

Consistency is often decomposed into two sub-properties: external consistency and internal consistency. External consistency refers to the ability of a (meta-)model to produce abstractions of the real world that reproduce the behaviours of the real world aspects of interest in the same way and that preserves this behaviour throughout any manipulation of the (meta-)model. Internal consistency refers to the ability of two or more (meta-)models to produce abstractions according to the same methodological approach. This includes: define a common vocabulary (e.g., the glossary), use this vocabulary in a systematic way in every (meta-)modelling activity so as to produce abstractions in the same way, avoid non-unique names. Rules for ensuring internal consistency could be defined in this way.

Refers to the ability of a (meta-)model to abstract any real world aspect of interest into one single abstraction belonging to one single (meta-)model with as little overlapping as possible with other abstractions belonging to other (meta-)models.

Refers to the ability of a (meta-)model to extend the definition of existing abstractions for more specific purposes without affecting the stability of the overall definition.

Refers to the ability of a (meta-)model to produce abstractions of real-world aspects of interest in a way that is as compact as possible with respect to the real-world. A related principle to concision is the Don’t repeat yourself (DRY) principle, which refers to the ability of a (meta-)model to produce abstractions of real-world aspects of interest in a single, unambiguous, and authoritative representation.

Refers to the ability of one or more (meta-)models to establish relationships between themselves in order to represent a real-world aspect of interest. Therefore, correlability is often decomposed into internal versus external correlability depending on the type of relationship involved (intra-model versus inter-model). There are several ways to establish relationships within a (meta-)model or across (meta-)models such as, but not limited to: mapping, transformation, mathematical relationships.

Examples of Tools

A number of model-based UI tools are available for download. Although most of them adhere to the principles of the Cameleon framework, none of them, so far, implements the MBUID standard.Table 2 below present these tools in a synthetic manner. The interested reader can access a detailed description of the tool from its URL.

Table 2. Examples of tools




CRF Levels coverage

Design time/ Run time tool


ConcurTaskTrees Environment (CTTE)

CNR-ISTI, HIIS Laboratory



Design time

Java application

Model-based lAnguage foR Interactive Applications Environment


CNR-ISTI, HIIS Laboratory



Design time

Java application

Table 2. Examples of tools (continued).


Functional coverage - Specific features

ConcurTaskTrees Environment (CTTE)

Modelling and analysis of single-user and cooperative CTT task models. In detail:

- Visualise/Edit task models;

- Interactively simulate task models;

- Automatic check the validity/completeness of task models;

- Save task models in various formats;

- Support the use of informal descriptions for task modelling;

- Filter nomadic task models according to platform;

- Support multiple interactive views of CTT task model specification;

- Support the generation of CTT task models from WSDL;

- Support the generation of Maria AUIs from CTT task models;

- Support the generation of Maria CUIs for various platforms (e.g., desktop, mobile, vocal, multimodal,..);

- Support the generation of Maria FUIs for various implementation languages (e.g. Desktop HTML, Mobile HTML, X+V Desktop, X+V Mobile,..)

Model-based lAnguage foR Interactive Applications Environment


Modelling and analysis of various types of UI models.

In detail:

- Visualise/Edit Task/AUI/CUI models;

- Edit and apply model transformations;

- Support Web Service -based development of interactive applications;

- Support the simulation of CTT task models;

- Support the generation of Maria AUIs from CTT task models;

- Support the generation of Maria CUIs for various platforms (desktop, mobile, vocal, multimodal,..);

- Support the generation of Maria FUIs for various implementation languages (e.g. Desktop HTML, Mobile HTML, X+V Desktop, X+V Mobile,..)

Glossary of Terms

A separate glossary of terms for the Model-Based User Interface domain has been provided. It contains informal, commonly agreed definitions of relevant terms and explanatory resources (examples, links etc.)


