The future of style

The Future of Style aggregates posts from various blogs that talk about the development of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) [not development with Cascading Style Sheets]. While it is hosted by the W3C CSS Working Group, the content of the individual entries represent only the opinion of their respective authors and does not reflect the position of the CSS Working Group or the W3C.

Latest articles

CSS Device Adaptation Draft Updated

Source: CSS WG Blog Florian Rivoal • 26 November 2015 02:06 PM

The CSS Working Group has published an updated Working Draft of the CSS Device Adaptation Module Level 1. This specification provides a way for an author to specify, in CSS, the size, zoom factor, and orientation of the viewport that is used as the base for the initial containing block.

This update contains changes accumulated since 2011, so there’s quite a few of them.

Changes since the last Working Draft are listed in the Changes section.

As always, please send feedback to the (archived) public mailing list
with the spec code ([css-device-adapt])
and your comment topic in the subject line.
(Alternatively, you can email one of the editors and ask them to forward your comment.)

Mongolian picker updated: standardised variants

Source: ishida blog » cssr12a • 22 November 2015 01:03 PM

Picture of the page in action.
>> Use the picker

An update to version 17 of the Mongolian character picker is now available.

When you hover over or select a character in the selection area, the box to the left of that area displays the alternate glyph forms that are appropriate for that character. By default, this only happens when you click on a character, but you can make it happen on hover by clicking on the V in the gray selection bar to the right.

The list includes the default positional forms as well as the forms produced by following the character with a Free Variation Selector (FVS). The latter forms have been updated, based on work which has been taking place in 2015 to standardise the forms produced by using FVS. At the moment, not all fonts will produce the expected shapes for all possible combinations. (For more information, see Notes on Mongolian variant forms.)

An additional new feature is that when the variant list is displayed, you can add an appropriate FVS character to the output area by simply clicking in the list on the shape that you want to see in the output.

This provides an easy way to check what shapes should be produced and what shapes are produced by a given font. (You can specify which font the app should use for display of the output.)

Some small improvements were also made to the user interface. The picker works best in Firefox and Edge desktop browsers, since they now have pretty good support for vertical text. It works least well in Safari (which includes the iPad browsers).

For more information about the picker, see the notes at the bottom of the picker page.

About pickers: Pickers allow you to quickly create phrases in a script by clicking on Unicode characters arranged in a way that aids their identification. Pickers are likely to be most useful if you don’t know a script well enough to use the native keyboard. The arrangement of characters also makes it much more usable than a regular character map utility. See the list of available pickers.

Minutes Telecon 2015-11-18

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 19 November 2015 10:45 AM

Full Minutes

Introducing EdgeHTML 13, our first platform update for Microsoft Edge

Source: IEBlog Kyle Pflug • 16 November 2015 06:00 PM

Last week, the first major update for Windows 10 began rolling out to over 110 million devices, including improvements in all aspects of the platform and experience. This update brings Microsoft Edge’s rendering engine to EdgeHTML 13, which Windows Insiders have been previewing for the last few months.

When we first introduced Microsoft Edge as “Project Spartan” back in January, we promised an evergreen browser. This means developers can rely on Microsoft Edge users always having the latest version of the rendering engine, and can expect frequent updates to the platform with new features and standards support. With EdgeHTML 13, we’re excited to deliver a broad set of major new platform features only a few months after the first public release of Microsoft Edge, as an automatic update to all Current Branch customers of Windows 10.

Feature updates in EdgeHTML 13

Back in August, we gave our first peek at our priorities for this release, as well as some longer term goals for future releases. If you have been watching the Microsoft Edge changelog, you may have seen these features lighting up build-by-build in the Insider Program. These updates bring Microsoft Edge to a score of 458 on HTML5Test – an improvement of 56 points in just a few months, and 117 points over Internet Explorer 11.

Screen capture showing HTML5Test scores for Microsoft browsers

HTML5Test measures declared support for features defined in the HTML5 specification as well as extensions and related specifications.

