This document is a Working Draft of the World Wide Web Consortium. Please send detailed comments on this document to email@example.com before 2359Z, June 1st 1999. We cannot guarantee a personal response, but we will try when it is appropriate. Public discussion on HTML features takes place on the mailing list firstname.lastname@example.org (archive). The W3C staff contact for work on HTML is Dave Raggett.
This document has been produced as part of the W3C HTML Activity. The goals of the HTML Working Group (members only) are discussed in the HTML Working Group charter (members only).
This specification is a revision of the working draft dated 4th March 1999 incorporating suggestions received during review, comments and further deliberations of the W3C HTML Working Group. The detailed differences are available for reviewers to compare.
Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite W3C Drafts as other than "work in progress".
This specification defines XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4.0 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4.0. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4.0. These semantics provide the foundation for future extensibility of XHTML. Compatibility with existing HTML user agents is possible by following a small set of guidelines.
XHTML is a reformulation of HTML 4.0 [HTML] as an application of XML 1.0 [XML].
XHTML 1.0 specifies three DTDs corresponding to the HTML 4.0 DTDs, and an XML namespace identified by a unique URI.
XHTML 1.0 is the basis for a family of future document types that extend and subset HTML. This idea is discussed in more detail in the section on Future Directions.
HTML 4.0 [HTML] is an SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) application conforming to International Standard ISO 8879, and is widely regarded as the standard publishing language of the World Wide Web.
SGML is a language for describing markup languages, particularly those used in electronic document exchange, document management, and document publishing. HTML is an example of a language defined in SGML.
SGML has been around since the middle 1980's and has remained quite stable. Much of this stability stems from the fact that the language is both feature-rich and flexible. This flexibility, however, comes at a price, and that price is a level of complexity that has inhibited its adoption in a diversity of environments, including the World Wide Web.
HTML, as originally conceived, was to be a language for the exchange of scientific and other technical documents, suitable for use by non-document specialists. HTML addressed the problem of SGML complexity by specifying a small set of structural and semantic tags suitable for authoring relatively simple documents. In addition to simplifying the document structure, HTML added support for hypertext. Multimedia capabilities were added later.
In a remarkably short space of time, HTML became wildly popular and rapidly outgrew its original purpose. Since HTML's inception, there has been rapid invention of new elements for use within HTML (as a standard) and for adapting HTML to vertical, highly specialized, markets. This plethora of new elements has led to compatibility problems for documents across different platforms.
As the heterogeneity of both software and platforms rapidly proliferate, it is clear that the suitability of 'classic' HTML 4.0 for use on these platforms is somewhat limited.
XML™ is the shorthand for Extensible Markup Language, and is an acronym of eXtensible Markup Language [XML].
XML was conceived as a means of regaining the power and flexibility of SGML without most of its complexity. Although a restricted form of SGML, XML nonetheless preserves most of SGML's power and richness, and yet still retains all of SGML's commonly used features.
While retaining these beneficial features, XML removes many of the more complex features of SGML that make the authoring and design of suitable software both difficult and costly.
There are two major reasons for content developers to adopt XHTML:
First, XHTML is designed to be extensible. This extensibility relies upon the XML requirement that documents be well-formed. Under SGML, the addition of a new group of elements would mean alteration of the entire DTD. In an XML-based DTD, all that is required is that the new set of elements be internally consistent and well-formed to be added to an existing DTD. The greatly eases the development and integration of new collections of elements.
Second, XHTML is designed for portability. There will be increasing use of non-desktop user agents to access Internet documents. Some estimates indicate that by the year 2002, 75% of Internet document viewing will be carried out on these alternate platforms. In most cases these platforms will not have the computing power of a desktop platform, and will not be designed to accommodate ill-formed HTML as current user agents tend to do. Indeed if these user agents do not receive well-formed XHTML, they may simply not display the document.
The following terms are used in this specification. These terms extend the definitions in [RFC2119] in ways based upon similar definitions in ISO/IEC 9945-1:1990 [POSIX.1]:
This version of XHTML provides a definition of strictly conforming XHTML documents, which are restricted to tags and attributes from the XHTML 1.0 namespace. See Section 3.1.2 for information on using XHTML with other namespaces, for instance, to include metadata expressed in RDF within XHTML documents.
A Strictly Conforming XHTML Document is a document that requires only the facilities described as mandatory in this specification. Such a document must meet all of the following criteria:
It must validate against one of the three DTDs found in Appendix A.
The root element of the document must be
The root element of the document must designate the XHTML 1.0
namespace using the
xmlns attribute [XMLNAMES]. The namespace for XHTML 1.0 is
defined to be:
There must be a DOCTYPE declaration in the document prior to the root element. If present, the public identifier included in the DOCTYPE declaration must reference one of the three DTDs found in Appendix A using the respective Formal Public Identifier. The system identifier may be modified appropriately.