  1. Ayatsuka, Y., and Rekimoto, J.: TranSticks: Physically Manipulatable Virtual Connections. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2005), ACM Press, New York, NY, pp. 251-260, 2005.
  2. Bellotti V., Back M., Edwards K., Grinter R., Henderson A., and Lopes C. Making Sense of Sensing Systems: Five Questions for Designers and Researchers. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems (CHI 2002), ACM Press, New York, NY, 2002, pp. 415–422, 2002.
  3. Bodart, F., Hennebert, A.-M., Leheureux, J.-M., Provot, I., Vanderdonckt, J., Model-based user interface design in Trident with Dynamic Specification Language (DSL), IFIP WG 2.7 Working conf. (Namur, September 1989).
  4. Bodart, F., Hennebert, A.-M., Leheureux, J.-M., Provot, I., Vanderdonckt, J., A Model-based Approach to Presentation: A Continuum from Task Analysis to Prototype, Proc. of 1st Eurographics Workshop on Design, Specification, Verification of Interactive Systems DSV-IS'94 (Bocca di Magra, 8-10 June 1994), F. Paternó (ed.), Eurographics Series, Berlin, 1994, pp. 25-39.
  5. Bodart, F., Hennebert, A.-M., Leheureux, J.-M., Vanderdonckt, J., Computer-Aided Window Identification in TRIDENT, Proc. of 5th IFIP TC 13 Int. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction INTERACT’95 (Lillehammer, 27-29 June 1995), K. Nordbyn, P.H. Helmersen, D.J. Gilmore, S.A. Arnesen (eds.), Chapman & Hall, Loon, 1995, pp. 331-336.
  6. Bottoni, P., Borgia, F., Buccarella, D., Capuano, D., De Marsico, M., Labella, A., Stories and signs in an e-learning environment for deaf people, International Journal of Universal Access in the Information Society, 2012, 10.1007/s10209-012-0283-y
  7. Bouillon, L., Vanderdonckt, J., Retargeting Web Pages to other Computing Platforms with Vaquita, Proc. of IEEE Working Conf. on Reverse Engineering WCRE’2002 (Richmond, 28 October-1 November 2002), A. van Deursen, E. Burd (eds.), IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, 2002, pp. 339-348.
  8. Calvary, G., Coutaz, J., Thevenin, D., A Unifying Reference Framework for the Development of Plastic User Interfaces. Proc. of EHCI 2001, pp. 173-192.
  9. Calvary, G., Coutaz, J., Thevenin, D., Limbourg, Q., Souchon, N., Bouillon, L., Florins, M., Vanderdonckt, J., Plasticity of User Interfaces: A Revised Reference Framework, Proc. of 1st Int. Workshop on Task Models and Diagrams for user interface design Tamodia’2002 (Bucharest, 18-19 July 2002), Academy of Economic Studies of Bucharest, INFOREC Printing House, Bucharest, 2002, pp. 127-134.
  10. Calvary, G. et al.: The CAMELEON Reference Framework, CAMELEON Project, September 2002, available at http://giove.isti.cnr.it/projects/cameleon/pdf/CAMELEON%20D1.1RefFramework.pdf, 2002.
  11. Calvary, G., Coutaz, J., Thevenin, D., Limbourg, Q., Bouillon, L., Vanderdonckt, J., A Unifying Reference Framework for Multi-Target User Interfaces, Interacting with Computers, Vol. 15, No. 3, June 2003, pp. 289-308.
  12. Cantera, J.M., W3C MBUI Incubator Group Report, 2010, see http://www.w3.org/2005/Incubator/model-based-ui/XGR-mbui-20100504/
  13. Coleman, R., Lebbon, C., Clarkson, J., & Keates, S. (2003). From Margins to Mainstream, in: Inclusive Design, Design for the Whole Population, J. Clarkson et al., eds, Springer-Verlag, pp. 1–25.
  14. Coutaz, J., and Calvary, G. HCI and Software Engineering for User Interface Plasticity. In Human Computer Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving technologies, and Emerging Applications, 3rd edition, Julie Jacko Ed., Taylor and Francis Group Ltd Publ., May 2012.
  15. Coutaz, J.: Meta User Interface for ambient spaces. In Proc. TAMODIA 2006, 5th international workshop on Task Models and Diagrams for User Interface Design, TAMODIA 2006, Coninx, Luyte, Schneider Eds., Springer-Verlag Berlin, pp. 1-15, 2006.
  16. Coyette, A., Kieffer, S., Vanderdonckt, J., Multi-Fidelity Prototyping of User Interfaces, Proc. of 11th IFIP TC 13 Int. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction Interact’2007 (Rio de Janeiro, September 10-14, 2007), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4662, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2007, pp. 149-162. Brian Shackel Award 2007 for “Outstanding Contribution with international impact in the field of HCI”.
  17. Da Silva, P. P.: User Interface Declarative Models and Development Environments: A Survey. Proc. of the 7th International Conference on Design, Specification, and Verification of Interactive Systems, pp. 207-226, 2000.
  18. Eisenstein, J. and Puerta, A.R. (2000) Adaptation in automated user-interface design. Proceedings of ACM Int. Conf. on Intelligent User Interfaces IUI, ACM Press, New York, pp. 74-81.
