Archives for: July 2007

Thursday, July 19th 2007

Permalink 09:49:44 am, Categories: News

Stakeholder Meeting held, 10 July 2007

Following the face to face meting in Washington on 10 July, the working group members were joined by around 20 guests from various industry sectors that stand to benefit from POWDER. A full report on the event and the discussion held is available.

Permalink 08:30:59 am, Categories: Meeting summaries

Meeting Summary 16 July 2007

This week was a chance for those who were not able to be in Washington to catch up with last week's events and resolutions. The resolution taken in Washington to link the Descriptors from the resource Set was formally rescinded for two reasons: first there is little appreciable difference in processing requirement (which was one of the motivations for the Washington resolution) and, secondly, that a Resource Set may comprise multiple Resource Sets linked by OWL Set Operators. It isn't clear how one could validate that the Descriptors referred to the intended Resource Set. Since the resolution at the f2f meeting was passed but in a relatively luke-warm way, this week's telecon decided that it should be rescinded.

There was further discussion around the issue that vexed the face to face meeting, namely the relationship between caching and the validUntil date, how a commercial content provider could manage their DRs and so on. The example was brought up of a news front page. This could change at a moment's notice, rendering the description resource inaccurate, even if the validUntil date were set for a time as short as a day. The validUntil date could be set to, say, 30 seconds hence, however, that could put a significant and unacceptable load on the servers. Therefore it was resolved that the Primer document will include a discussion of the use of the property look up feature and how this might be used to refer to the Last Modified date for a resource. That is, a DR might describe a Resource Set if and only if it hasn't been modified since a given date/time.

Permalink 08:28:51 am, Categories: Meeting summaries

Face to face meting report, 9 - 10July 2007

A relatively small number of Working Group members met for a face to face meeting in Washington on Monday 9 and Tuesday 10 July. All resolutions were taken in the knowledge, and hope, that other members would review them and make any further comment. It is anticipated that some resolutions may be rescinded in the light of such comment.

The first topic for discussion was the comments received from the Web Application Formats Working Group's comments on POWDER's Grouping of Resources document, now available as a public working draft. As a result of the comments received, it was resolved " we create a new RDF predicate that will support the kind of wildcard-based URI pattern matching used by the WAF Group in their Enabling Read Access document. This entails making some changes to the predicate names for the regular Expression predicates and adding some explanatory text but it essentially an easy add-in to the grouping document.

The group then turned to discussing the Use Cases and Requirements document. This was a relatively easy discussion since almost all the suggestions were readily accepted. Specifically:

  • The suggestion of a use case centred on database look up for child protection is accepted.
  • The revised wording for the use case is accepted.
  • Use case 2.1.7 will be amended to make reference to 'An identity management system', therefore taking action derived from Patrick Petit's e-mail.
  • Following Johannes Koch's e-mail, we will not specifically refer to EARL in the use Cases doc, as we have not referred to other technologies to which we might. However, the intention is to refer specifically to EARL when showing worked examples of linking to a test result.
  • There will be a new use cases centred on semantic search as this is under-represented in the UCR doc.
  • The UCR doc will be re-organised to create a semantic section to include the tags, RSS/Atom and new semantic search use cases.

During this discussion the group also considered the use of 'example' websites. There are instances in the UCR document and elsewhere where '' has been used. However, it was recognised by the group that RFC 2606 refers specifically to, and and these will be used throughout POWDER documentation.

The bulk of the meeting was taken up discussing the Description Resources document. The ambitious hope is to get this ready to first public working draft status at the end of the month — which is not as unrealistic as it may seem since a lot of its content is set out in the WCL Incubator Report.

The group discussed the relative merits of dc:creator vs. foaf:maker. Since the latter has a range of foaf:Agent, its semantics are better suited to Description Resources and it will therefore be used. However, we'll put a note in the document that if we find a better term, we'll use it.

There was considerable discussion around the issue date for a DR and how this may differ from the date from which it is valid. An even longer debate centred on the relationship between a DR's valid until date and HTTP cache directives. As a result:

  • We will use dcterms:issued as the issue/creation date of the DR.
  • We will define our own terms for start and end dates, noting similar terms, being available, especially in PRISM (embargoed/expires).
  • In the absence of a wdr:validFrom date, the dcterms:issued date is the valid from date.
  • The group discussed how to include a text summary of the DR suitable for display to end users. The resolution was that DRs should use dc:description (and not define a wdr:summary predicate).
  • Similarly, there will be no POWDER-defined predicate to support icons or logos. However, the document will " note that foaf:depiction may be used to describe either the creator (e.g. a logo), the descriptor (e.g. contains violence), or both (fooRaters says this is accessible)."

The next big topic was whether the descriptive part of the Description Resource should be linked from the DR or from the Resource Set. After many diagrams had been drawn and examples looked at, the resolution was taken that it should be linked from the Resource Set, the logic being that the descriptors describe the resources in the set. Summing all this up it was resolved: "that a DR should have a foaf:maker, dcterms:issued, wdr:validUntil date and, if appropriate, wdr:validFrom. All have max cardinality of 1. Informative text to be included encouraging use of all of these." A graph of a DR with these features (except wdr:validFrom) was generated.

The Class that contains the descriptors will be called Descriptors. The predicate linking the Resource Set to the Descriptors will be isDescribedBy which will be a sub-property of hasTag. This will have a range of rdf:resource and can therefore point to anything (such as a bunch of user-generated tags). isDescribedBy will have a range of wdr:Descriptors.