Here are the highlights of what’s now supported in EdgeHTML (for a full breakdown, visit the changelog):


File APIs

User Input




Web Components

Feature updates in Chakra

In addition to the improvements in EdgeHTML, this release also includes major improvements and new feature support in Chakra, the JavaScript engine powering Microsoft Edge. Major features like asm.js are now enabled by default. With these updates, Microsoft Edge is by a wide margin the highest-scoring desktop browser in the Kangax ES6 compatibility table, which measures support for the component features of ES2015, perhaps the largest update in JavaScript history.

Screen capture showing EdgeHTML 13 leading in the Kangax ES6 compatibility table

Kangax ES6 scores for Microsoft Edge and other desktop browsers.

In addition, the “Experimental JavaScript features” flag under about:flags now includes experimental support for early ES2016 features, including Async Functions and the Exponentiation operator.

Here’s the full list of the major new features supported in Chakra:

Many Windows 10 devices, one web platform

This update marks a special moment for the Windows 10 web platform as we ship the same version of EdgeHTML to all Windows 10 devices: PCs, Windows 10 phones (via the Windows Insider Program), and even Xbox One. Whether it’s adaptive images on phones with the <picture> element and extended srcset, or even in-browser gaming on the Xbox One with WebGL and GamePad API, Microsoft Edge empowers users and developers alike to be confident in a consistent, modern, and powerful experience across devices.

Illustration showing Microsoft Edge running on Windows 10 phone, laptop, and Xbox One

New end-user features in Microsoft Edge

While this blog is focused on developer features, this release also updates the Microsoft Edge app to Microsoft Edge 25, which includes powerful new features like Tab Preview, synced Favorites and Reading List, and wireless multimedia casting for video, audio, and photos. You can learn more about the updates to Microsoft Edge and other Windows apps on the Windows Experience blog.

Tab Preview in Microsoft Edge

Tab Preview in Microsoft Edge

This update also includes major security improvements in Microsoft Edge, with industry-leading code integrity enforcement in the Windows kernel, and updates to SmartScreen to protect users from drive-by attacks in the browser. We’ll be exploring each of these features in separate posts soon.

What’s next?

This is just the first step in a journey of delivering Microsoft Edge updates regularly, and we’re excited to get right back to work on our next set of improvements. As always, the Windows Insider Program is the best way to preview our upcoming features early, and we’ll continue to share details on our plans as soon as we begin development. Expect to hear more about our next feature investments and our priorities for 2016 in the coming months. In the meantime, we welcome your feedback and look forward to seeing what you do with the powerful new capabilities in Microsoft Edge!

Kyle Pflug, Program Manager, Microsoft Edge

Better specifications for the sake of the Web

Source: W3C Blog Virginie GALINDO • 16 November 2015 01:00 PM

This post is co-authored by Virginie Galindo and Richard Ishida, currently working hand in hand to promote better wide review of W3C specifications.

The Open Web Platform is getting increased traction from new communities and markets thanks to the attractive portability and cross-device nature of its specifications – characteristics which are strengthened by horizontal and wide reviews. But the increase in specifications compounds a growing difficulty when it comes to ensuring that specs are adequately reviewed.

The number of specifications initiated in W3C is increasing every year. That growth is welcome, but we want to avoid ending up with series of parallel technologies that lack coherence. That is one reason the W3C is putting efforts into a campaign to ensure that all specifications will benefit from wide review. Reviews, from the public and from experts, to ensure that all features and specifications create a trusted and sustainable Web for All.

Reviewing a specification is not an easy task, especially when a reviewer does so on a voluntary basis, squeezing it in between two or more high value tasks. One can appreciate that a prerequisite for asking for wide review is that the W3C specification is readable by the non-specialist who is affected by the features it addresses.

Think also about the scenario where an accessibility expert is reviewing an automotive API, or an internationalization expert is reviewing a brand new CSS feature, or a security expert is reviewing a new protocol. The spec needs to be understandable to these non-domain experts.

The basics dictate that a specification should contain use cases and vocabulary sections, that it should rely on plain English, etc. But you should also bear in mind that most reviewers have to produce feedback in a limited time, with limited experience, and having perhaps only read the spec through a couple of times.

