XML Accessibility Guidelines

Charles McCathieNevile - 7 august 2002

Extreme Markup 2002

Slides: http://www.w3.org/2002/Talks/0807-xm-xag


Related work

Executive summary

  1. Ensure that authors can associate multiple media objects as alternatives
  2. Create semantically-rich languages
  3. Design an accessible user interface
  4. Document and export semantics

1 - alternative media objects

XAG 1 and Extreme

1.1: Provide a mechanism to explicitly associate alternatives for content or content fragments
Pass? for images ( by allowing graphic in figure).
must include a pointer to the thing illustrated by figure
1.2: Define flexible associations, where a given kind of relationship can link to or from objects of varying types without constraint
Pass? xref anywhere, but what exactly is linked?
1.3: Reuse existing accessibility modules to indicate alternative-equivalent associations
Fail? Known issue: Unclear what. Markup or modelling level
so: Use SVG for images? SMIL test attributes?

XAG 1: other examples

2 - semantically rich languages

XAG 2 and Extreme...

2.1 Ensure all semantics are captured in markup in a repurposeable form
Fail? Text works.... but not content in graphic
2.2 Separate presentation properties using stylesheet technology/styling mechanisms
A clear pass. As one would expect here ;-)
2.3 Use the standard XML linking and pointing mechanisms (XLink and XPointer)
Not applicable. (issue: does Hlink pass?)
2.4 Define element types that allow classification and grouping (header, etc)
Pass: front, body, section, with title

XAG 2 ... continued ...

2.5 Provide for a full containment model with chunks of reasonable size
Pass. section, subsec1, and other structure are good.
2.6 Define element types that identify important text content
Pass. abbreviations, references, etc.
(Issues: how do you decide what is important? Image parts?)
2.7: Provide a mechanism for identifying summary / abstract / title
Pass. Beautiful
2.8 Don't overload the semantics of elements
Pass. (is this about style or accessibility?)

XAG 2 ...and continued

2.9 Reuse accessible modules from schema as originally specified / intended
Pass? Nothing "re-used". (See also 1.3)
2.10 Allow association of metadata with distinct elements and groups of elements
Fail? (Issue: you can for metadata that can point...)
2.11 Specific checkpoint for Final-form dialects.
Not Applicable. (Issue: What really is final form?)

XAG 2: other examples

3 - design for accessible UI

(or, Remember there are users)

XAG 3 and Extreme

3.1 Provide default style sheets for multiple output modalities where possible
Pass: XSLT to HTML gives us various media
3.2 Define navigable structures that allow discrete, sequential, structured, and search navigation functionalities
Pass: Good structure can be used
3.3 Use CSS or XSLT to describe a basic outline view
Fail: But this is 10 minutes CSS or XSLT
3.4 Use a device-independent interaction and events model / module
Not applicable
3.5 Allow for user control of interaction timing - rate of change, external events triggering document changes, etc.
Not applicable

XAG 3: other examples

4 - document the semantics

XAG 4 and Extreme

4.1 Ensure human-readable documentation conforms to WCAG double A
Fail - DTD is too complex for many people. DTD + CSS/XSLT?
4.2 Provide a machine-understandable means/mechanism to get from a document instance to the schema
Pass: Doctype declaration
4.3 Provide explicit human readable definitions for markup semantics
Pass - the DTD does say this
4.4 Use a schema language that can support explicit human-readable documentation or annotation of semantics
Fail. DTD doesn't point to the semantics on a per-element basis

XAG 4 and Extreme - more

4.5 Provide semantic relationships to other schemata where appropriate and possible
Pass with XSLT to HTML
4.9 Do not assume that element or attribute names provide any information about element semantics
Pass. (Issue: relationship with 4.3?)
4.10 Document navigable structures. Describe how discrete, sequential, structured, and search navigation mechanisms should work
"Fail". But this is 5 minutes work.

XAG 4 and Extreme - the rest

Fail all of:

XAG 4: other examples

Known Issues


Feedback welcome anytime: wai-xtech@w3.org

Latest editor draft: http://www.w3.org/WAI/PF/XML