From: kevinh@eit.COM (Kevin Hughes)
Subject: Thinking about style sheets
Date: Tue, 2 May 95 00:56:30 PDT
Content-Type: text

	This post is a long one; I would encourage replies to be
broken up into manageable subjects such as fonts, etc.
	The following thoughts revolve around creating a simple
yet powerful style sheet language for the World-Wide Web. I have
incorporated comments here and there from a previous email
discussion involving Hakon Lie, Dave Raggett, Dan Connolly, and
Bill Perry. Hakon should feel free to put this post under the
style sheet area at the W3O site.
	A W3 style-sheet mailing list will likely be created,
but Hakon says this will take some days. There should be pointers
at in time. In the meantime you can refer to:

	If you're not familiar with style sheets, please take
a look at:

	...and take a look at the current proposals and ideas out
	The format I discuss below is a bit different and somewhat
improved over Hakon's format as described at the Chicago conference:

	...but from the examples below it should be fairly easy
to figure things out.
	Finally, a few seconds of silence for the NSFNET backbone
service, which was decommissioned yesterday, April 30, 1995.
	May it rest in peace,

	-- Kevin

Thinking About Style Sheets

Hakon Lie described a simple yet powerful style sheet format in
Darmstadt, one which he has been working on for some time and had
been greatly improved since its first rollout in Chicago. Despite
that fact that it has not been formally described anywhere, I feel
that the format is superior to the other proposed formats for a number
of reasons:

	1) It's simple yet flexible.

	Many proposed formats are much too complex for their own
	good - in order to read the simplest formatting commands,
	browsers have to parse ornate structures and operations
	which add little to the overall utility of the format.
	Hakon's format is broken into manageable, logical chunks
	that allow for extensibility and ease of parsing. The
	format is also well-suited to be written in a compact format
	that keeps the style sheet size to a minimum.

	2) It's human readable and writeable.

	The Web no longer belongs to the average Internet-savvy
	technician who writes daily in Perl and C++. In order to
	urge authors and designers to make use of style sheets
	the format must be understandable so that one can "look
	under the hood" when needed. Certainly tools and editors
	will be created that makes style sheet creation easy,
	but the Web will be rewarded a hundredfold by using a
	format for which it is easy to create tools for.

Below I propose a number of changes and additions to Hakon's format,
using the time-tested lessons learned by the most popular DTP
software packages on the market today as well as a little Web design
experience. I feel that style sheets have the potential to revolutionize
the way people use and think about the Web and hope that the standards
process does the right thing both for users and authors.

Note that many of the examples below will replace the need for using
tag attributes and nonstandard HTML extensions to create layout. This
is a good thing, as the layout/style will finally be separated more
cleanly from the document structure.

The idea, if I understand correctly, is:

	<STYLE NOTATION="experimental">

	<!-- The style sheet (or perhaps a pointer to it) goes here. -->
	<!-- Here I can define a particular style, or rather, a CLASS. -->

	P[mystyle] : font.size = 12pt

	Regular structured markup goes here.

	<P CLASS="mystyle">This is a paragraph in my style,
	with a font size of 12 points.

If you find this pretty easy to understand, well, that's the idea.
Browsers may very well support DTDs as well as a readable style sheet
format like Hakon's.

Linked style sheets will announce themselves to browsers with a MIME
type such as:


New Things

I would say that authors should have the capability to include
style sheets within the document as well as point to particular
style sheets (that is, link to them). This makes it easy for a site
to have a directory of "house" style sheets that apply to all documents
in a particular web.

First, there should be a way to specify data that applies to all tags,
or data that applies to entire style sheet or class of objects. This
may be done with wildcards:

	BODY	: *.color = red
	doc	: *.color = red
	*	: font.size = 12pt

"doc" is something representing the entire document. Most likely
this should be replaced with HTML, as one may want different
properties for HEAD and BODY.

Apparently Hakon's notation allows for pattern matching on
sequences of tags, hierarchies of tags, and attribute values.

	HTML	: *.color = red

In the second example, the font size of 12 points applies to the data in
all tags. In the first example, the color of all elements in the BODY
tag are red.

In regards to sizes and such, there should be a way to specify a
base size and then allow other styles to be sized relative to the
base size.