  19. Eriks-Hoogland, I.E, de Groot, S., Post, M.W., & van der Woude, L.H. (2009). Passive shoulder range of motion impairment in spinal cord injury during and one year after rehabilitation. J Rehabil Med., May 2009, 41(6):438-44.
  20. Fernandez A., Abrahão S., and Insfran E., Empirical validation of a usability inspection method for model-driven Web development. Journal of Systems and Software. Volume 86 Issue 1 January 2013 Pages 161-186 (2012).
  21. Sebastian Feuerstack and Ednaldo Pizzolato; Engineering Device-spanning, Multimodal Web Applications using a Model-based Design Approach, WebMedia 2012, the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Multimedia and the Web, October 15-18, 2012, São Paulo/SP, Brazil. (Feuerstack2012a)
  22. Sebastian Feuerstack; MINT-Composer – A Toolchain for the Model-based Specification of Post-WIMP Interactors, accepted for XI Workshop on Tools and Applications, WebMedia 2012, the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Multimedia and the Web, October 15-18, 2012, São Paulo/SP, Brazil. (Feuerstack2012b)
  23. García Frey, A., Ceret, E., Dupuy-Chessa, S., Calvary, G., Gabillon, Y. UsiCOMP: an Extensible Model-Driven Composer, In Proceedings of the 4th ACM SIGCHI Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems (EICS 2012). 2012.
  24. Garcia Frey, A., Calvary, G., Dupuy-Chessa, S., Mandran, N. Model-Based Self-Explanatory UIs for free, but are they valuable?, 14th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (Interact’13), Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), Springer, September 2-6, 2013, Cape Town, South Africa
  25. Garlan, D., Siewiorek, D., Smailagic, A. and Steenkiste, P. Project Aura: Towards Distraction-Free Pervasive Computing. IEEE Pervasive Computing. Volume 21, Number 2, April-June, pp. 22-31, 2002.
  26. Ghiani, G., Paternò, F., Santoro, C. (2011) User Interface Migration based on the use of logical descriptions. Migratory Interactive applications for ubiquitous environments, pp. 45-59.
  27. Grolaux, D., Van Roy, P., Vanderdonckt, J., QTk: A Mixed Model-Based Approach to Designing Executable User Interfaces, Proc. of 8th IFIP Working Conf. on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction EHCI'01 (Toronto, 11-13 May 2001), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2254, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2001, pp. 109-110
  28. Grolaux, D., Van Roy, P., Vanderdonckt, J., Migratable User Interfaces: Beyond Migratory User Interfaces, Proc. of 1st IEEE-ACM Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Networking and Services Mobiquitous’04 (Boston, August 22-25, 2004), IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, 2004, pp. 422-430.
  29. Grolaux, D., Vanderdonckt, J., Van Roy, P., Attach me, Detach me, Assemble me like You Work, Proc. of 10th IFIP TC 13 Int. Conf. on Human-Computer Interaction Interact’2005 (Rome, 12-16 September 2005), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 3585, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2005, pp. 198-212.
  30. Grolaux, D. (2007) Transparent Migration and Adaptation in a Graphical User Interface Toolkit, PhD thesis, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2007. Available at: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=
  31. Hutchinson, J., Whittle, J., Rouncefield, M., and Kristoffersen, S. (2011) Empirical assessment of MDE in industry, Proceedings of the 33rd International Conference on Software Engineering ICSE'2011, ACM Press, New York, pp. 471-480.
  32. IBM (2001) Autonomic Computing: IBM’s Perspective on the State of Information Technology. See also The Vision of Autonomic Computing, Jeffrey O. Kephart, David M. Chess, IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.
  33. Integranova, 2012. (Intranova Model Execution System)
  34. Izadi, S., Brignull, H., Rodden, T., Rogers, Y., and Underwood, M. 2003. Dynamo: a public interactive surface supporting the cooperative sharing and exchange of media. Proceedings of User Interface Software and Technology UIST’2003) (Vancouver, Canada), ACM Press, New York, pp. 159-168.
  35. Johanson B., Fox A., and Winograd T.: The Interactive Workspace Project: Experiences with Ubiquitous Computing Rooms. IEEE Pervasive Computing Magazine 1(2), April-June 2002.
  36. Kaklanis, N., Moschonas, P., Moustakas, K., and Tzovaras. D. (2010) Enforcing accessible design of products and services through simulated accessibility evaluation", International Conference on ICT for ageing and eInclusion, CONFIDENCE 2010, Jyvaskyla, Finland.
  37. M.Manca, F.Paternò, C.Santoro, L.D.Spano, Generation of Multi-Device Adaptive MultiModal Web Applications, Proceedings MobiWIS 2013, LNCS N.8093, pp.218-232, Springer Verlag, August 2013
