to add?: SIOC, SKOS, DBpedia onto? CIDOC, FRBR, LOM
- 1 Educational Resources
- 2 Academic Organizations and Courses
- 3 Academic Publications and Communities
- 4 Subject taxonomies
LRMI - Learning Resource Metadata Initiative
The LRMI was spurred by the announcement in 2011 of Schema.org, a project by Bing, Google, and Yahoo! to create a standard way of tagging online content. While not directly connected, Schema.org created the opportunity for initiatives such as the LRMI by establishing a standard markup schema for general web content and then encouraging specialized communities and industries to extend this schema to meet their needs. The metadata schema developed by the LRMI was adopted by Schema.org in April 2013, meaning that anyone who publishes or curates educational content can now use LRMI markup to provide rich, education-specific metadata about their resources with the confidence that this metadata will be recognized by major search engines.
LRMI is now governed as a community specification of the Dublin Core Metadata Initiative.
ReSIST Courseware Ontology
The ReSIST Courseware Ontology represents the various educational courses and resources within the ReSIST project.
An RDF binding for IEEE Learning Object Metadata (LOM) was proposed here.
ISO Metadata for Learning Resources
Development of an ISO standard for Metadata for Learning Resources (MLR) is being undertaken by working group 4 of ISO subcommittee 36 (ISO/IEC JTC1 SC36 WG4). The origins of this work can be traced back to proposals in 2002/3 to adopt IEEE LOM as an ISO standard. This proposal was rejected for a variety of reasons including that of support for internationalization in the LOM. Since then attempts to address the issues raised have proceeded within SC36 through the adoption of a semantic model that allows mapping to RDF. The result is a multipart standard, ISO/IEC 19788, which seeks to address all aspects of learning resource description while maintaining compatibility with the LOM and Dublin Core. Currently available parts are: Part 1: Framework (2011) Part 2: Dublin Core elements (2011) Part 3: Basic application profile (2011) Part 4: Technical elements (2014) Part 5: Educational elements (2012) Part 6 was originally scoped as covering “availability and rights management” but is now listed as deleted. Parts which are still under development are: Part 7: Bindings Part 8: Data elements for MLR records Part 9: Data elements for Persons Part 10: Application Profile for Access, Distribution and Intellectual Property (WIPO compliant) elements Part 11: Migration from LOM to MLR
ISO normally charge for access to their standards, and while the committee developing MLR recognise that this is at odds with the current trend to open education and have requested that their work be made available free of charge, only part 1 is currently available for free download, other parts are currently listed as costing between 118 and 138 Swiss Francs (approx £80-£95) each.
Academic Organizations and Courses
TEACH - Teaching Core Vocabulary
TEACH, the Teaching Core Vocabulary, is a lightweight vocabulary providing terms to enable teachers to relate things in their courses together. The Teaching Core Vocabulary is based on practical requirements set by providing seminar and course descriptions as Linked Data. The vocabulary specification is available at http://linkedscience.org/teach/ns/ and it uses this same URI as the namespace. The suggested namespace prefix is "teach".
The Bowlogna ontology originates from a lexicon defining terms related to the Bologna Process and aims at providing a standard schema for European universities involved in the Bologna Reform of higher- education studies.
Metadata for Learning Opportunities
CEN Workshop Aggreement 15903 PDF more information needed here - especially on use in linked/open data
Academic Publications and Communities
BIBO - The Bibliographic Ontology
The Bibliographic Ontology describe bibliographic things on the semantic Web in RDF. This ontology can be used as a citation ontology, as a document classification ontology, or simply as a way to describe any kind of document in RDF. It has been inspired by many existing document description metadata formats, and can be used as a common ground for converting other bibliographic data sources.
The VIVO Ontology
VIVO is an open source application implementing semantic web principles and technologies to represent academic research communities. The VIVO ontology provides a set of types (classes) and relationships (properties) to represent researchers and the full context in which they work. Content in any local VIVO installation may be maintained manually, brought into VIVO in automated ways from local systems of record, such as HR, grants, course, and faculty activity databases, or from database providers such as publication aggregators and funding agencies.
The VIVO Ontology is based on other, including notably BIBO and FOAF. Its documentation can be found at http://sourceforge.net/apps/mediawiki/vivo/index.php?title=Ontology
Subject coding for UK HE
The Joint Academic Coding Scheme is currently used in UK universities to classify courses by subject. As part of the Higher Education Data and Information Improvement Programme (HEDIIP) a new subject coding scheme is being developed that will provide some features more suited for use in semantic web applications (URI identifiers, RDF representation). The news subject coding scheme is being developed by Cetis in consultation with various core sector bodies. More information is available on the consultation website.