	H1	: font.size += 3pt
	H1	: font.size = P[mystyle]:font.size + 10pt
	H1	: font.size = 1.5 * P:font.size

There should be a full listing and study of the proposed format
name hierarchy, so that attributes are named in a logical, structured
manner. More general objects should be on the left, with values becoming
more specific to the right. So "color.background" should instead
be "background.color", because background is a general object, while
color is a specific property.

Style sheets should support the most common units in DTP; these may be:

	inches (in)
	pixels (px)
	centimeters/millimeters (cm/mm)
	ems (em)
	points (pt)
	pica(pi) - "pi" is equal to 12pt

The characters unit is needed because a designer may wish to specify
an indent or tab stop by the number of characters in the current font,
for instance, in a PRE tag.

All elements that support values should support a value of "default".
Browsers would come out of the box with a default style sheet preselected
that the user never need change if they don't want to.

One possible way to specify tab stops might be:

	PRE	: tabs = 8ch, 16ch, 24ch

Dave Raggett notes that this is discouraged, as HTML 3.0 includes
a TAB element that does many nice things.

It would be useful to allow a number of format "shortcuts" so that people
writing sheets manually don't have to type so much and so that the size
of the style sheet stays at a minimum. One possible thing to do is to
use the semicolon (is there a more appropriate character?) for allowing
the designer to specify multiple values for multiple tags:

	P H1     : font.color = red; blue
	H1 H2 LI : font.size = 1.0; 0.8; 0.2

In the first example, data in P tags would be red; data in H1 tags
would be blue.

In the second, the font size in H1 is the normal default size, H2
has a font size of 0.8 times that, and LI has a font size of 0.2
times that.

Bill Perry suggests another kind of shortcut:

	H1	: font.size=12pt; background.color = red;
		  foreground.color = blue

This is very nice, as authors can deal with a whole tag at a time on
one line or split things up over multiple lines so the organization
makes more sense. Again, this is for human usability.

Another kind of shortcut is to provide shorter versions of

	"img" for "image"
	"bg" for "background"

	H1	: bg.color = blue

In specifying color, the designer should be able to enter the
decimal/percentage values using the RGB color space, since it is more
understandable and most image processing programs use these values:

	P	: font.color = 191, 191, 191
	P	: font.color = 0.75, 0.75, 0.75

The percentages are percents of the range from 0 to 255. In the
3D world, the range would be from 0 to 1, but we're not dealing with
that context (yet).

It would also be nice if one could define style-sheet specific color
labels so that colors could be referred to by name rather than by number:

	define "My Gray" "191, 191, 191"
	P	: font.color = "My Gray"

The use of such pre-processor-like definitions could be considered a
good thing, since it again reduces the style sheet size and makes
readability easier. For colors, as an example, one may be able to
specify the color name as given in the X11 rgb database.

It may be useful to allow the designer to provide hints about the
document dimensions, but it is unclear as to where and how such metadata
might be specified. Perhaps:

	HTML	: width = 600px
	HTML	: height = 800px

Some browsers have a widget that when selected sizes the window to
the widest non-textual element on the screen. I think the browser
should resize itself automatically according to these hints if the user

Alignment and Justification

Alignment should refer to vertical movement, as in the IMG tag, while
justification should be used to specify horizontal movement. Thus:

	align may be top, middle, bottom, basetop, basemiddle, basebottom
	justify may be left, right, center, full

	IMG	: align = basetop
	P	: justify = center

Top, middle, and bottom align elements relative to the size of the
highest character on the current line, measured from the baseline.

Dave Raggett comments that HTML has got it wrong in this respect, with
ALIGN being used for vertical and horizontal alignment. I say that although
it's probably too late to change things in HTML, let's get it right in
style sheets.

Dave also says that one needs bleedleft, bleedright, and bleedboth
additionally for figures and tables.

                    ---         ---
                --- | |         | |
	--- --- | | | |     --- | | <- font height
	ABC | | | | | |     | | | |
	--- | | | | --- --- | | --- <- baseline
            | | ___     | | | |
            ---         | | ---
                        | |

	    top mid bot bas bas bas
                        top mid bot

Containers and Spacing

If browser layout is parsed and understood internally in a container-like
manner, it should not be difficult to give every element a margin on each
side, which specifies the amount of space above, below, and to the sides
of an element. In this way, margins for an entire document as well as
margins for a particular element can be specified.

	margin values can be top, bottom, left, right

	BODY	: = 10px
	BODY	: margin.bottom = 10px
	P	: margin.left = 10px

Regarding "container" properties, one can think of borders and styles,
backgrounds and foregrounds, and (tiled) images.