These various resolutions effectively define the structure of a DR. However, it should be noted in this public space that group members are already reviewing this structure, in particular, the resolution that the Descriptors should be linked from the RS, so there is still further discussion to be had.

The group then turned its attention to the idea of a package of DRs. The intention here is that a content provider can set up a common link across all resources that points to a package of DRs. Parsing that package yields descriptions for given resource groups. The question is whether the package has a scope and, if so, is it true that the DRs within the package MUST between them describe all the content within the package scope. Since this cannot be assured or enforced in an intelligent way, package scope will be a processing hint, not a guarantee that a given resource will be described by the DRs in a package (although it SHOULD be).

This discussion raised the issue of commercial workflow and the need for a default description. That is, the ability to encode that "resources on are like this, everything else on the domain is like that." That's fine as long as it's true, but what about when the content changes and the description is no longer true.

Since caching is an integral part of the Web, a statement that "everything on is blue and this statement is valid for a year" MUST mean just that. If a content provider changes their offering to red within that valid until period, a processor is quite within its 'rights' to use the original DR without fetching a new one to see if the colour has changed. Ancillary discussions looked at whether each different DR should have its own URI and how HTTP cache headers should be handled.

Out of this discussion came the need for a POWDER Primer. This will include advice that:

  • Creators of DRs MUST be prepared to stand by their claims and assertions throughout the declared validity period.
  • If content is likely to change frequently, then the validUntil date should therefore be set to a short time period.
  • DRs SHOULD always be made available from a stable 'latest version' URI.
  • An automated system can create a DR with a validUntil date of 'tomorrow' (or whenever is suitable). There is no requirement to make expired DRs available — although some content providers may wish to do so for auditing purposes. In this case, specific DRs that were available in the past will have their own URI
  • HTTP Cache headers should, logically, reflect the semantics of ValidUntil. However, in case of difference, ValidUntil should be used to determine the time for which the DR can be relied on.

Moving on, the group resolved that as well as creating an RDF/OWL based vocabulary, an XML Schema would also be defined which DRs MUST follow. The advantages of this is that it allows XML-only processors, i.e. non-semantic systems, to make use of Description Resources and that it provides a quick validation step for all processors.

The big drawback is that it prevents a DR creator specifying his/her own sub-properties and Classes and using those instead of the POWDER vocabulary (a semantic processor would understand the relationships, an XML processor would flag a validation error).

On balance it was felt that this was a price worth paying.

The final technical discussion was the link mechanism. After considerable thought it was agreed that we really wanted to see link/rel tags like this:

<link rel="powder" href="" type="application/rdf+xml" />

and its HTTP Header equivalent. This means defining a new relationship type of 'powder' and this will be communicated to the HTML working group, seeking its inclusion in HTML 5.

In addition, it MUST be possible to link HTML documents to Description resources using RDFa.

At the end of the meeting, the group agreed that it would suggest a session on the social aspects of the Web on the agenda for the W3C Technical Plenary meeting in November.


Friday, July 6th 2007

Permalink 12:25:58 pm, Categories: Meeting summaries

Meeting Summary 2 July 2007

We're moving to First Working Draft! The Grouping of Resources document that has taken much of the group's time since it was chartered has now reached a level of maturity that makes it ready for publication as a first working draft. There are a few areas where the group is undecided and is seeking specific feedback but the principles are clear. The main substantive point made during the meeting was that where Resource Sets are defined in terms of query strings, if the given query strings include multiple name-value pairs separated by ampersands, then these should be split up by a POWDER processor so that the same name-value pairs may appear in any order in the candidate resource's URI and still yield a match. The group also considered the idea that different parts of the set definition be given different priorities. For example, include might override exclude. It was resolved NOT to develop such a mechanism. The group's second face to face meeting will take place next week in Washington, D.C. Telecons will continue throughout July but the group will go into recess for the month of August.
Permalink 12:23:33 pm, Categories: Meeting summaries

Meeting summary 25 June 2007

This week's meeting briefly discussed the recent IETF work on template URIs and decided that, although the draft has expired, we should adopt its approach and refer to the document as a non-normative source. There was then a discussion about the RDF property names to be used. In the end, using the roleNoun approach, it was resolved that the property names would be includeHosts, excludeHosts and their homologues. The bulk of the meeting was spent discussing the meaning of Resource Set definition such as: <wdr:ResourceSet> <wdr:includeHosts></wdr:includeHosts> <wdr:excludePathStartsWith>foo bar</wdr:excludePathStartsWith> </wdr:ResourceSet> The intention is that multiple values given for each RDF property should be combined with OR so this means "all resources on except those with a path starting with foo OR bar." However, de Morgan's theorem states that NOT ( A OR B ) = NOT( A ) AND NOT( B ) So in fact to express the natural language statement in logical terms means that we need to combine the foo and bar values with AND. This means that the values of different RDF predicates will be treated differently but seems the logical way to proceed (pun very much intended!). Moving on, the group also considered the recent discussion that has taken place on the public mailing list concerning the linkage between POWDER and SKOS. The POWDER WG has yet to begin work on Description Resources as such but has noted the outcome of this public discussion and will take it fully into account when the time comes. Finally, the group recorded a vote of thanks to Kjetil Kjernsmo for his substantial contribution to the POWDER WG and the Content Label Incubator Activity that preceded it.