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/strict.dtd"> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/transitional.dtd"> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Frameset//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/frameset.dtd">
XHTML Documents may be labeled with the Internet Media Type
text/xml. When labeled as
text/html, documents should follow the guidelines
set forth in Appendix C. Failure
to follow these guidelines will almost certainly ensure that the
document will fail to be processed on older implementations.
Here is an example of a minimal XHTML document.
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.0 Strict//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/strict.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1"> <head> <title>Virtual Library</title> </head> <body> <p>Moved to <a href="http://vlib.org/">vlib.org</a>.</p> </body> </html>
The XHTML 1.0 namespace may be used with other XML namespaces as per [XMLNAMES], although such documents are not strictly conforming XHTML 1.0 documents as defined above. Future work by W3C will address ways to specify conformance for documents involving multiple namespaces.
The following example shows the way in which XHTML 1.0 could be used in conjunction with the MathML Recommendation:
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1"> <head> <title>A Math Example</title> </head> <body> <p>The following is MathML markup:</p> <math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-MathML"> <apply> <log/> <logbase> <cn> 3 </cn> </logbase> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </math> </body> </html>
The following example shows the way in which XHTML 1.0 markup could be incorporated into another XML namespace:
<?xml version="1.0"?> <!-- initially, the default namespace is "books" --> <book xmlns='urn:loc.gov:books' xmlns:isbn='urn:ISBN:0-395-36341-6'> <title>Cheaper by the Dozen</title> <isbn:number>1568491379</isbn:number> <notes> <!-- make HTML the default namespace for a hypertext commentary --> <p xmlns='http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1'> This is also available <a href="http://www.w3.org/">online</a>. </p> </notes> </book>
A conforming user agent must meet all of the following criteria:
Due to the fact that XHTML is an XML application, certain practices that were perfectly legal in SGML-based HTML 4.0 [HTML] must be changed.
Well-formedness is a new concept introduced by [XML]. Essentially this means that all elements must either have closing tags or be written in a special form (as described below), and that all the elements must nest.
Although overlapping is illegal in SGML, it was widely tolerated in SGML-based browsers.
<p>here is an emphasized <em>paragraph</em>.</p>
<p>here is an emphasized <em>paragraph.</p></em>
XHTML documents must use lower case for all HTML element and attribute names. This difference is necessary because XML is case-sensitive e.g. <li> and <LI> are different tags.
In SGML-based HTML 4.0 certain elements were permitted to omit
the end tag; with the elements that followed implying closure.
This omission is not permitted in XML-based XHTML. All elements
other than those declared in the DTD as
have an end tag.
<p>here is a paragraph.</p><p>here is another paragraph.</p>
<p>here is a paragraph.<p>here is another paragraph.
All attribute values must be quoted, even those which appear to be numeric.
XML does not support attribute minimization. Attribute-value
pairs must be written in full. Attribute names such as
checked cannot occur in elements
without their value being specified.
Empty elements must end with
/>. For instance,
In attribute values, user agents will strip leading and trailing white-space from attribute values and and map sequences of one or more white space characters (including line breaks) to a single inter-word space (an ASCII space character for western scripts). See Section 3.3.3 of [XML].
In XHTML, the script and style elements are declared as having
#PCDATA content. As a result,
& will be treated as the start of markup, and
entities such as
will be recognized as entity references by the XML processor to
& respectively. Wrapping
the content of the script or style element within a
CDATA marked section avoids the expansion of these
<script> <![CDATA[ ... unescaped script content ... ]]> </script>
CDATA sections are recognized by the XML
processor and appear as nodes in the Document Object Model, see
Section 1.3 of the DOM Level 1 Recommendation [DOM].
An alternative is to use external script and style documents.
SGML gives the writer of a DTD the ability to exclude specific elements from being contained within an element. Such prohibitions (called "exclusions") are not possible in XML.
For example, the HTML 4.0 Strict DTD forbids the nesting of an
a' element within another '
to any descendant depth. It is not possible to spell out such
prohibitions in XML. Even though these prohibitions cannot be
defined in the DTD, certain elements should not be nested. A
summary of such elements and the elements that should not be
nested in them is found in the normative
The current HTML 4.0 DTDs do not reflect errata changes made to the HTML 4.0 Recommendation [HTML]. The XHTML DTDs incorporate these errata, and thus errors in HTML 4.0 DTDs are corrected in the XHTML DTDs. The errata can be found at [ERRATA].
HTML Tidy is W3C sample code that automatically converts existing web content to XHTML. It can cope with a wide range of markup errors, and offers a means to smoothly transition existing HTML documents to XHTML. For more information, see [TIDY].
Although there is no requirement for XHTML 1.0 documents to be compatible with existing user agents, in practice this is easy to accomplish. Guidelines for creating compatible documents can be found in Appendix C.
Work is currently in progress to determine how Internet media types [RFC2046] should be used when delivering XML documents, and this will be the subject of a future W3C document.
Since XHTML is an XML application, XHTML documents may be
delivered using the Internet media type
Additionally, since one of the aims of XHTML is to allow
migration from existing HTML user agents to XHTML user agents,
XHTML documents may be delivered using the Internet media type
text/html. In this case, it is recommended that the
documents follow the guidelines in Appendix
C to decrease the chance of document processing failure.
XHTML 1.0 provides the basis for a family of document types that will extend and subset XHTML, in order to support a wide range of new devices and applications, by defining modules and specifying a mechanism for combining these modules. This mechanism will enable the extension and subsetting of XHTML 1.0 in a uniform way through the definition of new modules.
As the use of XHTML moves from the traditional desktop user agents to other platforms, it is clear that not all of the XHTML elements will be required on all platforms. For example a hand held device or a cell-phone may only support a subset of XHTML elements.
The process of modularization breaks XHTML up into a series of smaller element sets. These elements can then be recombined to meet the needs of different communities.
These modules will be defined in a later W3C document.
Modularization brings with it several advantages:
It provides a formal mechanism for subsetting XHTML.
It provides a formal mechanism for extending XHTML.
It simplifies the transformation between document types.
It promotes the reuse of modules in new document types.
A document profile specifies the syntax and semantics of a set of documents. Conformance to a document profile provides a basis for interoperability guarantees. The document profile specifies the facilities required to process documents of that type, e.g. which image formats can be used, levels of scripting, style sheet support, and so on.
For product designers this enables various groups to define their own standard profile.
For authors this will obviate the need to write several different versions of documents for different clients.
For special groups such as chemists, medical doctors, or mathematicians this allows a special profile to be built using standard HTML elements plus a group of elements geared to the specialist's needs.
This appendix is normative.
These DTDs and entity sets form a normative part of this specification. The complete set of DTD files together with an XML declaration and SGML Open Catalog is included in the zip file for this specification.
These DTDs approximate the HTML 4.0 DTDs. It is likely that when the DTDs are modularized, a method of DTD construction will be employed that corresponds more closely to HTML 4.0.
The XHTML entity sets are the same as for HTML 4.0, but have
been modified to be valid XML 1.0 entity declarations. Note the
entity for the Euro currency sign (
€) is defined
as part of the special characters.
This appendix is normative.
The following elements have prohibitions on which elements they can contain (see Section 4.1.9). This prohibition applies to all depths of nesting, i.e. it contains all the descendant elements.
||cannot contain other
||cannot contain the
||cannot contain the
||cannot contain other
||cannot contain other
This appendix is informative.
This appendix summarizes design guidelines for authors who wish their XHTML documents to render on existing HTML user agents.
Be aware that processing instructions are rendered on some user agents.
Include a space before the trailing
> of empty elements, e.g.
<hr /> and
src="karen.jpg" alt="Karen" />. Also, use the
minimized tag syntax for empty elements, e.g.
<br />, as the alternative syntax
<br></br> allowed by XML
gives uncertain results in many existing user agents.
Given an empty instance of an element whose content model is
EMPTY (for example, an empty title or paragraph)
do not use the minimized form (e.g. use
<p> </p> and not
Use external style sheets if your style sheet uses
external scripts if your script uses
Avoid line breaks and multiple white space characters within attribute values. These are handled inconsistently by user agents.
Don't include more than one
isindex element in
is deprecated in favor of the
Use both the
attributes when specifying the language of an element. The value
xml:lang attribute takes precedence.
In XML, URIs that end with fragment identifiers of the form
"#foo" do not refer to elements with an attribute
name="foo"; rather, they refer to elements with an
attribute defined to be of type
ID, e.g., the
id attribute in HTML 4.0. Many existing HTML clients don't
support the use of
ID-type attributes in this way,
so if you want to be able to process the document on HTML
clients, you may wish to supply both
name values on the target element, e.g.,
<a id="foo" name="foo">...</a>
To specify a character encoding in the document, use both the
encoding attribute specification on the xml declaration (e.g.
encoding="EUC-JP"?>) and a meta http-equiv statement
content='text/html; charset="EUC-JP"' />). The
value of the encoding attribute of the xml processing instruction
Some HTML user agents are unable to interpret boolean
attributes when these appear in their full (non-minimized) form,
as required by XML 1.0. Note this problem doesn't effect user
agents compliant with HTML 4.0. The following attributes are
This appendix is informative.
This specification was written with the participation of the members of the W3C HTML working group:
This appendix is informative.