	BODY	: background.color = red
	BODY	: foreground.color = blue
	BODY	: background.image = ""
	P	: border.width = 3px may be none, default, line, bevel

	P	: = line
	P	: border.color = black
	P	: border.image = "picture.frame.tile.gif"

The border may go inside, centered with, or outside the margin boundaries.
A property name should be suggested for this - somehow "justify" and
"align" don't seem appropriate.

Line size could be specified. When applied to a textual element, this
would indicate leading, the space below a line's baseline. When applied
to an element like HR, this refers to the height of the element.

	HR	: line.size = 3px
	P	: line.size = 12pt

Line indentation can be specified for elements - most designers find
general indents and indents for the first line to be desireable. So:

	P	: line.indent.first = 1in
	P	: line.indent = 0.5in

So the general spacing model for an element would look like:

	------------------ <-
	| blah blah...   |
	|                | <- line.indent.first
	|                | <- line.indent
	|                | <- line.size (leading)
	|                |
	------------------ <- margin.bottom
        ^                ^
	margin.left      margin.right

In this model, no negative values are allowed.


Technically a font has a few basic properties: (Helvetica, Lucida)
	font.weight (Plain, Bold, Roman)
	font.angle (Italic, Regular)
	font.variation (Regular, Compressed)

Although one should be able to completely specify a font with these
attributes, things can and should be simplified:

	P	: = "Helvetica Compressed Bold Italic" would allow one to specify a font by its full name as a
shortcut. However, using the prior four variables may be desired since
they could provide hints to the browser on how to generate the font
on the fly.

Hakon suggested that the order of the words in should not
matter - the set should be descriptive enough to find a particular

Besides font.size and font.color, I would propose, which
would provide hints to the browser as how to display the given font.
This style would be generated dynamically (mathematically perhaps),
based on the given font name or family/weight/angle/variation set. may be default, plain, bold, italic, underline,
		double underline, strikethrough, overline, change bar,
		inverse, superscript, subscript, outline, shadow,
		small caps, big caps, lowercase, uppercase

The case styles would display text as follows:

	plain:      "John Smith studies at MIT."
	small caps: "john smith studies at mIT."
	big caps:   "John Smith Studies At MIT."
	lowercase:  "john smith studies at mit."

Of course you could specify multiple values where it makes sense:

	P	: = subscript & bold

One desired style is using an all-capitals string with larger
capitals at the beginning of words. One way to do this may be:

	P	: = uppercase & bigcaps

Much in the same way that one can specify different spacing for the
first line of an element, one should be able to specify different
styles for the first letter of a word. This may enable things
like drop caps.

	P	: = Times
	P	: = Times

The first example changes the first letter in the entire paragraph;
the second changes the first letter of every word.

For elements such as drop caps and images there should be a way
to specify how many lines high the element is compared to the
normal text, and how that element should be aligned in respect
to the first line of the element. This is so things like this
can be made:

	---- blah blah blah
        |  | blah blah blah
        ---- blah blah blah
	blah blah blah blah

	P	: font.size.dropcap += 3pt

	The dropcap is 3 points larger than the element's normal
	font size.

	P	: font.size.dropcap *= 4

	The size of the dropcap is four times bigger than the
	size of the normal font size.

	P            : align.dropcap = top
	IMG[dropcap] : align.dropcap = top

	When a dropcap has an alignment of "top" its top is
	aligned with the first line of the element and drops below
	that line, allowing subsequent lines to wrap around it.

	Perhaps there should be "align.topwrap" and "align.bottomwrap"


The designer should be able to specify how links are displayed, but
users should be able to easily override these specifications, as
they may be dependent on a particular navigation style. "imglink"
would refer to a link on an image, while "txtlink" would refer to
a textual link.

	txtlink.color = blue
	txtlink.color = blue < AGE / 7d < "Background Color"
	imglink.color = default
	imglink.size = 3px may be line, bevel, default, none may be underline, double underline,
		inverse, default, none

Note that in conjunction with AGE links may be colored dynamically.
If there is a predefined value for the background color, links can
disappear with time and yet still be active, as in the example above.

There should be a way to specify new versus followed links, but I
have no good ideas as how to do so.

Based on something Hakon said:

	HTML	: txtlink.color = red < FETCHED < blue

Style Sheet Permissions

There should be an extra layer in the current permissions model:

		<- author insist | legal
	user insist
	author important
	user important
	author normal
	user normal
	application default

"author insist" would first display the page as the author intended
but allow the user to change the style (for example, via a pop-up
"styles" menu in the browser) after the initial download. The "legal"
specification would display as the author intended and not allow the
user to make changes. If the particular style in a browser was not
supported for a legal document, then the document would not display
at all.

	P	: font.size = 12pt ! legal

Authors writing legal documents may first display a readable
disclaimer which tells the user what they must to do read the legal
document (get a particular browser, enter a password, use a particular
style, etc.), why it is legal (display copyrights, licensing restrictions,
etc.) and then link to the document in question.

Bill Perry suggests that it is more reasonable is for a dialog box to appear:

	"Your settings will override something flagged as 'legal'.
	Should I continue?"

	[ OK ] [ Cancel ]

All of this was a heavily debated issue at Darmstadt and will continue
to be for some time. One thing to consider is that in the real world,
given enough time and resources, you can copy anything man-made reasonably
well and change it to suit your worldview. People will always want
to do this to things. Now that it can be very easy for them to do so,
why not let them?

Users should be able to specify particular styles they do not want
to see, for instance, a color blind user may never want to see any
elements colored red or blue and instead would wish them to be colored
black. Dave Raggett notes that authors, not users, should be the ones to
anticipate this type of need in the style sheet. Forcing the browser
to deal with it would lead to crude results.

Note that the issues of filtering out particular styles and filtering
out particular media/textual content are somewhat different and discussions
regarding them should keep this in mind. The style area of a document
should hold information related to layout and "look and feel". Within
the content area, things that more closely affect the textual/media
content should be put there, such as ways to represent different languages
and multiple versions of the same content (animations, ISMAP things, etc.).
Care should be taken not to confuse the two.

Dave Raggett suggests that the style sheet should have a way to insert
particular elements into the document so that one could create
templates, page headers and footers, etc. easily.


	HEADER	: insert "page.header.html"
	FOOTER	: insert "page.footer.html"

	This inserts HTML within tags, while:

	H1	: insert.before "<IMG SRC=\"rule.gif\">"
	H1	: insert.after "some text"

	adds text/HTML before or after elements.

Industrial-Strength Stuff

Here are some features which may also be added, in no particular order:

	Tracking (spaces between words, letters, spacing limits)
	The ability to specify particular color models
	Columns (auto flow, positioning)
	Ways to allow elements to float over others
	Different ways of word wrapping
	Ways to handle breaks in text
	Page numbering
	Numbering of list elements
	Transitions (a la a presentation program)
	Control over text flow


We should be seeing a full description of the experimental notation,
with proposals, etc. and a full listing of properties, values,
meta-variables, etc. on the Web pretty soon.

The above examples and features cover a good deal of the general
functionality of the most common DTP programs and remove the need
for many of the nonstandard HTML extensions that are seen today.
With a powerful style sheet language, the Web will certainly take on
a new level of sophistication and many of the problems authors have
had in the past regarding online design and layout will be solved.
Dave Raggett notes that notation that is meant to be read and used by
humans must have the right level of abstraction so that users and authors
can easily control style.

The web's incorporation of style sheets will certainly raise the
level of expectation higher: users will not just expect to see a few
blocks of text but will soon expect the features previously only available
in "real" desktop publishing programs. Because of this it's quite
possible that developers will force themselves to look at parsing
and browser architecture in a more object-oriented manner, giving
way to a more modular, container-based approach. Arena and Bert Bos's
work are starting points, but once you add in OpenDoc or OLE,
COBRA, HotJava, etc. you can begin to see how powerful that
approach can be.

People will finally think more about the structure of information
and more about making it universal and interchangable. And hopefully
we can finally see some serious content on the Internet.

Arena is currently implementing Hakon's style sheet format, as is
Bill Perry - what is needed is a lot more discussion and real code
out there before a proposal can be presented to an IETF working group.
Hakon says that a W3C workshop on stylesheets is planned for September;
hopefully we'll see some good things happen before then.

Kevin Hughes *
Enterprise Integration Technologies Webmaster (
Hypermedia Industrial Designer * Duty now for the future!