Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 2.0
3 Presentation Markup
4 Content Markup
4.1 Introduction
4.1.1 The Intent of Content Markup
4.1.2 The Scope of Content Markup
4.1.3 Basic Concepts of Content Markup
4.2 Content Element Usage Guide
4.2.1 Overview of Syntax and Usage
4.2.2 Containers
4.2.3 Functions, Operators and Qualifiers
4.2.4 Operators taking Qualifiers
4.2.5 Relations
4.2.6 Conditions
4.2.7 Syntax and Semantics
4.2.8 Semantic Mappings
4.2.9 MathML element types
4.3 Content Element Attributes
4.3.1 Content Element Attribute Values
4.3.2 Attributes Modifying Content Markup Semantics
4.3.3 Attributes Modifying Content Markup Rendering
4.4 The Content Markup Elements
4.4.1 Token Elements
4.4.2 Basic Content Elements
4.4.3 Arithmetic, Algebra and Logic
4.4.4 Relations
4.4.5 Calculus and Vector Calculus
4.4.6 Theory of Sets
4.4.7 Sequences and Series
4.4.8 Elementary classical functions
4.4.9 Statistics
4.4.10 Linear Algebra
4.4.11 Semantic Mapping Elements
5 Combining Presentation and Content Markup
As has been noted in the introductory section of this recommendation, mathematics can be distinguished by its use of a (relatively) formal language, mathematical notation. However, mathematics and its presentation should not be viewed as one and the same thing. Mathematical sums or products exist and are meaningful to many applications completely without regard to how they are rendered aurally or visually. The intent of the content markup in Mathematical Markup Language is to provide an explicit encoding of the underlying mathematical structure of an expression, rather than any particular rendering for the expression.
There are many reasons for providing a specific encoding for content. Even a disciplined and systematic use of presentation tags cannot properly capture this semantic information. This is because without additional information it is impossible to decide if a particular presentation was chosen deliberately to encode the mathematical structure or simply to achieve a particular visual or aural effect. Furthermore, an author using the same encoding to deal with both the presentation and mathematical structure might find a particular presentation encoding unavailable simply because convention had reserved it for a different semantic meaning.
The difficulties stem from the fact that there are many to one mappings from presentation to semantics and vice versa. For example the mathematical construct `H multiplied by e' is often encoded using an explicit operator as in H × e. In different presentational contexts, the multiplication operator might be invisible `H e', or rendered as the spoken word `times'. Generally, many different presentations are possible depending on the context and style preferences of the author or reader. Thus, given `H e' out of context it may be impossible to decide if this is the name of a chemical or a mathematical product of two variables H and e.
Mathematical presentation also changes with culture and time: some expressions in combinatorial mathematics today have one meaning to an English mathematician, and quite another to a French mathematician. Notations may lose currency, for example the use of musical sharp and flat symbols to denote maxima and minima. [Chaudry1954] A notation in use in 1644 for the multiplication mentioned above was He [Cajori1928].
When we encode the underlying mathematical structure explicitly, without regard to how it is presented aurally or visually, we are able to interchange information more precisely with those systems which are able to manipulate the mathematics. In the trivial example above, such a system could substitute values for the variables H and e and evaluate the result. Further interesting application areas include interactive textbooks and other teaching aids.
The semantics of general mathematical notation is not a matter of consensus. It would be an enormous job to systematically codify most of mathematics  a task which can never be complete. Instead, MathML makes explicit a relatively small number of commonplace mathematical constructs, chosen carefully to be sufficient in a large number of applications. In addition, it provides a mechanism for associating semantics with new notational constructs. In this way, mathematical concepts that are not in the base collection of tags can still be encoded (section 4.2.7 [Syntax and Semantics]).
The base set of content elements are chosen to be adequate for simple coding of most of the formulas used from kindergarten to the end of high school in the United States, and probably beyond through the first two years of college, that is up to ALevel or Baccalaureate level in Europe. Subject areas covered to some extent in MathML are:
It is not claimed, or even suggested, that the proposed element set is complete for these areas, but the provision for author extensibility greatly alleviates any problem which omissions from this finite list might cause.
The design of the MathML content elements are driven by the following principles:
PCDATA
or on additional processing such as operator precedence parsing.
The primary goal of the content encoding is to establish explicit connections between mathematical structures and their mathematical meanings. The content elements correspond directly to parts of the underlying mathematical expression tree. Each structure has an associated default semantics and there is a mechanism for associating new mathematical definitions with new constructs.
Significant advantages to the introduction of content specific tags include:
Expressions described in terms of content elements must still be rendered. For common expressions, default visual presentations are usually clear. `Take care of the sense and the sounds will take care of themselves' wrote Lewis Carroll [Carroll1871]. Default presentations are included in the detailed description of each element occurring in section 4.4 [The Content Markup Elements].
To accomplish these goals, the MathML content encoding is based on the concept of an expression tree. A content expression tree is constructed from a collection of more primitive objects, referred to herein as containers and operators. MathML possesses a rich set of predefined container and operator objects, as well as constructs for combining containers and operators in mathematically meaningful ways. The syntax and usage of these content elements and constructions is described in the next section.
Since the intent of MathML content markup is to encode mathematical expressions in such a way that the mathematical structure of the expression is clear, the syntax and usage of content markup must be consistent enough to facilitate automated semantic interpretation. There must be no doubt when, for example, an actual sum, product or function application is intended and if specific numbers are present there must be enough information present to reconstruct the correct number for purposes of computation. Of course, it is still up to a MathMLcompliant processor to decide what is to be done with such a content based expression, and computation is only one of many options. A renderer or a structured editor might simply use the data and its own builtin knowledge of mathematical structure to render the object. Alternatively, it might manipulate the object to build a new mathematical object. A more computationally oriented system might attempt carry out the indicated operation or function evaluation.
The purpose of this section is to describe the intended, consistent usage. The requirements involve more than just satisfying the syntactic structure specified by an XML DTD. Failure to conform to the usage as described below will result in a MathML error, even though the expression may be syntactically valid according to the DTD.
In addition to the usage information contained in this section, section 4.4 [The Content Markup Elements] gives a complete listing of each content element, providing reference information about about their attributes, syntax, examples and suggested default semantics and renderings. An informal EBNF grammar describing the syntax for the content markup is given in appendix C [Content Markup Validation Grammar].
MathML content encoding is based on the concept of an expression tree. As a general rule, the terminal nodes in the tree represent basic mathematical objects, such as numbers, variables, arithmetic operations and so on. The internal nodes in the tree generally represent some kind of function application or other mathematical construction that builds up a compound object. Function application provides the most important example; an internal node might represent the application of a function to several arguments, which are themselves represented by the terminal nodes underneath the internal node.
The MathML content elements can be grouped into the following categories based on their usage:
These are the building blocks out of which MathML content expressions are constructed. Each category is discussed in a separate section below. In the remainder of this section, we will briefly introduce some of the most common elements of each type, and consider the general constructions for combining them in mathematically meaningful ways.
Content expression trees are built up from basic mathematical
objects. At the lowest level, leaf nodes, are encapsulated in
nonempty elements that define their type. Numbers and symbols are marked
by the token
elements cn
and ci
. More elaborate constructs such as sets,
vectors and matrices are also marked using elements to denote their types,
but rather than containing data directly, these container
elements are constructed out of other
elements. Elements are used in order to clearly identify the underlying
objects. In this way, standard XML parsing can be used and attributes can
be used to specify global properties of the objects.
The containers such as
<cn>12345<cn/>
,
<ci>x</ci>
and
<csymbol definitionURL="mySymbol.htm" encoding="text">
S</csymbol>
represent mathematical numbers ,
identifiers and externally defined symbols. Below, we will look at
operator
elements
such as <plus/>
or
<sin/>
, which provide access to the basic
mathematical operations and functions applicable to those
objects. Additional containers such as
<set>...</set>
for sets, and
<matrix>...</matrix>
for matrices are provided for representing a variety of common compound
objects.
For example, the number 12345 is encoded as
<cn>12345</cn>
The attributes and PCDATA
content together provide the data
necessary for an application to parse the number. For example, a default
base of 10 is assumed, but to communicate that the underlying data was
actually written in base 8, simply set the
base
attribute to 8 as in
<cn base="8">12345</cn>
while complex number 3 + 4 i can be encoded as
<cn type="complex">3<sep/>4</cn>
Such information makes it possible for another application to easily parse this into the correct number.
As another example, the scalar symbol v is encoded as
<ci>v</ci>
By default ci
elements represent elements from a
commutative field (see appendix D [Content Element Definitions]).
If a vector is intended then this fact can be encoded as
<ci type="vector">v</ci>
This invokes default semantics associated with the vector
element, namely an arbitrary element of a finite
dimensional vector space.
By using the ci
and csymbol
elements we have made clear that
we are referring to a mathematical identifier or symbol but this does not
say anything about how it shopuld be rendered. By default a symbol is rendered
as if the ci
or csymbol
element were actually the presentation element mi
(see section 3.2.2 [Identifiers]).
The actual rendering of a mathematical symbol can be made as elaborate as
necessary simply by using the more elaborate presentational constructs (as
described in chapter 3 [Presentation Markup]) in the body of the
ci
or csymbol
element.
The default rendering of a simple cn
tagged
object is the same as for the presentation element mn
with some provision for overriding the presentation
of the PCDATA
by providing explicit mn
tags. This is described in detail in section 4.4 [The Content Markup Elements].
The issues for compound objects such as sets, vectors and matrices are all similar to those outlined above for numbers and symbols. Each such object has global properties as a mathematical object that impact how they are to be parsed. This may affect everything from the interpretation of operations that are applied to them through to how to render the symbols representing them. These mathematical properties are captured by setting attribute values.
The notion of constructing a general expression tree is essentially that
of applying an operator to subobjects. For example, the sum a +
b can be thought of as an application of the addition operator to
two arguments aand b. In MathML, elements are used for
operators for much the same reason that elements are used to contain
objects. They are recognized at the XML parse level and their attributes
can be used to record or modify the intended semantics. For example, with
the MathML plus
element, setting the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes as in
<plus definitionURL="www.vnbooks.com/VectorCalculus.htm"
encoding="text"/>
can communicate that the intended operation is vectorbased.
There is also another reason for using elements to denote operators.
There is a crucial semantic distinction between the function itself and the
expression resulting from applying that function to zero or more arguments
which must be captured. This is addressed by making the functions
selfcontained objects with their own properties and providing an explicit
apply
construct corresponding to function
application. We will consider the apply
construct
in the next section.
MathML contains many predefined operator elements, covering a range of
mathematical subjects. However, an important class of expressions involve
unknown or userdefined functions and symbols. For these situations, MathML
provides a general csymbol
element, which is
discussed below.
apply
constructThe most fundamental way of building up a mathematical expression in
MathML content markup is the apply
construct. An
apply
element typically applies an operator to its
arguments. It corresponds to a complete mathematical expression. Roughly
speaking, this means a piece of mathematics which could be surrounded by
parentheses or `logical brackets' without changing its
meaning.
For example, (x + y) might be encoded as
<apply> <plus/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply>
The opening and closing tags of apply
specify
exactly the scope of any operator or function. The most typical way of
using apply
is simple and recursive. Symbolically,
the content model can the described as:
<apply> op a b </apply>
where the operands a and b are containers or other
contentbased elements themselves, and op is an operator or
function. Note that since apply
is a container,
this allows apply
constructs to be nested to
arbitrary depth.
An
apply
may in principle have any number of operands:
<apply> op a b [c...] <apply>
For example, (x + y + z) can be encoded as
<apply> <plus/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> <ci> c </ci> </apply>
Mathematical expressions involving a mixture of operations result in
nested occurrences of apply
. For example,
ax + b would be encoded as
<apply> <plus/> <apply> <times/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
There is no need to introduce parentheses or to resort to operator
precedence in order to parse the expression correctly. The apply
tags provide the proper grouping for the reuse
of the expressions within other constructs. Any expression enclosed by an
apply
element is viewed as a single coherent
object.
An expression such as (F + G)(x) might be a product, as in
<apply> <times/> <apply> <plus/> <ci> F </ci> <ci> G </ci> </apply> <ci> x </ci> </apply>
or it might indicate the application of the function F + G to the argument x. This is indicated by constructing the sum
<apply> <plus/> <ci> F </ci> <ci> G </ci> </apply>
and applying it to the argument x as in
<apply> <apply> <plus/> <ci> F </ci> <ci> G </ci> </apply> <ci> x </ci> </apply>
Both the function and the arguments may be simple identifiers or more complicated expressions.
In MathML1.0 , another construction closely related to the use of the
apply
with operators and arguments was the reln
element. The reln
element
was used to denote that a mathematical relation holds between its
arguments, as opposed to applying an operator. Thus, the MathML markup for
the expression x < y was given in MathML 1.0 by:
<reln> <lt/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </reln>
In MathML2.0, the apply
construct is used with all
operators, including logical operators. The expression above becomes
<apply> <lt/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply>
in MathML 2.0. The use of reln
with relational operators is supported for reasons
of backwards compatibility, but deprecated. Authors creating new content
are encouraged to use apply
in all cases.
The most common operations and functions such as <plus/>
and <sin/>
have been
predefined explicitly as empty elements (see section 4.4 [The Content Markup Elements]
attributes, and by changing these attributes, the author can record that a
different sort of algebraic operation is intended. This allows essentially
the same notation to be reused for a discussion taking place in a
different algebraic domain.
Due to the nature of mathematics the notation must be extensible. The key to extensibility is the ability of the user to define new functions and other symbols to expand the terrain of mathematical discourse.
It is always possible to create arbitrary expressions, and then to use
them as symbols in the language. Their properties can then be inferred
directly from that usage as was done in the previous section. However such
an approach would preclude being able to encode the fact that the construct
was a known symbol, or to record its mathematical properties except by
actually using it. The csymbol
element is used as a
container to construct a new symbol in much the same way that ci
is used to construct an identifier. (Note that
symbol is used here in the abstract sense and has no connection with any
presentation of the construct on screen or paper). The difference in usage
is that csymbol
should refer to some mathematically
defined concept with an external definition referenced via the definitionURL
attribute, whereas ci
is used for identifiers which are essentially `local' to
the MathML expression and do not use any external defintion mechanism. The
target of the definitionURL
attribute on the csymbol
element may encode the definition in any format:
the particular encoding in use is given by the encoding
attribute
To use csymbol
to describe a completely new
function, we write
<csymbol definitionURL="www.vnbooks.com/VectorCalculus.htm" encoding="text"> <ci>Christoffel</ci> </csymbol>
The definitionURL
attribute specifies a URI
that provides a written definition for the Christoffel
symbol.
Suggested
default definitions for predefined MathML content elements appear in
appendix D [Content Element Definitions] in a format based on OpenMath, although there is
no requirement that a particular format be used.
The role of the definitionURL
attribute is very
similar to the role of definitions included at the beginning many
mathematical papers, and which often just refer to a definition used by a
particular book.
MathML1.0 supported the use of the fn
to encode the fact that
a construct is explicitly being used as a function or operator. To record
the fact that F+ G is being used semantically as if it
were a function, it was encoded as:
<fn> <apply> <plus/> <ci>F</ci> <ci>G</ci> </apply> </fn>
This usage, although allowed in MathML2.0 for reasons of backwards
compatibility, is now deprecated. The fact that a construct is being used
as an operator is clear from the position of the construct as the first
child of the apply
. If it is required to add additional
information to the construct, it should be wrapped in a semantics
element, for example:
<semantics definitionURL="www.mathslib.com/vectorfuncs/plus.htm" encoding="Mathematica 4.0"> <apply> <plus/> <ci>F</ci> <ci>G</ci> </apply> </semantics>
MathML1.0 supported the use of definitionURL
with
fn
to refer to external definitions for userdefined
functions. This usage, although allowed for reasons of backwards
compatibility, is deprecated in MathML 2.0 in favour of using csymbol
to define the function, and then apply
to link the function
to its arguments. For example:
<apply> <csymbol definitionURL="http://www.defs.org/function_spaces.html#my_def" encoding="text"> <ci>BigK</ci> </csymbol> <ci>x</ci> <ci>y</ci> </apply>
Given functions, it is natural to have functional inverses. This is
handled by the inverse
element.
Functional inverses can be problematic from a mathematical point of view in that it implicitly involves the definition of an inverse for an arbitrary function F. Even at the K through 12 level the concept of an inverse F ^{1} of many common functions F is not used in a uniform way. For example, the definitions used for the inverse trigonometric functions may differ slightly depending on the choice of domain and/or branch cuts.
MathML adopts the view:
If F is a function from a domain D to D', then the inverse G of F is a function over D' such that G(F(x)) = x for x in D.
This definition does not assert that such an inverse exists for all or indeed any x in D, or that it is singlevalued anywhere. Also, depending on the functions involved, additional properties such as F(G( y)) = y for y in D' may hold.
The inverse
element is applied to a function
whenever an inverse is required. For example, application of the inverse
sine function to x (i.e. sin ^{1} (x) is encoded
as:
<apply> <apply><inverse/> <sin/> </apply> <ci> x </ci> </apply>
While arcsin
is one of the predefined MathML
functions, an explicit reference to sin ^{1}(x) might
occur in a document discussing possible definitions of
arcsin
.
Consider a document discussing the vectors
A = (a, b, c) and
B = (d, e, f) and later
including the expression
V = A + B.
It is important to be able communicate the fact that wherever
A and B
are used they represent a particular vector. The properties of that vector
may determine aspects of operators such as plus
.
The simple fact that A is a vector can be communicated by using the tagging
<ci type="vector">A</ci>
but this still does not communicate, for example, which vector is involved or its dimensions.
The declare
construct is used to associate
specific properties or meanings with an object. The actual declaration
itself is not rendered visually (or in any other form). However, it
indirectly impacts the semantics of all affected uses of the declared
object.
The scope of a declaration is, by default, local to the MathML element
in which the declaration is made. If the scope
attribute of the declare
element is set to global
, the declaration applies to the entire MathML
expression in which it appears.
The uses of the declare
element range from
resetting default attribute values to associating an expression with a
particular instance of of a more elaborate structure. Subsequent uses of
the original expression (within the scope of the declare) play the same
semantic role as would the paired object.
For example, the declaration
<declare> <ci> A </ci> <vector> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> <ci> c </ci> </vector> </declare>
specifies that
A stands for the particular vector (a, b, c)
so that subsequent uses of A as in
V = A + Bcan take this into account.
When declare
is used in this way, the actual
encoding
<apply><eq/> <ci> V </ci> <apply> <plus/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply> </apply>
remains unchanged but the expression can be interpreted properly as vector addition.
There is no requirement to declare an expression to stand for a specific object. For example, the declaration
<declare type="vector"> <ci> A </ci> </declare>
specifies that A is a vector without indicating the number of
components or the values of specific components. The possible values for
the type
attribute include all the predefined
container element names such as vector
, matrix
or set
. (See 4.3.2.9
type
.)
The lambda calculus allows a user to construct a function from a variable and an expression. For example, the lambda construct underlies the common mathematical idiom illustrated here:
Let f be the function taking x to x^{2} + 2
There are various notations for this concept in mathematical literature, such as (x, F(x)) = F or (x, [F] ) = F, where x is a free variable in F.
This concept is implemented in MathML with the lambda
element. A lambda construct with n
internal variables is encoded by a lambda
element
with n+1 children. All but the last child must be bvar
elements containing the identifiers of the
internal variables. The last is an expression defining the function. This
is typically an apply
, but can also be any
container element.
The following constructs (x, sin(x+1)):
<lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply> <sin/> <apply> <plus/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 1 </cn> </apply> </apply> </lambda>
To use declare
and lambda
to construct the function f for which
f( x) = x^{2} + x + 3 use:
<declare type="fn"> <ci> f </ci> <lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply> <plus/> <apply> <power/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 3 </cn> </apply> </lambda> </declare>
The following markup declares and constructs the function J such that J(x, y) is the integral from x to y of t ^{4} with respect to t.
<declare type="fn"> <ci> J </ci> <lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <bvar><ci> y </ci></bvar> <apply> <int/> <bvar> <ci> t </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <ci> x </ci> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> y </ci> </uplimit> <apply> <power/> <ci>t</ci> <cn>4</cn> </apply> </apply> </lambda> </declare>
The function J can then in turn be applied to an argument pair.
The last example of the preceding section illustrates the use of
qualifier elements lowlimit
, uplimit
, and bvar
used in
conjunction with the int
element. A number of
common mathematical constructions involve additional data which is either
implicit in conventional notation, such as a bound variable, or thought of
as part of the operator rather than an argument, as is the case with the
limits of a definite integral.
Content markup uses qualifier elements in conjunction with a number of
operators, including integrals, sums, series, and certain differential
operators. Qualifier elements appear in the same
apply
element with one of these operators. In
general, they must appear in a certain order, and their precise meaning
depends on the operators being used. For details, see section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
The bvar
qualifier element is also used in
another important MathML construction. The condition
element is used to place conditions on bound
variables in other expressions. This allows MathML to define sets by rule,
rather than enumeration, for example. The following markup, for instance,
encodes the set {x  x < 1}:
<set> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 1 </cn> </apply> </condition> </set>
While the primary role of the MathML content element set is to directly encode the mathematical structure of expressions independent of the notation used to present the objects, rendering issues cannot be ignored. Each content element has a default rendering, given in section 4.4. and several mechanisms (including section 4.3.3.2 [General Attributes]) are provided for associating a particular rendering with an object.
Containers provide a means for the construction of mathematical objects of a given type.
Tokens  ci ,
cn
csymbol 
Constructors  interval ,
list ,
matrix ,
matrixrow ,
set ,
vector ,
apply ,
reln ,
lambda ,
fn 
Specials  declare 
Token elements are typically the leaves of the MathML expression tree. Token elements are used to indicate mathematical identifiers, numbers and symbols.
It is also possible for the canonically empty operator elements such as
exp
, sin
and cos
to be leaves in an expression tree. The usage of
operator elements is described in section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers].
cn
element is the MathML token element used
to represent numbers. The supported types of numbers include:
real
,
integer
,
rational
,
complexcartesian
, and
complexpolar
, with
real
being
the default type. A base attribute (defaulting to base 10) is used to help
specify how the content is to be parsed. The content itself is essentially
PCDATA
, separated by <sep/>
when two parts are needed
in order to fully describe a number. For example, the real number 3 is
constructed by <cn type="real"> 3 </cn>
while the
rational number 3/4 is constructed as <cn type="rational">
3<sep/>4 </cn>
The detailed structure and specifications are
provided in section 4.4.1.1 [<cn>
].
ci
element, or `content
identifier' is used to construct a variable, or an identifier. A type
attribute indicates the type of object the symbol
represents. Typically, ci
represents a real scalar,
but no default is
specified. The content is either PCDATA
or a general presentation
construct section 3.1.5 [Summary of Presentation Elements]. For example,
<ci> <msub> <mi>c</mi> <mn>1</mn> </msub> </ci>encodes an atomic symbol which displays visually as c _{1}which, for purposes of content, is treated as a single symbol representing a real number. The detailed structure and specifications is provided in section 4.4.1.2 [
<ci>
].
csymbol
element, or `content
symbol' is used to construct a symbol whose semantics are not part
of the core content elements provided by MathML, but defined externally.
csymbol
does not make any attempt
to describe how to map the arguments occurring in any application of the
function into a new MathML expression. Instead, it depends on its definitionURL
attribute to point to a particular
meaning, and the encoding
attribute to give the
syntax of this definition.
The content of a csymbol
is either PCDATA
or a general presentation
construct section 3.1.5 [Summary of Presentation Elements]. For example,
<csymbol definitionURL="www.vnbooks.com/ContDiffFuncs.htm" encoding="text"> <msup> <mi>C</mi> <mn>2</mn> </msup> </csymbol>encodes an atomic symbol which displays visually as C ^{2} and which, for purposes of content, is treated as a single symbol representing the space of twicedifferentiable continuous functions. The detailed structure and specifications is provided in section 4.4.1.3 [
csymbol
].
MathML provides a number of elements for combining elements into familiar compound objects. The compound objects include things like lists, sets. Each constructor produces a new type of object.
interval
element is described in detail in
section 4.4.2.4 [<interval>
]. It denotes an interval on the
real line with the values represented by its children as end points. The
closure
attribute is used to qualify the type of
interval being represented. For example,
<interval closure="openclosed"> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </interval>represents the openclosed interval often written (a,b].
set
and list
elements are described in detail in section 4.4.6.1 [<set>
] and
section 4.4.6.2 [<list>
]. Typically, the child elements of a possibly
empty list
element are the actual components of
an ordered list. For example, an ordered list of the three symbols
a, b, and c is encoded as
<list> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> <ci> c </ci> </list>Alternatively,
bvar
and condition
elements can be used to define lists where
membership depends on satisfying certain conditions.
An order
attribute which is used to specify what
ordering is to be used. When the nature of the child elements permits, the
ordering defaults to a numeric or lexicographic ordering.
Sets are structured much the same as lists except that there is no
implied ordering and the type
of set may be normal
or multiset
with
`multiset' indicating that repetitions are allowed.
For both sets and lists, the child elements must be valid MathML content
elements. The type of the child elements is not restricted. For example,
one might construct a list of equations, or inequalities.
matrix
element is used to represent
mathematical matrices. It is described in detail in section 4.4.10.2 [<matrix>
]. It has zero or more child elements,
all of which are matrixrow
elements. These in turn
expect zero or more child elements which evaluate to algebraic expressions
or numbers. These subelements are often real numbers, or symbols as in
<matrix> <matrixrow> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> </matrixrow> <matrixrow> <cn> 3 </cn> <cn> 4 </cn> </matrixrow> </matrix>The
matrixrow
elements must always be contained
inside of a matrix and all matrixrow
s in a given
matrix must have the same number of elements.
Note that the behavior of the matrix
and matrixrow
elements is substantially different from the
mtable
and mtr
presentation
elements.
vector
element is described in detail in
section 4.4.10.1 [<vector>
]. It constructs vectors from a
ndimensional vector space so that its n child elements typically
represent real or complex valued scalars as in the threeelement vector
<vector> <apply> <plus/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply> <cn> 3 </cn> <cn> 7 </cn> </vector>
apply
element is described in detail in
section 4.4.2.1 [<apply>
]. Its purpose is apply a
function or operator to its arguments to produce an an expression
representing an element of the range of the function. It is involved in
everything from forming sums such as a + b as in
<apply> <plus/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>through to using the sine function to construct sin( a) as in
<apply><sin/> <ci> a </ci> </apply>or constructing integrals. Its usage in any particular setting is determined largely by the properties of the function (the first child element) and as such its detailed usage is covered together with the functions and operators in section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers].
reln
element is described in detail in
section 4.4.2.2 [<reln>
]. It was used in MathML1.0 to
construct an expression such as a = b, as in
<apply><eq/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>indicating an intended comparison between two mathematical values. MathML2.0 takes the view that this should be regarded as the application of a boolean function, and as such could be constructed using
apply
. The use of reln
with logical operators
is supported for reasons of backwards compatibility, but deprecated in
favour of apply
.
fn
element was used in MathML 1.0 to
make explicit the fact that an expression is being used as a function
or operator. This is allowed in MathML 2.0 for backwards compatibility,
but is deprecated, as the use of an expression as a function or operator
is clear from its position as the first child of an
apply
. fn
is discussed
in detail in section 4.4.2.3 [<fn>
].
lambda
element is used to construct an
userdefined function from an expression and one or more free
variables. The lambda construct with n internal variables takes
n+1 children. The first (second, up to n) is a bvar
containing the identifiers of the internal
variables. The last is an expression defining the function. This is
typically an apply
, but can also be any container
element. The following constructs lambda(x, sin x)
<lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply> <sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </lambda>The following constructs the constant function (x, 3)
<lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <cn> 3 </cn> </lambda>
The declare
construct is described in detail in
section 4.4.2.8 [<declare>
]. It is special in that its
entire purpose is to modify the semantics of other objects. It is not
rendered visually or aurally.
The need for declarations arises any time a symbol (including more general presentations) is being used to represent an instance of an object of a particular type. For example, you may wish to declare that the symbolic identifier V represents a vector.
The declaration
<declare type="vector"><ci>V</ci></declare>
resets the default type attribute of <ci>V</ci>
to
vector
for all affected occurrences of
<ci>V</ci>
. This avoids having to write
<ci type="vector">V</ci>
every time you use the
symbol.
More generally, declare
can be used to associate
expressions with specific content. For example, the declaration
<declare> <ci>F</ci> <lambda> <bvar><ci> U </ci></bvar> <apply><int/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <lowlimit><cn> 0 </cn></lowlimit> <uplimit><ci> a </ci></uplimit> <ci> U </ci> </apply> </lambda> </declare>
associates the symbol F with a new function defined by the lambda
construct. Within the scope where the
declaration is in effect, the expression
<apply><ci>F</ci> <ci> U </ci> </apply>
stands for the integral of U from 0 to a.
The declare
element can also be used to change
the definition of a function or operator. For example, if the URL
http://.../MathML:noncommutplus
described a noncommutative
plus operation encoded in Maple syntax, then the declaration
<declare definitionURL="http://.../MathML:noncommutplus" encoding="Maple V"> <plus/> </declare>
would indicate that all affected uses of plus
are to
be interpreted as having that definition of plus
.
unary arithmetic  exp ,
factorial ,
abs ,
conjugate
arg
real
imaginary

unary logical 
not

unary functional  inverse ,
ident 
unary elemtary classical funtional  sin ,
cos ,
tan ,
sec ,
csc ,
cot ,
sinh ,
cosh ,
tanh ,
sech ,
csch ,
coth ,
arcsin ,
arccos ,
arctan
arccosh
arccot
arccoth
arccsc
arccsch
arcsec
arcsech
arcsinh
arctanh
exp ,
ln ,
log

unary linear algebra  determinant ,
transpose 
unary calculus and vector calculus 
divergence ,
grad
curl ,
laplacian

unary settheoretic 
card

binary arithmetic  quotient ,
divide ,
minus ,
power ,
rem 
binary logical 
implies
equivalent
approx

binary set operators  setdiff 
binary linear algebra 
vectorproduct
scalarproduct
outerproduct

nary arithmetic  plus ,
times ,
max ,
min ,
gcd 
nary statistical  mean ,
sdev ,
variance ,
median ,
mode 
nary logical  and ,
or ,
xor 
nary linear algebra  selector 
nary set operator  union ,
intersect 
nary functional  fn ,
compose 
integral, sum, product operator  int ,
sum ,
product 
differential operator  diff ,
partialdiff 
quantifier  forall ,
exists 
From the point of view of usage, MathML regards functions (for example
sin
, cos
) and operators
(for example plus
, times
)
in the same way. MathML predefined functions and operators are all
canonically empty elements.
Note: The csymbol
element can be used to
construct a userdefined symbol which can be used as a function or
operator.
MathML functions can be used in two ways. They can be used as the
operator within an apply
element, in which case
they refer to a function evaluated at a specific value. For example,
<apply><sin/><cn>5</cn></apply>
denotes a real number, namely sin(5).
MathML functions can also be used as arguments to other operators, for example
<apply> <plus/><sin/><cos/> </apply>
denotes a function, namely the result of adding the sine and cosine
functions in some function space. (The default semantic definition of plus
is such that it infers what kind of operation is
intended from the type of its arguments.)
The number of child elements in the apply
is
defined by the element in the first (i.e. operator) position.
Unary operators are followed by exactly one other child
element within the apply
.
Binary operators are followed by exactly two child elements.
Nary operators are followed by zero or more child elements.
The one exception to these rules is that declare
elements may be inserted in any position except
the first. declare
elements are not counted when
satisfying the child element count for an apply
containing a unary or binary operator element.
Integral, sum, product and differential operators are discussed below in Operators taking Qualifiers section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
qualifiers  lowlimit ,
uplimit ,
bvar ,
degree ,
logbase ,
interval ,
condition 
operators  int ,
sum ,
product ,
root ,
diff ,
partialdiff ,
limit ,
log ,
moment ,
min ,
max ,
forall ,
exists 
Operators taking qualifiers are canonically empty functions which differ
from ordinary empty functions only in that they support the use of special
qualifier elements to specify their meaning more fully. They
are used in exactly the same way as ordinary operators, except that when
they are used as operators, certain qualifier elements are also permitted
to be in the enclosing apply
. They always precede
the argument if it is present. If more than one qualifier is present, they
appear in the order
bvar
,
lowlimit
,
uplimit
,
interval
,
condition
,
degree
,
logbase
.
A typical example is:
<apply> <int/> <bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar> <lowlimit><cn>0</cn></lowlimit> <uplimit><cn>1</cn></uplimit> <apply> <power/> <ci>x</ci> <cn>2</cn> </apply> </apply>
It is also valid to use qualifier schema with a function not applied to an argument. For example, a function acting on integrable functions on the interval [0,1] might be denoted:
<fn> <apply> <int/> <bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar> <lowlimit><cn>0</cn></lowlimit> <uplimit><cn>1</cn></uplimit> </apply> </fn>
The meaning and usage of qualifier schema varies from function to function. The following list summarizes the usage of qualifier schema with the MathML functions taking qualifiers.
int
function accepts the
lowlimit
,
uplimit
,
bvar
,
interval
and
condition
schema. If both
lowlimit
and
uplimit
schema are present,
they denote the limits of a definite integral. The domain of integration
may alternatively be specified using interval or condition. The bvar
schema signifies the variable of integration. When
used with int
, each qualifier schema is expected to
contain a single child schema; otherwise an error is generated.
diff
function accepts the
bvar
schema. The
bvar
schema specifies with respect to
which variable the derivative is being taken. The bvar
may itself contain a degree
schema which is used to specify the order of the
derivative, i.e. a first derivative, a second derivative, etc. For example,
the second derivative of f with respect to x is:
<apply><diff/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> <degree> <cn> 2 </cn> </degree> </bvar> <apply><fn><ci>f</ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
partialdiff
function accepts zero or more
bvar
schema. The bvar
schema specify with respect to which variables the derivative is being
taken. The bvar
elements may themselves contain degree
schema which are used to specify the order of
the derivative. Variables specified by multiple bvar
elements will be used in order as the variable of
differentiation in mixed partials. When used with partialdiff
, the degree
schema
is expected to contain a single child schema. For example,
<apply> <partialdiff/> <bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar> <bvar><ci>y</ci></bvar> <fn><ci>f</ci></fn> </apply>denote the mixed partial (d^{2} / dxdy)f.
sum
and product
functions accept the bvar
, lowlimit
, uplimit
, interval
and condition
schema. If both lowlimit
and uplimit
schema are present, they denote the limits of
the sum/product. The limits may alternatively be specified using the interval
or condition
schema. The bvar
schema signifies the index
variable in the sum or product. A typical example might be:
<apply> <sum/> <bvar><ci>i</ci></bvar> <lowlimit><cn>0</cn></lowlimit> <uplimit><cn>100</cn></uplimit> <apply> <power/> <ci>x</ci> <ci>i</ci> </apply> </apply>When used with
sum
or product
, each qualifier schema is expected to contain a
single child schema; otherwise an error is generated.
limit
function accepts zero or more bvar
schema and optional condition
and lowlimit
schema. A condition
may be used to place
constraints on the bvar
. The bvar
schema denotes the variable with respect to which
the limit is being taken. The lowlimit
schema
denotes the limit point. When used with limit
, the
bvar
and lowlimit
schemata
are expected to contain a single child schema; otherwise an error is
generated.
log
function accepts only the logbase
schema. If present, the logbase
schema denotes the base with respect to which
the logarithm is being taken. Otherwise, the log is assumed to be base
10. When used with log
, the logbase
schema is expected to contain a single child
schema; otherwise an error is generated.
moment
function accepts only degree
schema. If present, the degree
schema denotes the order of the
moment. Otherwise, the moment is assumed to be the first order moment. When
used with moment
, the degree
schema is expected to contain a single child
schema; otherwise an error is generated.
min
and max
functions accept a bvar
schema in cases where the
max or min is being taken over a set of values specified by a condition
schema together with an expression to be
evaluated on that set. The min
and max
functions are unique in that they provide the only
context in which the bvar
element is optional when
using a condition
; if a condition
element containing a single variable is given
by itself following a min
or max
operator, the variable is implicitly assumed to be
bound, and the expression to be maximized or minimized is assumed to be the
identity.
The min
and max
elements
may also be applied to a list of values in which case no qualifier schemata
are used. For examples of all three usages, see section 4.4.3.4 [<max/>
and
<min/>
].
forall
and exists
are used
conjuction with one or more bvar
schemata to
represent simple logical assertions. There are two ways of using the
logical quantifier operators. The first usage is for representing a simple,
quantified assertion. For example, the statement `there exists
x< 9' would be represented as:
<apply> <exists/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci><cn> 9 </cn> </apply> </apply>The second usage is for representing implications. Hypotheses are given by a
condition
element following the bound variables.
For example the statement `for all x < 9, x <
10' would be represented as:
<apply> <forall/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci><cn> 9 </cn> </apply> </condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci><cn> 10 </cn> </apply> </apply>Note, in both usages one or more
bvar
qualifier is
mandatory.
binary relation 
neq
equivalent
approx

binary logical relation  implies 
binary set relation  in ,
notin ,
notsubset ,
notprsubset 
binary series relation  tendsto 
nary relation  eq ,
leq ,
lt ,
geq ,
gt 
nary set relation  subset ,
prsubset 
The MathML content tags include a number of canonically empty elements which denote arithmetic and logical relations. Relations are characterized by the fact that, if an external application were to evaluate them (MathML does not specify how to evaluate expressions), they would typically return a truth value. By contrast, operators generally return a value of the same type as the operands. For example, the result of evaluating a < b is either true or false (by contrast, 1 + 2 is again a number).
Relations are bracketed with their arguments using the apply
element in the same way as other functions. In
MathML1.0, relational operators were bracketed using reln
. This usage, although still supported, is now
deprecated in favour of apply
The relational operator element is
the first child element of the apply
. Thus, the
example from the preceding paragraph is properly marked up as:
<apply> <lt/> <ci>a</ci> <ci>b</ci> </apply>
It is an error to enclose a relation in an element other than
apply
or reln
.
The number of child elements in the appy
is
defined by the element in the first (i.e. relation) position.
Unary relations are followed by exactly one other child
element within the apply
.
Binary relations are followed by exactly two child elements.
Nary relations are followed by zero or more child elements.
The one exception to these rules is that declare
elements may be inserted in any position except
the first. declare
elements are not counted when
satisfying the child element count for an apply
containing a unary or binary relation element.
condition  condition 
The condition
element is used to define the
`such that' construct in mathematical expressions. Condition
elements are used in a number of contexts in MathML. They are used to
construct objects like sets and lists by rule instead of by
enumeration. They can be used with the forall
and
exists
operators to form logical expressions. And
finally, they can be used in various ways in conjunction with certain
operators. For example, they can be used with and int
element to specify domains of integration, or to
specify argument lists for operators like min
and
max
.
The condition
element is always used together
with one or more bvar
elements.
section 4.4.3.4 [
<max/>
and
<min/>
].
The exact interpretation depends on the context, but generally speaking,
the condition
element is used to restrict the
permissible values of a bound variable appearing in another expression to
those which satisfy the relations contained in the condition
. Similarly, when the condition
element contains a set
, the values of the bound variables are restricted
to that set.
A condition element contains a single child which is typically a reln
element, but may also be an apply
or a set
element. The apply
element is allowed so that several relations can
be combined by applying logical operators.
The following encodes `there exists x such that x ^{5} < 3'.
<apply><exists/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><lt/> <apply> <power/> <ci>x</ci> <cn>5</cn> </apply> <cn>3</cn> </apply> </condition> </apply>
The next example encodes `for all x, y such that x^{y} < 1 and y^{x} < x + y, x < Q(y)'.
<apply><forall/> <bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar> <bvar><ci>y</ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><and/> <apply> <lt/> <apply> <power/> <ci>x</ci> <ci>y</ci> </apply> <cn>1</cn> </apply> <apply> <lt/> <apply> <power/> <ci>y</ci> <ci>x</ci> </apply> <apply> <plus/> <ci>y</ci> <ci>x</ci> </apply> </apply> </apply> </condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci> <apply> <fn><ci> x </ci></fn> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
A third example shows the use of quantifiers with condition
. The following markup encodes `there exists
x < 3 such that x^{2} = 4'.
<apply> <exists/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><lt/><ci>x</ci><cn>3</cn></apply> </condition> <apply> <eq/> <apply> <power/><ci>x</ci><cn>2</cn> </apply> <cn>4</cn> </apply> </apply>
mappings  semantics ,
annotation ,
annotationxml 
The use of content rather than presentation tagging for mathematics is sometimes referred to as semantic tagging [Buswell1996]. The parsetree of a fully bracketed MathML content tagged element structure corresponds directly to the expressiontree of the underlying mathematical expression. We therefore regard the content tagging itself as encoding the syntax of the mathematical expression. This is, in general, sufficient to obtain some rendering and even some symbolic manipulation (e.g. polynomial factorization).
However, even in such apparently simple expressions as X +
Y, some additional information may be required for applications
such as computer algebra. Are X and Y integers, or
functions, etc.? `Plus' represents addition over which field?
This additional information is referred to as semantic
mapping. In MathML, this mapping is provided by the semantics
, annotation
and annotationxml
elements.
The semantics
element is the container element
for the MathML expression together with its semantic mappings. semantics
expects a variable number of child
elements. The first is the element (which may itself be a complex element
structure) for which this additional semantic information is being
defined. The second and subsequent children, if any, are instances of the
elements annotation
and/or annotationxml
.
The semantics
tags also accepts the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes for use by external processing
applications. One use might be a URI for a semantic content
dictionary, for example. Since the semantic mapping information might in
some cases be provided entirely by the definitionURL
attribute, the annotation
or annotationxml
elements are optional.
The annotation
element is a container for
arbitrary data. This data may be in the form of text, computer algebra
encodings, C programs, or whatever a processing application expects. annotation
has an attribute encoding
defining the form in use. Note that the content
model of annotation
is PCDATA
, so care must be
taken that the particular encoding does not conflict with XML parsing
rules.
The annotationxml
element is a container for
semantic information in wellformed XML. For example, an XML form of the
OpenMath semantics could be given. Another possible use here is to embed,
for example, the presentation tag form of a construct given in content tag
form in the first child element of semantics
(or
vice versa). annotationxml
has an attribute encoding
defining the form in use.
For example:
<semantics> <apply> <divide/> <cn>123</cn> <cn>456</cn> </apply> <annotation encoding="Mathematica"> N[123/456, 39] </annotation> <annotation encoding="TeX"> $0.269736842105263157894736842105263157894\ldots$ </annotation> <annotation encoding="Maple"> evalf(123/456, 39); </annotation> <annotationxml encoding="MathMLPresentation"> <mrow> <mn> 0.269736842105263157894 </mn> <mover accent='true'> <mn> 736842105263157894 </mn> <mo> ‾ </mo> </mover> </mrow> </annotationxml> <annotationxml encoding="OpenMath"> <OMA>...</OMA> </annotationxml> </semantics>
where <OMA>..</OMA> are the elements defining the additional semantic information.
Of course, providing an explicit semantic mapping at all is optional, and in general would only be provided where there is some requirement to process or manipulate the underlying mathematics.
Although semantic mappings can easily be provided by various
proprietary, or highly specialized encodings, there are no widely
available, nonproprietary standard semantic mapping schemes. In part to
address this need, the goal of the OpenMath effort is to provide a
platformindependent, vendorneutral standard for the exchange of
mathematical objects between applications. Such mathematical objects
include semantic mapping information. The OpenMath group has defined an
SGML syntax for the encoding of this information [OpenMath1996]. This element set could provide the basis of
one annotationxml
element set.
An attraction of this mechanism is that the OpenMath syntax is specified in XML, so that a MathML expression together with its semantic annotations can be validated using XML parsers.
MathML functions, operators, and relations can all be thought of as mathematical functions if viewed in a sufficiently abstract way. For example, the standard addition operator can be regarded as a function mapping pairs of real numbers to real numbers. Similarly, a relation can be thought of as a function from some space of ordered pairs into the set of values {true, false}. To be mathematically meaningful, the domain and range of a function must be precisely specified. In practical terms, this means that functions only make sense when applied to certain kinds of operands. For example, thinking of the standard addition operator, it makes no sense to speak of `adding' a set to a function. Since MathML content markup seeks to encode mathematical expressions in a way that can be unambiguously evaluated, it is no surprise that the types of operands is an issue.
MathML specifies the types of arguments in two ways. The first way is by
providing precise instructions for processing applications about the kinds
of arguments expected by the MathML content elements denoting functions,
operators and relations. These operand types are defined in a dictionary of
Default Semantic Bindings for Content Elements given in appendix D [Content Element Definitions].
For example, the MathML Content
dictionary specifies that for real scalar arguments the plus operator is
the standard commutative addition operator over a field. Elements such as
cn
and ci
have type
attributes with default values of real
. Thus some processors will be able to use this
information to verify the validity of the indicated operations.
Although MathML specifies the types of arguments for functions, operators and relations, and provides a mechanism for typing arguments, a MathML compliant processor is not required to do any type checking. In other words, a MathML processor will not generate errors if argument types are incorrect. If the processor is a computer algebra system, it may be unable to evaluate an expression, but no MathML error is generated.
Content element attributes are all of the type CDATA,
that is, any
character string will be accepted as valid. In addition, each attribute has
a list of predefined values, which a content processor is expected to
recognize and process. The reason that the attribute values are not
formally restricted to the list of predefined values is to allow for
extension. A processor encountering a value (not in the predefined list)
which it does not recognize may validly process it as the default value for
that attribute.
Each attribute is followed by the elements to which it can be applied.
base
10
closure
open
,
closed
,
openclosed
,
closedopen
.
default is closed
definitionURL
definitionURL
attribute would be some standard,
machinereadable format. However, there are several reasons why MathML does
not require such a format.
First, no such format currently exists. There are several projects
underway to develop and implement standard semantic encoding formats, most
notably the OpenMath effort. But by nature, the development of a
comprehensive system of semantic encoding is a very large enterprise, and
while much work has been done, much additional work remains. Therefore,
even though the definitionURL
is designed and
intended for use with a formal semantic encoding language such as OpenMath,
it is premature to require any one particular format.
Another reason for leaving the format of the definitionURL
attribute unspecified is that there will
always be situations where some nonstandard format is preferable. This is
particularly true in situations where authors are describing new ideas.
It is anticipated that in the near term, there will be a variety of
rendererdependent implementations of the
definitionURL
attribute. For example, a translation tool might
simply prompt the user with the specified definition in situations where
the proper semantics have been overridden, and in this case, humanreadable
definitions will be most useful. Other software may utilize OpenMath
encodings. Still other software may use proprietary encodings, or look for
definitions in any of several formats.
As a consequence, authors need to be aware that there is no guarantee a
generic renderer will be able to take advantage of information pointed to
by the definitionURL
attribute. Of course, when
widelyaccepted standardized semantic encodings are available, the
definitions pointed to can be replaced without modifying the original
document. However, this is likely to be labor intensive.
There is no default value for the definitionURL
attribute, i.e. the semantics are defined within the MathML fragment,
and/or by the MathML default semantics.
encoding
csymbol
, semantics
and operator elements, the syntax of
the target referred to by
definitionURL
. Predefined values are
MathMLPresentation
,
MathMLContent
.
Other typical values:
TeX
,
OpenMath
.
default is "", i.e. unspecified.
<nargs>
nary
, any numeric string.
default is 1
<occurrence>
prefix
,
infix
,
functionmodel
.
default is functionmodel
<order>
lexicographic
,
numeric
.
default is numeric
<scope>
local
,
global
.
local
means the containing MathML element.
global
means the containing
math
element.
local
.
At present, declarations cannot affect anything outside of the
containing math
element. Ideally, one would like
to make documentwide declarations by setting the value of the
scope
attribute to be
globaldocument
. However, the proper mechanism for
documentwide declarations very much depends on details of the way in which
XML will be embedded in HTML, future XML style sheet mechanisms, and the
underlying Document Object Model.
Since these supporting technologies are still in flux at present, the
MathML specification does not include
globaldocument
as a predefined value of the
scope
attribute. It is anticipated, however, that this issue
will be revisited in future revisions of MathML as supporting technologies
stabilize. In the near term, MathML implementors that wish to simulate the
effect of a documentwide declaration are encouraged to preprocess
documents in order to distribute documentwide declarations to each
individual math
element in the document.
<type>
integer
,
rational
,
real
,
float
,
complex
,
complexpolar
,
complexcartesian
,
constant
.
default is real
.
Notes: Each data type implies that the data adheres to
certain formating conventions, detailed below. If the data fails to conform
to the expected format, an error is generated. Details of the individual
formats are:
real
: A real number is presented in decimal
notation. Decimal notation consists of an optional sign ( `+'
or `') followed by a string of digits possibly separated into
an integer and a fractional part by a `decimal point'. Some
examples are 0.3, 1, and 31.56. If a different
base
is specified, then the digits are interpreted as being
digits computed to that base.
A real number may also be presented in scientific notation. Such numbers
have two parts (a mantissa and an exponent) separated by e. The first part
is a real number while the second part is an integer exponent indicating a
power of the base. For example, 12.3e5 represents 12.3 times 10^5.
integer
: An integer is represented by an
optional sign followed by a string of 1 or more `digits'. What
a `digit' is depends on the base
attribute. If base
is present, it specifies the
base for the digit encoding, and it specifies it base ten. Thus
base
='16' specifies a hex encoding. When
base
> 10, letters are added in alphabetical order as
digits. The legitimate values for base
are
therefore between 2 and 36.
rational
: A rational number is two integers
separated by the <sep/>
element.
If base
is present, it specifies the base used for
the digit encoding of both integers.
complexcartesian
: A complex number is of the
form two real point numbers separated by
<sep/>
.
complexpolar
: A complex number is specified in
the form of a magnitude and an angle (in radians). The raw data is in the
form of two real numbers separated by <sep/>
.
constant
: The constant
type is used to denote named constants. For example, an instance of
<cn type="constant">π</cn>
should be interpreted
as having the semantics of the mathematical constant Pi. The data for a
constant cn
tag may be one of the following
common constants:
Symbol  Value 
π 
The usual
π of trigonometry: approximately 3.141592653... 
ⅇ (or
ⅇ ) 
The base for natural logarithms: approximately 2.718281828 ... 
ⅈ (or
ⅈ ) 
Square root of 1. 
γ 
Euler's constant: approximately 0.5772156649... 
∞ (or
&infty; ) 
Infinity. Proper interpretation varies with context 
&true; 
the logical constant `true' 
&false; 
the logical constant `false' 
&NotANumber; (or
&NaN; ) 
represents the result of an illdefined floating point division 
integer
,
rational
,
real
,
float
,
complex
,
complexpolar
,
complexcartesian
,
constant
, any content element name. The meaning of
the various attribute values is the same as that listed above for the cn
element.
default is "" , i.e. unspecified.
ci
, i.e. a generic identifier
normal
, multiset
.
multiset
indicates that repetitions are allowed.
default is normal
.
above
,
below
, twosided
.
default is above
.
<type>
The type
attribute, in addition to conveying
semantic information, can be interpreted to provide rendering
information. For example in
<ci type="vector">V</ci>
a renderer could display a bold V for the vector.
All content elements support the following general attributes which can be used to modify the rendering of the markup.
class
style
id
other
The class
, style
and id
attributes are intended for compatibility with
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), as described in section 2.3.4 [Attributes Shared by all MathML Elements].
Content or semantic tagging goes along with the (frequently implicit) premise that, if you know the semantics, you can always work out a presentation form. When an author's main goal is to mark up reusable, evaluatable mathematical expressions, the exact rendering of the expression is probably not critical, provided that it is easily understandable. However, when an author's goal is more along the lines of providing enough additional semantic information to make a document more accessible by facilitating better visual rendering, voice rendering, or specialized processing, controlling the exact notation used becomes more of an issue.
MathML elements accept an attribute other
(see
section 7.2.3 [An Attribute for Unspecified Data]) which can be used to specify things
not specifically documented in MathML. On content tags, this attribute can
be used by an author to express a preference between
equivalent forms for a particular content element construct, where the
selection of the presentation has nothing to do with the
semantics. Examples might be
Thus, if a particular renderer recognized a display attribute to select between script style and display style fractions, an author might write
<apply other='display="scriptstyle"'> <divide/> <mn> 1 </mn> <mi> x </mi> </apply>
to indicate that the rendering 1/x is preferred.
The information provided in the other
attribute
is intended for use by specific renderers or processors, and therefore, the
permitted values are determined by the renderer being used. It is legal for
a renderer to ignore this information. This might be intentional, in the
case of a publisher imposing a house style, or simply because the renderer
does not understand them, or is unable to carry them out.
This section provides detailed descriptions of the MathML content tags. They are grouped in categories which broadly reflect the area of mathematics from which they come, and also the grouping in the MathML DTD. There is no linguistic difference in MathML between operators and functions. Their separation here and in the DTD is for reasons of historical usage.
When working with the content elements, it can be useful to keep in mind the following.
The available content elements are:
cn
ci
csymbol
(MathML 2.0)apply
reln
(deprecated)fn
(deprecated for externally defined functions)interval
inverse
sep
condition
declare
lambda
compose
ident
quotient
exp
factorial
divide
max
and min
minus
plus
power
rem
times
root
gcd
and
or
xor
not
implies
forall
exists
abs
conjugate
arg
(MathML 2.0)real
(MathML 2.0)imaginary
(MathML 2.0)eq
neq
gt
lt
geq
leq
equivalent
(MathML 2.0)approx
(MathML 2.0)int
diff
partialdiff
lowlimit
uplimit
bvar
degree
divergence
(MathML 2.0)grad
(MathML 2.0)curl
(MathML 2.0)laplacian
(MathML 2.0)set
list
union
intersect
in
notin
subset
prsubset
notsubset
notprsubset
setdiff
card
(MathML 2.0)sum
product
limit
tendsto
exp
ln
log
sin
cos
tan
sec
csc
cot
sinh
cosh
tanh
sech
csch
coth
arcsin
arccos
arctan
arccosh
arccot
arccoth
arccsc
arccsch
arcsec
arcsech
arcsinh
arctanh
mean
sdev
variance
median
mode
moment
vector
matrix
matrixrow
determinant
transpose
selector
vectorproduct
(MathML 2.0)scalarproduct
(MathML 2.0)outerproduct
(MathML 2.0)annotation
semantics
annotationxml
<cn>
The cn
element is used to specify actual
numerical constants. The content model must provide sufficient information
that a number may be entered as data into a computational system. By
default, it represents a signed real number in base 10. Thus, the content
normally consists of PCDATA
restricted to a sign, a string of decimal
digits and possibly a decimal point, or alternatively one of the predefined
symbolic constants such as π
.
The cn
element uses the attribute type
to represent other types of numbers such as
integer, rational, real, complex etc. and base
to
specify the numerical base.
In addition to simple PCDATA
, cn
accepts as
content PCDATA
separated by the (empty) element sep
. This determines the different parts needed to
construct a rational or complexcartesian number.
Alternative input notations for numbers are possible, but must be
explicitly defined by using the definitionURL
and encoding
attributes to refer to a written specification of how a <sep/>
separated sequence of real numbers is to be
interpreted.
All attributes are CDATA
:
type
:
real
,
integer
,
rational
,
complexcartesian
,
complexpolar
,
constant
base
:
number (CDATA
for XML DTD) between 2 and 36.
definitionURL
:
URI pointing to an alternative definition.
encoding
:
syntax of the alternative definition.
<cn type="real"> 12345.7 </cn> <cn type="integer"> 12345 </cn> <cn type="integer" base="16"> AB3 </cn> <cn type="rational"> 12342 <sep/> 2342342 </cn> <cn type="complexcartesian"> 12.3 <sep/> 5 </cn> <cn type="complexpolar"> 2 <sep/> 3.1415 </cn> <cn type="constant"> π </cn>
By default, contiguous blocks of
PCDATA
contained in
cn
elements should render as if it were wrapped in an
mn
presentation element. Similarly, presentation markup contained in a
cn
element should render as it normally would. A mixture of
PCDATA
and presentation markup should render as if it were contained wrapped in an
mrow
element, with contiguous blocks of
PCDATA
wrapped in
mn
elements.
However, not all mathematical systems that encounter content based tagging do visual or aural rendering. The receiving applications are free to make use of a number in the manner it normally handles numerical data. Some systems might simplify the rational number 12342/2342342 to 6171/1171171 while pure floating point based systems might approximate this as 0.5269085385e2. All numbers might be reexpressed in base 10. The role of MathML is simply to record enough information about the mathematical object and its structure so that it may be properly parsed.
The following renderings of the above MathML expressions are included both to help clarify the meaning of the corresponding MathML encoding and as suggestions for authors of rendering applications. In each case, no mathematical evaluation is intended or implied.
<ci>
The
ci
element is used to name an identifier in a MathML expression (for example a variable). Such names are used to identify mathematical objects. By default they are assumed to represent complex scalars. The
ci
element may contain arbitrary presentation markup in its content (see
chapter 3 [Presentation Markup]) so that its presentation as a symbol can be very elaborate.
The
ci
element uses the
type
attribute to specify the type of object that it represents. Valid types include
integer
,
rational
,
real
,
float
,
complex
,
complexpolar
,
complexcartesian
,
constant
, and more generally, any of the names of the MathML container elements (e.g.
vector
) or their type values. The
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes can be used to extend the definition of
ci
to include other types. For example, a more advanced use might require a
complexvector
.
1. <ci> x </ci> 2. <ci type="vector"> V </ci> 3. <ci> <msub> <mi>x</mi> <mi>a</mi> </msub> </ci>
If the content of a ci
element is tagged using
presentation tags, that presentation is used. If no such tagging is
supplied then the PCDATA
content would typically be rendered as if it were
the content of an mi
element. A renderer may wish
to make use of the value of the type attribute to improve on this. For
example, a symbol of type vector
might be rendered
using a bold face. Typical renderings of the above symbols are:
csymbol
The csymbol
element allows a writer to create an
element in MathML whose semantics are externally defined (i.e. not in the
core MathML content). The element can then be used in a MathML expression
as for example an operator or constant. Attributes are used to give the
syntax and location of the external definition of the symbol semantics.
All attributes are CDATA
:
definitionURL
: pointer to external
definition of the semantics of the symbol. MathML does not specify a
particular syntax in which this definition should be written.encoding
: gives the syntax of the
definition pointed to by definitionURL. An application can then test the
value of this attribute to determine whether it is able to process the
target of the definitionURL
. This syntax might be
text, or a formal syntax such as OpenMath.
<! reference to OpenMath formal syntax definition of Bessel function > <apply> <csymbol encoding="OpenMath" definitionURL="www.openmath.org/cds/BesselFunctions.ocd"> <msub><mi>J</mi><mn>0</mn></msub> </csymbol> <ci>y</ci> </apply> <! reference to human readable text description of Boltzmann's constant > <csymbol encoding="text" definitionURL="www.uni.edu/universalconstants/Boltzmann.htm"> k </csymbol>
By default, a contiguous block of PCDATA
contained in a csymbol
element should render as if it were wrapped in
an mo
presentation element. Similarly, presentation
markup contained in a csymbol
element should render
as it normally would. A mixture of PCDATA
and presentation markup should
render as if it were contained wrapped in an mrow
element, with contiguous blocks of PCDATA
wrapped in mo
elements. The examples above would render by default
as
As csymbol
is used to support reference to
externally defined semantics, it is a MathML error to have embedded content
MathML elements within the csymbol
element.
<apply>
The apply
element allows a function or operator
to be applied to its arguments. Nearly all expression construction in
MathML content markup is carried out by applying operators or functions to
arguments. The first child of apply
is the
operator, to be applied, with the other child elements as arguments.
The apply
element is conceptually necessary in
order to distinguish between a function or operator, and an instance of its
use. The expression constructed by applying a function to 0 or more
arguments is always an element from the range of the function.
Proper usage depends on the operator that is being applied. For example,
the plus
operator may have zero or more arguments.
while the minus
operator requires one or two arguments
to be properly formed.
If the object being applied as a function is not already one of the
elements known to be a function (such as fn
, sin
or plus
) then it is treated
as if it were the contents of an fn
element.
Some operators such as diff
and int
make use of `named' arguments. These
special arguments are elements that appear as children of the apply
element and identify `parameters'
such as the variable of differentiation or the domain of integration.
These elements are discussed further in section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
1. <apply><factorial/> <cn>3</cn> </apply> 2. <apply><plus/> <cn>3</cn> <cn>4</cn> </apply> 3. <apply><sin/> <ci>x</ci> </apply>
A mathematical system which has been passed an apply
element is free to do with it whatever it
normally does with such mathematical data. It may be that no rendering is
involved (e.g. a syntax validator), or that the `function
application' is evaluated and that only the result is rendered (e.g.
).
When an unevaluated `function application' is rendered
there are a wide variety of appropriate renderings. The choice often
depends on the function or operator being applied. Applications of basic
operations such as plus
are generally presented
using an infix notation while applications of sin
would use a more traditional functional notation such as
sin (x). Consult the `default rendering' for the
operator being applied.
Applications of userdefined functions (see csymbol
, fn
) which are not
evaluated by the receiving or rendering application would typically render
using a traditional functional notation unless an alternative presentation
is specified using the semantics
tag.
<reln>
The reln
element was used in MathML 1.0 to
construct an equation or relation. Relations were constructed in a manner
exactly analogous to the use of apply
. This usage
is deprecated in MathML 2.0 in favour of the more generally usable apply
.
The first child of reln
is the relational
operator, to be applied, with the other child elements as arguments.
See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further details.
<apply><eq/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply> <apply><lt/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
<fn>
The fn
element makes explicit the fact that a
more general (possibly constructed) MathML object is being used in the same
manner as if it were a predefined function such as sin
or plus
.
In MathML1.0, fn
was also the primary mechanism
used to extend the collection of `known' mathematical
functions. This usage is now deprecated in favour of the more generally
applicable csymbol
element. (New functions may also
be introduced by using declare
in conjunction with
a lambda
expression.)
1. <fn><ci> L </ci> </fn> 2. <apply> <fn> <apply> <plus/> <ci> f </ci> <ci> g </ci> </apply> </fn> <ci>z</ci> </apply>
An fn
object is rendered in the same way as its content.
A rendering application may add additional adornments such as
+parentheses to clarify the meaning.
<interval>
The interval
element is used to represent simple
mathematical intervals of the real number line. It takes an attribute
closure
which can take on any of the values
open
, closed
,
openclosed
, or
closedopen
, with a default value of
closed
.
More general domains are constructed by using the condition
and bvar
elements to
bind free variables to constraints.
The interval
element expects either
two child elements which evaluate to real numbers or one child
element which is a condition
defining the interval
. interval
accepts a
closure
attribute which specifies if the interval is
open, closed, or half open.
1. <interval> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </interval> 2. <interval closure="openclosed"> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </interval>
<inverse>
The inverse
element is applied to a function in
order to construct a generic expression for the functional inverse of that
function. (See also the discussion of inverse
in
section 4.4.2.5 [<inverse>
]). As with other MathML functions, inverse
may either be applied to arguments, or it may
appear alone, in which case it represents an abstract inversion operator
acting on other functions.
A typical use of the inverse
element is in an
HTML document discussing a number of alternative definitions for a
particular function so that there is a need to write and define
f^{(1)}(x).
To associate a particular definition with
f^{(1)}, use the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes.
1. <apply><inverse/> <ci> f </ci> </apply> 2. <apply><inverse definitionURL="../MyDefinition.htm" encoding="text"/> <ci> f </ci> </apply> 3. <apply> <apply><inverse/> <ci type="matrix"> a </ci> </apply> <ci> A </ci> </apply>
The default rendering for a functional inverse makes use of a parenthesized exponent as in f^{(1)}(x).
<sep/>
The sep
element is to separate PCDATA
into
separate tokens for parsing the contents of the various specialized forms
of the cn
elements. For example sep
is used when specifying the real and imaginary
parts of a complex number (see section 4.4.1 [Token Elements]). If it
occurs between MathML elements, it is a MathML error.
<cn type="complex"> 3 <sep/> 4 </cn>
The sep
element is not directly rendered. (see
section 4.4.1 [Token Elements])
<condition>
The condition
element is used to place a
condition on one or more free variables or identifiers. The conditions may
be specified in terms of relations that are to be satisfied by the
variables, including general relationships such as set membership.
It is used to define general sets and lists in situations where the
elements cannot be explicitly enumerated. Condition contains either a
single reln
or apply
element; the apply
element is used to construct
compound conditions. For example, it is used below to describe the set of
all x such that x < 5. See the discussion on sets in
section 4.4.6 [Theory of Sets].
See section 4.2.6 [Conditions] for further details.
1. <condition> <apply><in/><ci> x </ci><ci type="set"> R </ci></apply> </condition> 2. <condition> <apply> <and/> <apply><gt/><ci> x </ci><cn> 0 </cn></apply> <apply><lt/><ci> x </ci><cn> 1 </cn></apply> </apply> </condition> 3. <apply> <max/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply> <and/> <apply><gt/><ci> x </ci><cn> 0 </cn></apply> <apply><lt/><ci> x </ci><cn> 1 </cn></apply> </apply> </condition> <apply> <minus/> <ci> x </ci> <apply> <sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
1.
2.
3.
<declare>
The declare
construct has two primary roles. The
first is to change or set the default attribute values for a specific
mathematical object. The second is to establish an association between a
`name' and an object. Once a declaration is in effect, the
`name' object acquires the new attribute settings, and (if the
second object is present) all the properties of the associated object.
The various attributes of the declare
element
assign properties to the object being declared or determine where the
declaration is in effect.
By default, the scope of a declaration is `local' to the
surrounding container element. Setting the value of the scope
attribute to global
extends
the scope of the declaration to the enclosing math
element. As discussed in section 4.3.2.8 [<scope>
], MathML
contains no provision for making documentwide declarations at present,
though it is anticipated that this capability will be added in future revisions
of MathML, when supporting technologies become available. declare
takes one or two children. The first, mandatory,
child is a ci
containing the identifier being
declared.
<declare type="vector"> <ci> V </ci> </declare>
The second, optional, child is a constructor initialising the variable
<declare type="vector"> <ci> V </ci> <vector> <cn> 1 </cn><cn> 2 </cn><cn> 3 </cn> </vector> </declare>
The constructor type and the type of the element declared must
agree. For example, if the type attribute of the declaration is fn
, the second child (constructor) must be an element
equivalent to an
fn
element (This would include actual
fn
elements,
lambda
elements and any of the defined function in
the basic set of content tags.) If no type is specified in the declaration
then the type attribute of the declared name is set to the type of the
constructor (second child) of the declaration. The type attribute of the
declaration can be especially useful in the special case of the second
element being a semantic tag.
All attributes are
CDATA
:
type
scope
nargs
occurrence
prefix
,
infix
or functionmodel
indications.definitionURL
encoding
The declaration
<declare type="fn" nargs="2" scope="local"> <ci> f </ci> <apply> <plus/> <ci> F </ci><ci> G </ci> </apply> </declare>
declares f to be a twovariable function with the property that f(x,y) = (F + G)(x,y).
The declaration
<declare type="fn"> <ci> J </ci> <lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply><ln/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </lambda> </declare>
associates the name J with a onevariable function defined so that
J(x) = ln y. (Note that because of the type
attribute of the declare
element, the second
argument must be something of type fn
, namely a
known function like sin
, an fn
construct, or a lambda
construct.)
The type
attribute on the declaration is only necessary if
if the type cannot be inferred from the type of the second argument.
Even when a declaration is in effect it is still possible to override
attributes values selectively as in <ci type="integer"> V
</ci>
. This capability is needed in order to write statements of
the form `Let S be a member of S'.
Since the declare
construct is not directly rendered, most
declarations are likely to be invisible to a reader. However,
declarations can produce quite different effects in an application
which evaluates or manipulates MathML content. While the declaration
<declare> <ci> v </ci> <vector> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> <cn> 3 </cn> </vector> </declare>
is active the symbol v acquires all the properties of the vector, and even its dimension and components have meaningful values. This may affect how v is rendered by some applications, as well as how it is treated mathematically.
<lambda>
The lambda
element is used to construct a
userdefined function from an expression and one or more free
variables. The lambda construct with n internal variables takes
n+1 children. The first n children identify the variables
which are used as placeholders in the last child for actual parameter
values.
See section 4.2.2 [Containers] for further details.
The following markup represents (x, sin x+1).
<lambda> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply><sin/> <apply> <plus/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 1 </cn> </apply> </apply> </lambda>
The following examples constructs a one argument function in which the argument b specifies the upper bound of a specific definite integral.
<lambda> <bvar><ci> b </ci></bvar> <apply> <int/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <ci> a </ci> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> b </ci> </uplimit> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply> </lambda>
Such constructs are often used conjunction with
declare
to construct new functions.
<compose/>
The <compose/>
element represents the function
composition operator. Note that MathML makes no assumption about the domain
and range of the constituent functions in a composition; the domain of the
resulting composition may be empty.
To override the default semantics for the <compose/>
element, or to associate a more specific definition
for function composition, use the definitionURL
and
encoding
attributes.
See section 4.2.2 [Containers] for further details.
The following markup represents .
<apply><compose/> <fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <fn><ci> g </ci></fn> </apply>
The following markup represents .
<apply><compose/> <ci type="fn"> f </ci> <ci type="fn"> g </ci> <ci type="fn"> h </ci> </apply>
The following examples both represent .
<apply> <apply><compose/> <fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <fn><ci> g </ci></fn> </apply> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <apply> <fn><ci> g </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
<ident/>
The ident
element represents the identity
function. MathML makes no assumption about the function space in which the
identity function resides. That is, proper interpretation of the domain
(and hence range) of the identity function depends on the context in which
it is used.
To override the default semantics for the <ident/>
element, or to associate a more specific definition, use the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes.
See section 4.2.2 [Containers] for further details.
The following markup encoded the expression .
<apply><eq/> <apply><compose/> <fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <apply><inverse/> <fn><ci> f </ci></fn> </apply> </apply> <ident/> </apply>
id
<quotient/>
The quotient
element is the operator used for
division modulo a particular base. When the quotient
operator is applied to integer arguments
a and b, the result is the `quotient of a
divided by b'. That is, quotient
returns the unique integer, q such that a = q
b + r. (In common usage, q is called the
quotient and r is the remainder.)
The quotient
element takes the attribute
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
if it is desired to override the default
semantics.
The quotient
element is a binary arithmetic
operator.
See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><quotient/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
Various mathematical applications will use this data in different ways. Editing applications might choose an image such as shown below, while a computationally based application would evaluate it to 2 when a=13 and b=5.
There is no commonly used notation for this concept. Some possible renderings are
<factorial/>
The factorial
element is used to construct
factorials.
The factorial
element takes the e
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which may be used to override the default
semantics.
The factorial
element is a unary arithmetic
operator.
See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><factorial/> <ci> n </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated at n = 5 it would evaluate to 120.
n!
<divide/>
The divide
element is the division operator.
The divide
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which may be used to override the default
semantics.
The divide
element is a binary arithmetic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply> <divide/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
As a MathML expression, this does not evaluate. However, on receiving such an expression, some applications may attempt to evaluate and simplify the value. For example, when a=5 and b=2 some mathematical applications may evaluate this to 2.5 while others will treat is as a rational number.
a/b
<max/>
and
<min/>
The elements max
and min
are used to compare the values of their arguments. They return the maximum
and minimum of these values respectively.
The max
and min
elements
take the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used
to override the default semantics.
The max
and min
elements
are nary arithmetic operators. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
When the objects are to be compared explicitly they are listed as arguments to the function as in:
<apply><max/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
The elements to be compared may also be described using bound
variables with a condition
element and an expression to be
maximised, as in:
<apply><min/> <bvar><ci>x</ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><notin/><ci> x </ci><ci type="set"> B </ci></apply> </condition> <apply> <power/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply> </apply>
Note that the bound variable may be implicit:
<apply><max/> <condition> <apply><and/> <apply><in/><ci>x</ci><ci type="set">B</ci></apply> <apply><notin/><ci>x</ci><ci type="set">C</ci></apply> </apply> </condition> </apply>
<minus/>
The minus
element is the subtraction operator.
The minus
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The minus
element can be used as a unary
arithmetic operator (e.g. to represent x) or as a
binary arithmetic operator (e.g. to represent
xy). See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply> <minus/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated at x=5 and y=2 it would yield 3.
x  y
<plus/>
The plus
element is the addition operator.
The plus
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The plus
element is an nary arithemtic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply> <plus/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> <ci> z </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated at x = 5, y = 2 and z = 1 it would yield 8.
x + y + z
<power/>
The power
element is generic exponentiation
operator. That is, when applied to arguments a and b, it
returns the value the `a to the power of
b'.
The power
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The power
element is an binary arithmetic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply> <power/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 3 </cn> </apply>
If this were evaluated at x= 5 it would yield 125.
x^{3}
<rem/>
The rem
element is the operator which returns
the `remainder' of a division modulo a particular base. When
the rem
operator is applied to integer arguments
a and b, the result is the `remainder of a
divided by b'. That is, rem
returns
the unique integer, r such that a = q b
+ r, where r < q. (In common usage,
q is called the quotient and r is the remainder.)
The rem
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The rem
element is a binary arithmetic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><rem/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated at a = 15 and b = 8 it would yield 7.
a mod b
<times/>
The times
element is the multiplication operator.
times
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which can be used to override the default semantics.
<apply> <times/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated at a = 5.5 and b = 3 it would yield 16.5.
a b
<root/>
The root
element is used to construct roots. The
kind of root to be taken is specified by a degree
element, which should be given as the first child of the apply
element enclosing the root
element. Thus, square roots correspond to the case
where degree
contains the value 2, cube roots
correspond to 3, and so on. If no degree
is
present, a default value of 2 is used.
The root
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The root
element is an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
The nth root of a is is given by
<apply> <root/> <degree><ci> n </ci></degree> <ci> a </ci> </apply>
<gcd/>
The gcd
element is used to denote the greatest common
divisor of its arguments.
The gcd
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The gcd
element is an nary operator. See
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply> <gcd/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> <ci> c </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated at a = 15, b = 21, c = 48 it would yield 3.
gcd(a, b, c)
<and/>
The and
element is the boolean `and' operator.
The and
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The and
element is an nary logical
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><and/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were evaluated and both a and b had truth values
of true
, then the value would be true
.
<or/>
The or
element is the boolean `or' operator.
The or
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The or
element is an nary logical
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><or/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
<xor/>
The xor
element is the boolean `exclusive or'
operator.
xor
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The xor
element is an nary logical
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><xor/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
a xor b
<not/>
The not
operator is the boolean `not' operator.
The not
element takes the attribute
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The not
element is an unary logical
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><not/> <ci> a </ci> </apply>
<implies/>
The implies
element is the boolean `implies'
relational operator.
The implies
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The implies
element is a binary logical
operator. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply><implies/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
Mathematical applications designed for the evaluation of such
expressions would evaluate this to true
when a =
false
and b = true
.
<forall/>
The forall
element represents the universal quantifier
of logic. It must used in conjunction with one or more bound
variables, an optional condition
element, and an
assertion, which may either take the form of an apply
or
reln
element.
The forall
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The forall
element is an quantifier. See
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
The first example encodes the sense of the expression `for all x, x  x = 0'.
<apply> <forall/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply><eq/> <apply> <minus/><ci> x </ci><ci> x </ci> </apply> <cn>0</cn> </apply> </apply>
A more involved example, making use of an optional condition
element encodes the sense of the expression: for all p,
q in
such that p < q, p < q^{2}.
<apply> <forall/> <bvar><ci> p </ci></bvar> <bvar><ci> q </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><and/> <apply><in/><ci> p </ci><ci type="set"> Q </ci></apply> <apply><in/><ci> q </ci><ci type="set"> Q </ci></apply> <apply><lt/><ci> p </ci><ci> q </ci></apply> </apply> </condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> p </ci> <apply> <power/> <ci> q </ci> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply> </apply> </apply>
A final example, utilizing both the forall
and
exists
quantifiers, encodes the sense of
the expression: for all n > 0, n in
, there
exist x, y, z in
such that x^{n} +
y^{n} = z^{n}.
<apply> <forall/> <bvar><ci> n </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><and/> <apply><gt/><ci> n </ci><cn> 0 </cn></apply> <apply><in/><ci> n </ci><ci type="set"> Z </ci></apply> </apply> </condition> <apply> <exists/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <bvar><ci> y </ci></bvar> <bvar><ci> z </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><and/> <apply><in/><ci> x </ci><ci type="set"> Z </ci></apply> <apply><in/><ci> y </ci><ci type="set"> Z </ci></apply> <apply><in/><ci> z </ci><ci type="set"> Z </ci></apply> </apply> </condition> <apply> <eq/> <apply> <plus/> <apply><power/><ci> x </ci><ci> n </ci></apply> <apply><power/><ci> y </ci><ci> n </ci></apply> </apply> <apply><power/><ci> z </ci><ci> n </ci></apply> </apply> </apply> </apply>
<exists/>
The exists
element represents the existential
quantifier of logic. It must used in conjuction with one or more bound
variables, an optional condition
element, and an
assertion, which may either take the form of an apply
or
reln
element.
The exists
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The exists
element is an quantifier. See
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
The following example encodes the sense of the expression `there exists an x such that f(x) = 0'.
<apply> <exists/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <apply><eq/> <apply> <fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <cn>0</cn> </apply> </apply>
<abs/>
The abs
element represents the absolute value of a real
quantity or the modulus of a complex quantity.
The abs
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The abs
element is a unary arithmetic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
The following example encodes the absolute value of x.
<apply> <abs/> <ci> x </ci> </apply>
x
<conjugate/>
The conjugate
element represents the complex conjugate of a
complex quantity.
The conjugate
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The conjugate
element is a unary arithmetic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for
further details.
The following example encodes the conjugate of x + iy.
<apply><conjugate/> <apply> <plus/> <ci> x </ci> <apply><times/> <cn> ⅈ </cn> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
arg
The
arg
operator
Note:(introduced in MathML 2.0)
gives the "argument" of a complex number, that is the angle (in radians) it makes with the positive real axis. Real negative numbers have arg (+ pi).
The
arg
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
arg
element is a
unary arithmetic operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
The following example encodes the argument operation on x + i y.
<apply><arg/> <apply><plus/> <ci> x </ci> <apply><times/> <cn> ⅈ </cn> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
real
The real
operator
Note:(introduced in MathML 2.0)
gives the real part of a complex number, that is the x component in x + i y
The
real
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to
override the default semantics.
The real
element is a
unary arithmetic operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
The following example encodes the real operation on x + i y.
<apply><real/> <apply><plus/> <ci> x </ci> <apply><times/> <cn> ⅈ </cn> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
A MathMLaware evaluation system, would return the x component, suitably encoded.
imaginary
The
imaginary
operator
Note:(introduced in MathML 2.0)
gives the imaginary part of a complex number, that is the y component in x + i y
The
imaginary
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
imaginary
element is a
unary arithmetic operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
The following example encodes the imaginary operation on x + iy.
<apply><imaginary/> <apply><plus/> <ci> x </ci> <apply><times/> <cn> ⅈ </cn> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
A MathMLaware evaluation system would return the y component, suitably encoded.
<eq/>
The
eq
element is the
`equals' relational operator.
The
eq
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
equals
element is an
nary relation. See the
section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><eq/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were tested at a = 5.5 and b = 6 it would yield the truth value `false'.
a = b
<neq/>
The neq
element is the `not equal to' relational
operator.
neq
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The neq
element is an binary
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply><neq/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were tested at a = 5.5 and b = 6 it would yield the truth value `true'.
<gt/>
The gt
element is the `greater than' relational
operator.
The gt
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The gt
element is an nary relation. See
section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further details.
<apply><gt/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were tested at a = 5.5 and b = 6 it would yield the truth value `false'.
a > b
<lt/>
The lt
element is the `less than' relational
operator.
The lt
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The lt
element is an nary relation. See
section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further details.
<apply><lt/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were tested at a = 5.5 and b = 6 it would yield the truth value `true'.
a < b
<geq/>
The geq
element is the `greater than or equal'
relational operator.
The geq
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The geq
element is an nary relation. See
section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further details.
<apply><geq/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If this were tested for a = 5.5 and b = 5.5 it would yield the truth value `true'.
<leq/>
The leq
element is the `less than or equal'
relational operator.
The leq
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The leq
element is an nary relation. See
section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further details.
<apply><leq/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </apply>
If a = 5.4 and b = 5.5 this will yield the truth value `true'.
<equivalent/>
The
equivalent
element is the
`less than or equal'relational operator.
The
equivalent
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
equivalent
element is an
nary relation. See the
section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><equivalent/> <ci> a </ci> <apply> <not/> <apply> <not/> <ci> a </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
This yields the truth value `true' for all values of a.
<approx/>
The
approx
element is the
`approximately equal'relational operator.
The
approx
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
approx
element is a
binary relation. See the
section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><approx/> <cn type="rational"> 22 <sep/> 7 </cn> <cn type="constant"> π </cn> </apply>
<int/>
The int
element is the operator element for
an integral. The lower limit, upper limit and bound variable are given by
(optional) child elements,
lowlimit
,
uplimit
and
bvar
in the enclosing
apply
element. The integrand is also specified as a child element of the enclosing
apply
element.
The domain of integration may alternatively be specified by using an
interval
element, or by a
condition
element. In such cases, if a bound
variable of integration is intended, it must be specified explicitly.
(The condition may involve more than one symbol.)
The int
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The int
element an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
This example specifies a lowlimit
,
uplimit
, and bvar
.
<apply> <int/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <cn> 0 </cn> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> a </ci> </uplimit> <apply> <fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
This example specifies the domain of integration with an
interval
element.
<apply><int/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <interval> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> </interval> <apply><cos/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
The final example specifies the domain of integration with an
condition
element.
<apply><int/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <condition> <apply><in/> <ci> x </ci> <ci type="set"> D </ci> </apply> </condition> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
<diff/>
The diff
element is the differentiation operator
element for functions of a single real variable. The bound variable is
given by a bvar
element which is a child of the
containing apply
element. The bvar
elements
may also contain a degree
element, which specifies the
order of the derivative to be taken.
The diff
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The diff
element is an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply><diff/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
<partialdiff/>
The partialdiff
element is the partial differentiation
operator element for functions of several real variables. The bound
variables are given by bvar
elements, which are children
of the containing apply
element. The bvar
elements may also contain a degree
element, which
specifies the order of the partial derivative to be taken in that
variable.
The partialdiff
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The partialdiff
element is an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply> <partialdiff/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> <degree> <cn> 2 </cn> </degree> </bvar> <bvar> <ci> y </ci> </bvar> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply>
<lowlimit>
The lowlimit
element is the container element used to
indicate the `lower limit' of an operator using qualifiers. For
example, in an integral, it can be used to specify the lower limit of
integration. Similarly, it is also used to specify the lower limit of
an index for sums and products.
The meaning of the lowlimit
element depends on the
context it is being used in. For further details about how
qualifiers are used in conjunction with operators taking
qualifiers, consult section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
<apply><int/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <ci> a </ci> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> b </ci> </uplimit> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
The default rendering of the lowlimit
element and its
contents depends on the context. In the preceding example, it should
be rendered as a subscript to the integral sign:
Consult the descriptions of individual operators which make use of the
lowlimit
construct for default renderings.
<uplimit>
The uplimit
element is the container element used to
indicate the `upper limit' of an operator using qualifiers. For
example, in an integral, it can be used to specify the upper limit of
integration. Similarly, it is also used to specify the upper limit of
an index for sums and products.
The meaning of the uplimit
element depends on the
context it is being used in. For further details about how
qualifiers are used in conjunction with operators taking
qualifiers, consult section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
<apply><int/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <ci> a </ci> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> b </ci> </uplimit> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
The default rendering of the uplimit
element and its
contents depends on the context. In the preceding example, it should
be rendered as a superscript to the integral sign:
Consult the descriptions of individual operators which make use of
the uplimit
construct for default renderings.
<bvar>
The bvar
element is the container element for the
`bound variable' of an operation. For example, in an integral it
specifies the variable of integration. In a derivative, it indicates
which variable with respect to which a function is being
differentiated. When the bvar
element is used to
quantifiy a derivative, the bvar
element may contain a
child degree
element which specifies the order of the
derivative with respect to that variable. The bvar
element is also used for the internal variable in sums and products
and for the bound variable used with the universal and existential
quantifiers forall
and exists
.
The meaning of the bvar
element depends on the context
it is being used in. For further details about how
qualifiers are used in conjunction with operators taking
qualifiers, consult section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
<apply><diff/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> <degree> <cn> 2 </cn> </degree> </bvar> <apply> <power/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply> </apply> <apply><int/> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><in/><ci> x </ci><ci> D </ci></apply> </condition> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
The default rendering of the bvar
element and its
contents depends on the context. In the preceding examples, it should
be rendered as the x in the dx of the
integral, and as the x in the denominator of the
derivative symbol:
Note that in the case of the derivative, the default rendering of
the degree
child of the bvar
element is as
an exponent.
Consult the descriptions of individual operators which make use of the
uplimit
construct for default renderings.
<degree>
The degree
element is the container element for the
`degree' or `order' of an operation. There are a number basic
mathematical constructs which come in families, such as derivatives
and moments. Rather than introduce special elements for each of these
families, MathML uses a single general construct, the
degree
element for this concept of `order'.
The meaning of the degree
element depends on the
context it is being used in. For further details about how
qualifiers are used in conjunction with operators taking
qualifiers, consult section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers].
<apply> <partialdiff/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> <degree> <ci> n </ci> </degree> </bvar> <bvar> <ci> y </ci> <degree> <ci> m </ci> </degree> </bvar> <apply><sin/> <apply> <times/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
The default rendering of the
degree
element and its contents depends on the context. In the preceding example, the
degree
elements would be rendered as the exponents in the differentiation symbols:
Consult the descriptions of individual operators which make use of the
uplimit
construct for default renderings.
<divergence/>
The
divergence
element is the vector calculus divergence operator, often called div.
The
divergence
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
divergence
element is an
unary calculus operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><divergence/> <ci> a </ci> </apply>
If a is a vector field defined inside a closed surface S enclosing a volume V, then the divergence of a is given by
<apply><limit/> <bvar> <ci> V </ci> </bvar> <condition> <apply> <tendsto/> <ci> V </ci> <cn> 0 </cn> </apply> </condition> <apply><divide/> <apply><int encoding="text" definitionURL="SurfaceIntegrals.htm"/> <bvar> <ci> S</ci> </bvar> <ci> a </ci> </apply> <ci> V </ci> </apply> </apply>
grad
The
grad
element is the vector calculus gradient operator, often called grad.
The
grad
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
grad
element is an
unary calculus operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><grad/> <ci> f</ci> </apply>
Where for example f is a scalar function and f(x,y,z) = k defines a surface S
curl
The
curl
element is the vector calculus curl operator.
The
curl
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
curl
element is an
unary calculus operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><curl/> <ci> a </ci> </apply>
Where for example a is a vector.
laplacian
The
laplacian
element is the vector calculus laplacian operator.
The
laplacian
element takes the attributes
encoding, definitionURL
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
laplacian
element is an
unary calculus operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><eq/> <apply><laplacian/> <ci> f </ci> </apply> <apply><divergence/> <apply><grad/> <ci> f </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
Where for example f is a vector
<set>
The set
element is the container element which
constructs a set of elements. The elements of a set can be defined
either by explicitly listing the elements, or by using the
bvar
and condition
elements.
The set
element is a constructor
container. See section 4.2.2.2 [Constructors] for
further details.
<set> <ci> b </ci> <ci> a </ci> <ci> c </ci> </set>
<set> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 5 </cn> </apply> </condition> </set>
1. {a, b, c}
2. {x  x < 5 }
<list>
The list
element is the container element which
constructs a list of elements. Elements can be defined either by
explicitly listing the elements, or by using the bvar
and
condition
elements.
Lists differ from sets in that there is an explicit order to the elements. Two orders are supported: lexicographic and numeric. The kind of ordering which should be used is specified by the order attribute.
The list
element is a constructor
container. See section 4.2.2.2 [Constructors] for
further details.
<list> <ci> b </ci> <ci> a </ci> <ci> c </ci> </list>
<list order="numeric"> <bvar><ci> x </ci></bvar> <condition> <apply><lt/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 5 </cn> </apply> </condition> </list>
1. [a, b, c]
2. [x  x < 5 ]
<union/>
The union
element is the operator for a
settheoretic union or join of two (or more) sets.
The union
attribute takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The union
element is an nary set
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><union/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
<intersect/>
The intersect
element is the operator for the
settheoretic intersection or meet of two (or more) sets.
The intersect
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the
default semantics.
The intersect
element is an nary set
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><intersect/> <ci type="set"> A </ci> <ci type="set"> B </ci> </apply>
<in/>
The in
element is the relational operator used
for a settheoretic inclusion (`is in' or `is a member
of').
The in
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the
default semantics.
The in
element is a binary set
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply> <in/> <ci> a </ci> <ci type="set"> A </ci> </apply>
<notin/>
The notin
element is the relational operator
element used for settheoretic exclusion (`is not in' or
`is not a member of').
The notin
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override
the default semantics.
The notin
element is a binary set
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply><notin/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> A </ci> </apply>
<subset/>
The subset
element is the relational operator
element for a settheoretic containment (`is a subset
of').
The subset
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override
the default semantics.
The subset
element is an nary set
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply><subset/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
<prsubset/>
The prsubset
element is the relational operator
element for settheoretic proper containment (`is a proper subset
of').
The prsubset
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override
the default semantics.
The subset
element is an nary set
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply> <prsubset/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
<notsubset/>
The notsubset
is the relational operator element
for the settheoretic relation `is not a subset of'.
The notsubset
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The notsubset
element is a binary set
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply><notsubset/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
<notprsubset/>
The notprsubset
is the operator element for the
settheoretic relation `is not a proper subset of'.
The notprsubset
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The notprsubset
element is a binary set
relation. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply><notprsubset/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
<setdiff/>
The setdiff
is the operator element for a
settheoretic difference of two sets.