  38. Masson, D., Demeure, A., Calvary, G. Magellan, an evolutionary system to foster user interface design creativity. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM SIGCHI symposium on Engineering interactive computing systems (EICS '10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 87-92.
  39. Meixner, G., Paternó, F., and Vanderdonckt, J.: Past, Present, and Future of Model-Based User Interface Development. i-com, 10, 3 (2011), 2-11.
  40. Mitrovic, N., Royo, J.A., and Mena, E. (2007) Performance Analysis of an Adaptive User Interface System Based on Mobile Agents, Proc. of EHCI/DS-VIS 2007, pp. 1-17.
  41. Models@run-time (2009). Special issue on models at run-time. IEEE Computer Special Issues, Vol. 42, No. 10. Available at: http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/co/2009/10/index.html
  42. Mori, G., Paternò, F., Spano, L.D. (2008) Exploiting Web Services and Model-Based User Interfaces for Multi-device access to Home applications. DSV-IS 2008, pp. 181-193.
  43. Myers, B.; Rosson, M. B.: Survey on User Interface Programming. Proc. of the 10th Annual CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 195-202, 2000.
  44. Peña-Guevara, J.C., Berumen-Nafarrete, E., Aguirre-Madrid, A., Vallejo-Ponce, J., De la Riva-Muñoz, I., & Núñez-Valdez, J.A. (2005). Anatomically-designed shoulder hemiarthroplasty made after 3-D models and implanted in a child with rheumatoid arthritis. A case report. Acta Ortopédica Mexicana, vol. 19, May-June 2005.
  45. Pilemalm, S., Hallberg, N., Sparf, M., and Niclason, T. (Dec. 2012) Practical experiences of model-based development: Case studies from the Swedish Armed Forces, Systems Engineering , Volume 15 Issue 4, pp. 407-421.
  46. Streitz N., Tandler P., Müller-Tomfelde C., and Konomi S. Roomware: Towards the Next Generation of Human-Computer Interaction based on an Integrated Design of Real and Virtual Worlds. In Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millenium, Carroll J. (Ed.), Addison-Wesley, pp. 553-578, 2001.
  47. Rodden, T., Crabtree, A., Hemmings, T., Koleva, B., Humble, J., Akesson, K.P., and Hansson, P. Configuring the Ubiquitous Home. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems (DIS 04) (Cambridge, Massachusetts), ACM Press, 2004.
  48. Seffah, A., & Javahery, H. Multiple user Interfaces: Cross-Platform Applications and Context- Aware Interfaces. In A. Seffah & H. Javahery (Eds.), Multiple User Interfaces: Engineering and Application Framework (pp. 11-26). Chichester (GB): Wiley and Sons, 2004.
  49. Seissler, M. Modellbasierte Entwicklung kontextsensitiver Benutzungsschnittstellen zur Unterstützung der mobilen Instandhaltung, PhD-thesis, Fortschritt-Berichte pak, Band 24, University of Kaiserslautern, 2013.
  50. Steenbekkers, L. P. A., & van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M. (Eds.) (1998). Design-relevant characteristics of ageing users. Delft, the Netherlands: Delft University Press.
  51. Szekely, P.: Retrospective and Challenges for Model-Based Interface Development. Proc. of the 3rd International Eurographics Workshop, pp. 1-27, 1996.
  52. Thevenin, D., and Coutaz, J.: Plasticity of User Interfaces: Framework and Research Agenda. In Proc. Interact99, Edinburgh, A. Sasse & C. Johnson Eds, IFIP IOS Press Publ. , pp.110-117, 1999.
  53. Vanderdonckt, J., Prise en compte des facteurs ergonomiques dans la conception des interfaces homme-machine, Actes des journées de travail de Beaune '91 (Beaune, 5-7 March 1991), M. Adiba, F. Bodart, M. Léonard, Y. Pigneur (eds.), Les Éditions Systèmes et Information, Genève, 1991.
  54. Vanderdonckt, J.; Bodart, F.: Encapsulating Knowledge for Intelligent Automatic Interaction Objects Selection. Proc. of the ACM Conf. on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM Press, New York, pp. 424-429, 1993.
  55. WHO, World Heath Organisation: The world is fast ageing – have we noticed? http://www.who.int/ageing/en/, 2007.
  56. Zackowski, K.M., Dromerick, A.W., Sahrmann, S.A., Thach, W.T., & Bastian, A.J. (2004). How do strength, sensation, spasticity and joint individuation relate to the reaching deficits of people with chronic hemiparesis?. Brain (2004), 127, 1035-1046.
  57. Petrasch, R.: Model based user interface design: model driven architecture und HCI patterns. GI Softwaretechnik-Trends, Mitt Ges Inform 27(3):5–10.
  58. Pilemalm, S, Hallberg, N, Sparf, M and Niclasson, T. (2012) Practical Experiences of Model-based Development: Case studies from the Swedish Armed Forces, to appear in Journal of Systems Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 3.


In addition to the editors, the following people contributed to this specification: