Text content in HTML elements with
Text nodes, and text in attributes of HTML
elements that allow free-form text, may contain characters in
the range U+202A to U+202E (the bidirectional-algorithm formatting
characters). However, the use of these characters is restricted so
that any embedding or overrides generated by these characters do not
start and end with different parent elements, and so that all such
embeddings and overrides are explicitly terminated by a U+202C POP
DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING character. This helps reduce incidences of
text being reused in a manner that has unforeseen effects on the
The aforementioned restrictions are defined by specifying that certain parts of documents form bidirectional-algorithm formatting character ranges, and then imposing a requirement on such ranges.
The strings resulting from applying the following algorithm to an HTML element element are bidirectional-algorithm formatting character ranges:
Let output be an empty list of strings.
Let string be an empty string.
Let node be the first child node of element, if any, or null otherwise.
Loop: If node is null, jump to the step labeled end.
Process node according to the first matching step from the following list:
Append the text data of node to string.
If string is not the empty string, push string onto output, and let string be empty string.
Let node be node's next sibling, if any, or null otherwise.
Jump to the step labeled loop.
End: If string is not the empty string, push string onto output.
Return output as the bidirectional-algorithm formatting character ranges.
The value of a namespace-less attribute of an HTML element is a bidirectional-algorithm formatting character range.
Any strings that, as described above, are
bidirectional-algorithm formatting character ranges must
string production in the following
ABNF, the character set for which is Unicode. [ABNF]
string = *( plaintext ( embedding / override ) ) plaintext embedding = ( lre / rle ) string pdf override = ( lro / rlo ) string pdf lre = %x202A ; U+202A LEFT-TO-RIGHT EMBEDDING rle = %x202B ; U+202B RIGHT-TO-LEFT EMBEDDING lro = %x202D ; U+202D LEFT-TO-RIGHT OVERRIDE rlo = %x202E ; U+202E RIGHT-TO-LEFT OVERRIDE pdf = %x202C ; U+202C POP DIRECTIONAL FORMATTING plaintext = *( %x0000-2029 / %x202F-10FFFF ) ; any string with no bidirectional-algorithm formatting characters
Authors are encouraged to use the
dir attribute, the
bdi element, rather than maintaining the
bidirectional-algorithm formatting characters manually. The
bidirectional-algorithm formatting characters interact poorly with