The setdiff
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics. setdiff
is a binary operator.
The setdiff
element is a binary set
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><setdiff/> <ci> A </ci> <ci> B </ci> </apply>
<card/>
The
card
is the operator element for deriving the size
or cardinality of a set
The
card
element takes the attributes
definitionURL, encoding
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
card
element is a
unary set operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><eq/> <apply><card/> <ci> A </ci> </apply> <ci> 5 </ci> </apply>
where A is a set with 5 elements.
<sum/>
The sum
element denotes the summation operator. Upper and
lower limits for the sum, and more generally a domains for the bound
variables are specified using uplimit
, lowlimit
or
a condition
on the bound variables. The index for the summation
is specified by a bvar
element.
The sum
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The sum
element is an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply><sum/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <ci> a </ci> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> b </ci> </uplimit> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply> <apply><sum/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <condition> <apply> <in/> <ci> x </ci> <ci type="set"> B </ci> </apply> </condition> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
<product/>
The product
element denotes the product operator. Upper and
lower limits for the product, and more generally a domains for the bound
variables are specified using uplimit
, lowlimit
or a
condition
on the bound variables. The index for the product
is specified by a bvar
element.
The product
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The product
element is an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply> <product/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <ci> a </ci> </lowlimit> <uplimit> <ci> b </ci> </uplimit> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply> <apply> <product/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <condition> <apply> <in/> <ci> x </ci> <ci type="set"> B </ci> </apply> </condition> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
<limit/>
The limit
element is operation of taking a limit of a
sequence. The limit point is expressed by specifying a
lowlimit
and a bvar
or by specifying a
condition
on one or more bound variables.
The limit
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The limit
element is an operator taking
qualifiers. See section 4.2.4 [Operators taking Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply><limit/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <lowlimit> <cn> 0 </cn> </lowlimit> <apply><sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply> <apply><limit/> <bvar> <ci> x </ci> </bvar> <condition> <apply> <tendsto type="above"/> <ci> x </ci> <ci> a </ci> </apply> </condition> <apply><sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> </apply>
<tendsto/>
The tendsto
element is used to express the relation
that a quantity is tending to a specified value.
The tendsto
element takes the attributes
type
to set the direction from which the the limiting
value is approached and the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used
to override the default semantics.
The tendsto
element is a binary relational
operator. See section 4.2.5 [Relations] for further
details.
<apply> <tendsto type="above"/> <apply> <power/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply> <apply> <power/> <ci> a </ci> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply> </apply>
To express , one might use vectors, as in:
<apply> <tendsto/> <vector> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </vector> <vector> <apply><fn><ci> f </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply> <apply><fn><ci> g </ci></fn> <ci> x </ci> <ci> y </ci> </apply> </vector> </apply>
The names of the common trigonometric functions supported by MathML are listed below. Since their standard interpretations are widely known, they are discussed as a group.
sin 
cos 
tan 
sec 
csc 
cot 
sinh 
cosh 
tanh 
sech 
csch 
coth 
arcsin 
arccos 
arctan 
arccosh 
arccot 
arccoth 
arccsc 
arccsch 
arcsec 
arcsech 
arcsinh 
arctanh 
These operator elements denote the standard trigonometrical functions.
These elements all take the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes,
which can be used to override the default semantics.
They are all unary trigonometric operators. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <apply><sin/> <apply> <plus/> <apply><cos/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <apply> <power/> <ci> x </ci> <cn> 3 </cn> </apply> </apply> </apply>
sin x
sin(cos x + x^{3})
<exp/>
The exp
element represents the exponential function
associated with the inverse of the ln
function. In
particular, exp(1) is approximately 2.718281828.
exp
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes
which may be used to override the default semantics.
The exp
element is a unary arithmetic
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><exp/> <ci> x </ci> </apply>
<ln/>
The ln
element is the natural logarithm operator.
The ln
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The ln
element is an unary calculus
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply><ln/> <ci> a </ci> </apply>
If a = e this will yield the value 1.
ln a
<log/>
The log
element is the operator which returns a
logarithm to a given base. The base may be specified using a
logbase
element, which should be the first child of the
containing apply
element. If the logbase
element is not present, a default base of 10 is assumed.
The log
element takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to override the default
semantics.
The log
element can be used as either an
operator taking qualifiers or a unary calculus
operator. See section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further
details.
<apply> <log/> <logbase> <cn> 3 </cn> </logbase> <ci> x </ci> </apply>
This markup represents `the base 3 log of x'. For natural
logarithms base e, the ln
element should
be used instead.
log_{3} x
<mean/>
mean
is the operator element for a mean or
average.
mean
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes, which can be used to override the default
semantics.
mean
is an nary operator.
<apply><mean/> <ci> X </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
or
<sdev/>
sdev
is the operator element for the standard deviation.
sdev
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes,
which can be used to override the default semantics.
sdev
is an nary operator.
<apply><sdev/> <ci> X </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
<variance/>
variance
is the operator element for the statistical
variance.
variance
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes, which can be used to override the default
semantics.
variance
is an nary operator.
<apply><variance/> <ci> X </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
<median/>
median
is the operator element for the median .
median
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes,
which can be used to override the default semantics.
median
is an nary operator.
<apply><median/> <ci> X </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
median(X)
<mode/>
mode
is the operator for the statistical mode.
mode
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes,
which can be used to override the default semantics.
mode
is an nary operator.
<apply> <mode/> <ci> X </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
mode(X)
<moment/>
The moment
element represents statistical
moments. Use degree
for the n in
`nth moment'.
moment
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes, which can be used to override the default
semantics.
moment
is an operator taking qualifiers.
<apply><moment/> <degree> <cn> 3 </cn> </degree> <ci> X </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
<vector>
vector
is the container element for a vector. The
child elements form the components of the vector.
For purposes of interaction with matrices and matrix multiplication vectors are regarded as equivalent to a matrix consisting of a single column and the transpose of a vector behaves the same as a matrix consisting of a single row.
vector
is a constructor element.
<vector> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> <cn> 3 </cn> <ci> x </ci> </vector>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
(1, 2, 3, x)
<matrix>
The matrix
is the container element for
matrixrow
's. matrixrow
's contain the
elements of a matrix.
matrix
is a constructor element.
<matrix> <matrixrow> <cn> 0 </cn> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 0 </cn> </matrixrow> <matrixrow> <cn> 0 </cn> <cn> 0 </cn> <cn> 1 </cn> </matrixrow> <matrixrow> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 0 </cn> <cn> 0 </cn> </matrixrow> </matrix>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
<matrixrow>
The matrixrow
element is the container element for the
rows of a matrix.
matrixrow
is a constructor element.
<matrixrow> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> </matrixrow> <matrixrow> <cn> 3 </cn> <ci> x </ci> </matrixrow>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
Matrix rows are not directly rendered by themselves outside of the context of a matrix.
<determinant/>
The determinant
element is the operator for
constructing the determinant of a matrix.
determinant
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes, which can be used to override the default
semantics.
determinant
is a unary operator.
<apply><determinant/> <ci type="matrix"> A </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
det A
<transpose/>
The transpose
element is the operator for constructing
the transpose of a matrix.
transpose
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes, which can be used to override the default semantics.
transpose
is a unary operator.
<apply><transpose/> <ci type="matrix"> A </ci> </apply>
See section 4.2 [Content Element Usage Guide] for further details.
A^{t}
<selector/>
The selector
element is the operator for indexing into
vectors matrices and lists. It accepts one or more arguments. The
first argument identifies the vector, matrix or list from which the
selection is taking place, and the second and subsequent arguments, if
any, indicate the kind of selection taking place.
When selector
is used with a single argument, it
should be interpreted as giving the sequence of all elements in the
list, vector or matrix given. The ordering of elements in the sequence
for a matrix is understood to be first by column, then by row. That
is, for a matrix
(a_{i,j}), where the
indices denote row and column, the ordering would be
a_{1,1}, a_{1,2},
... a_{2,1}, a_{2,2} ... etcetera.
When three arguments are given, the last one is ignored for a list or vector, and in the case of a matrix, the second and third arguments specify the row and column of the selected element.
When two arguments are given, and the first is a vector or list, the second argument specifies an element in the list or vector. When a matrix and only one index i is specified as in
<apply><selector/> <matrix> <matrixrow> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> </matrixrow> <matrixrow> <cn> 3 </cn> <cn> 4 </cn> </matrixrow> </matrix> <cn> 1 </cn> </apply>
it refers to ith matrixrow. Thus, the preceding example selects the following row:
<matrixrow> <cn> 1 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> </matrixrow>
selector
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes, which can be used to override the default
semantics.
selector
is classified as an nary linear algebra
operator even though it can take only one, two, or three
arguments.
<apply><selector/> <ci type="matrix"> A </ci> <cn> 3 </cn> <cn> 2 </cn> </apply>
The
selector
construct renders the same as the expression
which it selects.
vectorproduct
The
vectorproduct
is the operator element for deriving the vector product of
two vectors
The
vectorproduct
element takes the attributes
definitionURL, encoding
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The
vectorproduct
element is a
binary vector operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><eq/> <apply><vectorproduct/> <ci type="vector"> A </ci> <ci type="vector"> B </ci> </apply> <apply><times/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> <apply><sin/> <ci> θ </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
where A and B are vectors, a, b are the magnitudes of A, B and θ is the angle between A and B.
scalarproduct
The scalarproduct
is the operator element for
deriving the scalar product of two vectors
The scalarproduct
element takes the attributes
definitionURL, encoding
which can be used to
override the default semantics.
The scalarproduct
element is a binary
vector operator. See the section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for
further details.
<apply><eq/> <apply><scalarproduct/> <ci type="vector"> A </ci> <ci type="vector">B </ci> </apply> <apply><times/> <ci> a </ci> <ci> b </ci> <apply><cos/> <ci> θ </ci> </apply> </apply> </apply>
where A and B are vectors, a, b are the magnitudes of A, B and θ is the angle between A and B.
outerproduct
The
outerproduct
is the operator element for deriving the outer product of
two vectors
The
outerproduct
element takes the attributes
definitionURL, encoding
which can be used to override the default semantics.
The outerproduct
element is a
binary vector operator. See the
section 4.2.3 [Functions, Operators and Qualifiers] for further details.
<apply><outerproduct/> <ci type="vector">A</ci> <ci type="vector">B</ci> </apply>
where A and B are vectors.
The use of the semantic mapping elements is explained in
section 4.2.6 [Conditions]4.4.11.1
<annotation>
.
The
annotation
element is the container element for a semantic annotation in a nonXML format.
annotation
takes the attribute
encoding
to define the encoding being used.
annotation
is a semantic mapping element. It is always used with
semantics
.
<semantics> <apply> <plus/> <apply><sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <cn> 5 </cn> </apply> <annotation encoding="TeX"> \sin x + 5 </annotation> </semantics>
None. The information contained in annotations may optionally be used by a renderer able to process the kind of annotation given.
<semantics>
The semantics
element is the container element which
associates additional representations with a given MathML
construct. The semantics
element has as its first child
the expression being annotated, and the subsequent children are the
annotations. There is no restriction on the kind of annotation that
can be attached using the semantics element. For example, one might
give a T_{E}X encoding, or computer algebra input in an annotation.
The representations which are XML based are enclosed in an
annotationxml
element while those representations which
are to be parsed as PCDATA
are enclosed in an annotation
element.
semantics
takes the
definitionURL
and encoding
attributes which can be used to reference an external
source for some or all of the semantic information.
An important purpose of the semantics
construct is to
associate specific semantics with a particular presentation, or
additional presentation information with a content construct. The
default rendering of a semantics
element is the default
rendering of its first child. When a MathMLpresentation annotation is
provided, a MathML renderer may optionally use this information to
render the MathML construct. This would typically be the case when the
first child is a MathML content construct and the annotation is
provided to give a preferred rendering differing from the default for
the content elements.
semantics
is a semantic mapping element.
<semantics> <apply> <plus/> <apply> <sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <cn> 5 </cn> </apply> <annotation encoding="Maple"> sin(x) + 5 </annotation> <annotationxml encoding="MathMLPresentation"> ... ... </annotationxml> <annotation encoding="Mathematica"> Sin[x] + 5 </annotation> <annotation encoding="TeX"> \sin x + 5 </annotation> <annotationxml encoding="OpenMath"> <OMA>...</OMA> </annotationxml> </semantics>
The default rendering of a semantics
element is the
default rendering of its first child.
<annotationxml>
The annotationxml
container element is used to
contain representations that are XML based. It is always used together
with the semantics
element, and takes the attribute
encoding
to define the encoding being used.
annotationxml
is a semantic mapping element.
<semantics> <apply> <plus/> <apply><sin/> <ci> x </ci> </apply> <cn> 5 </cn> </apply> <annotationxml encoding="OpenMath"> <OMA><OMS name="plus" cd="arith1"/> <OMA><OMS name="sin" cd="transc1"/> <OMV name="x"/> </OMA> <OMI>5</OMI> </OMA> </annotationxml> </semantics>
See also
semantics
in the Usage Guide.
None. The information may optionally be used by a renderer able to process the kind of annotation given.