Here are few additional tricks for specification editors to keep your reviewer on track.

Summarize algorithms. Parts of the spec that are expressed as algorithmic steps can make it difficult to grasp the fundamental lines of what is being proposed (and sometimes it even takes a while to ascertain that it’s not anything particularly complicated in the end). Adding a summary of what the algorithm does can make a huge difference for those needing to get the bigger picture quickly.

Do not fragment information (or do use signage). When information is dispersed around the document to such an extent that one has to hold the whole spec in one’s brain to be able to find or piece together information on a particular topic, this is not good for reviewers. If it’s possible to reduce the fragmentation, that would be helpful. If not, please add plenty of signage, so that it’s clear to people who don’t hold the whole spec in their brain where they need to look for related information.

Use diagrams. Sometimes a large amount of textual information could be expressed very quickly using a railroad diagram, an illustration, or something similar. No-one wants to wade through (often pages of) tedious detail when reading a spec when a diagrammatic approach could summarise the information quickly.

Give examples. Examples are extremely useful and help people grasp even complex ideas quickly. Please use as many as you can. If you are describing a format, include an example of that format which includes most of the quirks and kinks that need to be described. If you are describing a result, show an example of the code and the result. If you are describing something you need the reader to visualise, use a picture. Etc. Basically, please use as many examples as possible.

Ensuring that W3C specifications are readable leads to better reviews and feedback. Better reviews and feedback lead to a more coherent Web and greater support for universal access and interoperability. These latter, in return, lead to greater attractiveness of W3C specifications for new communities and markets.

RealObjects released PDFreactor version 8, an XML-to-PDF for…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page16 November 2015 12:00 AM

16 Nov 2015 RealObjects released PDFreactor version 8, an XML-to-PDF formatter that runs either as a Web service or as a command line tool. It has support for, among other things, CSS Transforms, CSS Regions, Web Fonts, and running elements. Other features include support for HTML5 (including the <canvas> element), MathML, SVG, XSLT, JavaScript, and accessible PDF. (Java. Free personal version)

TPAC2015 and IETF94

Source: W3C Blog Jeff Jaffe • 13 November 2015 06:41 PM

We held TPAC 2015, our annual organization-wide meeting, on 26-30 October 2015 in Sapporo, Japan.

We registered a record attendance of 580 participants throughout the week, breaking last year’s record participation of 550. 43 work groups met face-to-face, participants organized 50 breakout sessions on security, web payments, web of things, web-based signage, HTML, Testing, CSS, video, digital publishing, etc. “Everyone is using the technologies, and driving new requirements,” said Jun Murai on stage. In a lively discussion on stage, Tim Berners-Lee talked about the new activities we are taking on such as Web Payments and Web of Things. There was a lot of energy in the meetings at TPAC.

I presented the W3C Industry Vertical Champion Program, aimed at understanding the needs of the industries our Members are in and with appointed internal champions, address business problems within the core of the Web in sectors such as Automotive, Digital Marketing, Digital Publishing, Entertainment, Telecommunications and Web Payments.

We announced Web Developers avenue, one-stop page featuring the tools and resources W3C has for Web developers to learn, build, get involved, move the Web forward. A question from the floor during TPAC 2013 in Shenzhen was about W3C giving a greater voice to Web developers. We focused on which of our services the Web developers value in particular, give them a greater voice and increase their affiliation: our free validators and tools, to build Web content that works now and will work in the future; W3C Community Groups to propose and incubate new work, that more than six thousand people have embraced since 2011; our free and premium Training programs, to learn from the creators of the Web technologies; and Discourse, to share ideas and feedback with the community on Web Standards. We also introduced a gratitude program, Friends. We are making it easy to affiliate as Friends, take advantage of our offerings, and we encourage to donate to support us in conducting the activities that fulfill the W3C’s mission.

W3C and NTT Communications jointly organized a W3C Developer meet-up. More than 300 attended that successful event which we built around industry demos and talks on substantial subjects by Natasha Rooney, Lea Verou, Jake Archibald, Hyojin Song, Noriatsu Kudo, Stefan Thomas, Evan Schwartz and Adrian Hope Bailie.

One topic stood out during the week: Web security. At least twenty unconference breakout sessions were related to or touched on security, as well as three presentations at the W3C Advisory Committee Meeting, including a comprehensive report and new work in Web Application Security by Brad Hill of Facebook. During the Technical Plenary (minutes) I moderated a panel on the future of the Internet and the Web. I invited on stage Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the WWW and Director of the W3C, Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, and Jun Murai, father of Japan’s Internet, who shared historical anecdotes and considerations on security – which has to be in everything, as Tim stressed – on cryptography, strong authentication and trust. Vint calls W3C and IETF enablers. We took an action to foster high-level discussions between the two on what is missing from the enabling protocol space to make strong authentication, high integrity, and other trust building mechanisms on the platform.

We “co-located” TPAC with IETF who held a meeting in Yokohama the following week, that I attended with a few of my colleagues. I was pleased to host some senior people of the IETF at TPAC; Vint Cerf, as you’ve just read; Jari Arkko, IETF Chair; Andrew Sullivan, IAB chair; and a number of participants attending sessions at both meetings, including many in WebRTC-rtcweb groups, where I hear the interaction was conducive to good progress. During the IETF plenary session, one question from the floor was about the co-location and whether it was going to be done again. I went to the microphone and confirmed the co-location was deliberate as we want to be next to them in time and space as often as possible.

Lastly, as part of preparation for TPAC, we published for the Membership “W3C Highlights – October 2015,” now public, which I invite you to read.

We have already begun discussions of TPAC next year, which will take place in Lisbon, Portugal on 19-23 September 2016, and I am looking forward to seeing you there.

Minutes Telecon 2015-11-11

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 12 November 2015 10:40 AM

Full Minutes

At the W3C Developer Meetup in Sapporo, Japan, on the evenin…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page26 October 2015 12:00 AM

26 Oct 2015 At the W3C Developer Meetup in Sapporo, Japan, on the evening of Monday, October 26, W3C members will present some new technologies currently in development, including some for CSS. Presentations by Hyojin Song (LG Electronics), Lea Verou and others. (Free, but registration required.)

The CSS WG will meet Japanese industry in Sapporo on Sunday …

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page25 October 2015 12:00 AM

25 Oct 2015 The CSS WG will meet Japanese industry in Sapporo on Sunday 25 October (just before W3C's TPAC meeting). See the English or Japanese information page.

Minutes Telecon 2015-10-21

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 22 October 2015 11:06 AM

Full Minutes

shakespeare is a Haskell library that provides a template sy…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page21 October 2015 12:00 AM

21 Oct 2015 shakespeare is a Haskell library that provides a template system for generating CSS style sheets (and other types of files). (Open Source)

CSSOM.js is a CSS parser written in JavaScript. (Open Source…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page21 October 2015 12:00 AM

21 Oct 2015 CSSOM.js is a CSS parser written in JavaScript. (Open Source)

SyncRO Soft released version 17.1 of the <oXygen/> XML…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page21 October 2015 12:00 AM

21 Oct 2015 SyncRO Soft released version 17.1 of the <oXygen/> XML Editor with improved support for CSS, DITA 1.3, XLIFF 2.0 and more. It supports CSS (WYSIWYG editing), XSL-FO, XSLT, XQuery, various XML- or XHTML-based formats (such as EPUB, TEI, DocBook and DITA) and also has an SVG viewer. (Runs on Java and/or Eclipse platforms, free trial.)

The CSS WG published a new Snapshot of CSS, called CSS Snaps…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page13 October 2015 12:00 AM

13 Oct 2015 The CSS WG published a new Snapshot of CSS, called CSS Snapshot 2015

Minutes Telecon 2015-10-07

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 08 October 2015 11:37 AM

Full Minutes

Minutes Telecon 2015-09-30

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 02 October 2015 01:26 PM

Full Minutes

More Accessible Web Authoring with ATAG 2.0

Source: W3C Blog Jeanne F Spellman • 24 September 2015 02:51 PM

Easier production of accessible Web content is an important aspect of improving accessibility of the Web for people with disabilities. One of the factors that can help towards that goal is better support for accessibility in the authoring tools themselves. WAI is pleased to announce the publication of the Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0 which help authoring tool developers create more accessible products that produce more accessible content. People with disabilities need to be able to use authoring tools, and ATAG provides helpful guidance in areas specific to authoring tools, like an accessible editing view.

Real World, Real Tools

ATAG 2.0 is complete, ready for use and is already being implemented (or is in the process of being implemented) by native and web-based authoring tools including: Content Management Systems (CMS) like Drupal and DeFacto CMS; Learning Management Systems (LMS) and MOOCs like edX; WYSIWYG and HTML editors like Ephox, Achecker and TinyMCE, social media tools like Easy Chirp, and media editing or specialty tools like Common Look Global Access.

More Accessible Authoring for People with Disabilities

Tools that meet ATAG 2.0 make it easier for people with disabilities to author web content, with a focus on the editing functions of the authoring tool. Here are some examples:

ATAG will help you conform to WCAG.

The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 provide internationally accepted guidance for accessible web content. ATAG 2.0 is closely integrated with WCAG 2.0 and supports WCAG implementation. ATAG gives authoring tool developers guidance on making better tools that help authors in creating content that meets WCAG 2.0. Like other features of tools – spellchecking, grammar checking, syntax validation – accessibility becomes an integrated feature. When the tool helps produce more accessible content, it may improve accessibility at a lower training cost than traditional tools, and help avoid costly revisions incurred by adding accessibility later.

ATAG helps you create more accessible web content by:

How Can I Start Using ATAG?

Tool developers can use ATAG 2.0 for guidance on making better authoring tools for their customers. People with disabilities and accessibility advocates can encourage authoring tool vendors to make their tools meet ATAG 2.0. Buyers and purchasing agents of authoring tools can include ATAG 2.0 conformance in Requests for Proposals/Tender, and use ATAG for evaluating the accessibility of tools.

More Information

For additional information about ATAG 2.0. see the ATAG Overview. ATAG 2.0 At a Glance provides a summary of the ATAG guidelines. ATAG’s companion document, Implementing ATAG 2.0, gives detailed description of the intent of each success criteria, examples and use cases for the success criteria and additional resources.

ATAG 2.0’s publication as a web standard provides another step forward in making the web more accessible by providing guidance to authoring tool developers on designing more accessible authoring tools that produce more accessible websites.

Minutes Telecon 2015-09-23

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 24 September 2015 11:12 AM

Full Minutes

First Public Working Draft of CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 4

Source: CSS WG Blog Florian Rivoal • 23 September 2015 12:54 AM

The CSS Working Group has published the First Public Working Draft of CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 4. This specification describes user interface related properties and values to style HTML and XML (including XHTML).

Changes since level 3 of the same document include specification of the user-select and appearance properties, the addition of a fade value to the text-overflow property, and additional controls over the text insertion caret.

Significant changes since level 3 are listed in the change section.

As always, please send feedback to the (archived) public mailing list
with the spec code ([css-ui-4]) and your comment topic in the subject line.
(Alternatively, you can email the editors and ask them to forward your comment.)

First Public Working Draft of Text Level 4

Source: CSS WG Blog Alan Stearns • 22 September 2015 05:34 PM

The CSS Working Group has published a First Public Working Draft of CSS Text Module Level 4. This module defines additional properties for text manipulation.

The main work on CSS Text is still being done in Level 3. So until that work stabilizes, CSS Text Level 4 is a diff spec containing only new and/or deferred material. This includes:

The CSS WG published first Working Drafts of CSS Basic User …

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page22 September 2015 12:00 AM

22 Sep 2015 The CSS WG published first Working Drafts of CSS Basic User Interface Module Level 4, CSS Text Module Level 4 and CSS Round Display Level 1

CSS Inline Layout Updated

Source: CSS WG Blog fantasai • 17 September 2015 06:03 PM

The CSS Working Group has published an updated Working Draft of CSS Inline Layout Module Level 3. This module covers inline vertical alignment and special typographic effects
for initial letters, such as drop caps.

Changes since the previous Working Draft include:

We’re actively looking for review on all aspects of the draft, and in particular need help with handling non-Western scripts.

As always, please send feedback to the (archived) public mailing list with the spec code ([css-inline]) and your comment topic in the subject line. (Alternatively, you can email one of the editors and ask them to forward your comment.)

CSS Grid Layout Level 1 Updated

Source: CSS WG Blog fantasai • 17 September 2015 05:57 PM

The CSS Working Group has published an updated Working Draft of CSS Grid Layout Level 1. This module defines a new type of layout manager, the grid, which makes it extremely easy to specify complex, responsive 2-dimensional layouts for a page or components.

The editors consider this draft to be the final design draft. There are a few open issues left, but these are mostly fixes and clarifications to the algorithms–the main one of which is ensuring the flexbox and grid flexing and fragmentation algorithms are in sync. There’s also one on visibility: collapse, which might be nice to solve, but might get pushed to Level 2. We will be updating the spec as we work through these, but don’t expect to make any significant changes to any existing features–unless someone sends a comment that requires such a change.

Your feedback is still welcome on the featureset and syntax. However because we’re hoping to prepare the final draft the week after TPAC, we would greatly prefer to receive said comments in time for discussion at the the CSSWG F2F–which begins on the 25th of October 2015.

We are looking especially for

Changes since the last Working Draft are listed in the Changes section.

As always, please send feedback to the (archived) public mailing list with the spec code ([css-grid-layout]) and your comment topic in the subject line. Alternatively, you can email one of the editors and ask them to forward your comment, post something on your own blog and send us a link, or leave a comment here.

Minutes Telecon 2015-09-16

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 17 September 2015 11:10 AM

Full Minutes

The CSS WG updated the Working Drafts of CSS Grid Layout Mod…

Source: W3C's Cascading Style Sheets home page17 September 2015 12:00 AM

17 Sep 2015 The CSS WG updated the Working Drafts of CSS Grid Layout Module Level 1 and CSS Inline Layout Module Level 3

Minutes Paris F2F 2015-08-27 Part III: Input Modality, Page Floats, Writing Modes, Snapshot 2015, Flexbox % Follow-Up

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 16 September 2015 08:44 PM

Input Modality

Full Minutes

Page Floats

Full Minutes || Spec Referenced

Writing Modes

Full Minutes || Spec Referenced

Snapshot 2015

Full Minutes || Spec Referenced

Flexbox % Follow-Up

Full Minutes || Spec Referenced

Minutes Paris F2F 2015-08-27 Part II: Selectors, will-change, Scroll Snap

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 16 September 2015 08:42 PM


and :read-only will stay in this level.

Minutes Paris F2F 2015-08-27 Part I: FXTF Meeting

Source: CSS WG Blog Dael Jackson • 16 September 2015 08:40 PM

SVG Resources

Full Minutes

SVG Images Without Intrinsic Size

Full Minutes

Matrix Interpolation Revisited

Full Minutes

SLERPing and 0deg Angles

Full Minutes


Full Minutes

writing-mode Values from SVG 1.1

Full Minutes


Full Minutes

Path Animation

Full Minutes

Zoom Features for Media Queries

Full Minutes

FPWD: CSS Page Floats

Source: CSS WG Blog Johannes Wilm • 15 September 2015 05:04 PM

The CSSWG published First Public Working Draft of one module today:

CSS Page Floats
This document describes floats that move to the top or bottom of content passages. This feature has traditionally been used in print publications in which figures and photos are moved to the top or bottom of columns or pages, along with their captions. This draft describes how to achieve this effect for floats within pages, columns, regions and elements. Please send comments to with [css-page-floats] and your topic in the subject line.


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