WebSchemas/Periodicals, Articles and Multi-volume Works

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This is a WebSchemas proposal Periodicals, Articles and Multi-volume Works for schema.org. See Proposals listing for more. Status: Proposal



Proposal for Periodicals, Articles and Multi-volume Works

Description

This proposal is intended to enable basic description of Articles within issues and/or volumes of periodicals of most types - Scholarly journals, magazines, comics, etc. The proposal also will enable the description of multi-volume works (e.g. the three volumes that make up Lord of the Rings).

As a basic proposal it does not address the full description of periodicals as stand-alone entities, and avoids any explicit statement of hierarchy in the parts that make up a periodical.

It proposes three new Types: Periodical, PublicationVolume, PublicationIssue, and added properties for two existent Types: Article, CreativeWork. It also proposes the Blog type is repositioned in the hierarchy below the proposed Periodical.

The discussions behind these proposals was informed from several sources with the Bibliographic Ontology (bibo) deserving specific mention.

New Type: Periodical

A publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended, such as a magazine, scholarly journal, or newspaper to continue indefinitely.

Type hierarchy

  • Thing > CreativeWork > Periodical

Properties for Periodical

  • issn (Text) The International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) that identifies this periodical. You can repeat this property to (for example) identify different formats of this periodical.


New Type: PublicationVolume

A part of a successively published publication such as a periodical or multi-volume work, often numbered. It may represent a time span, such as a year.

Type hierarchy

  • Thing > CreativeWork > PublicationVolume

Properties for PublicationVolume

  • volumeNumber (Text) Identifies the volume of publication or multi-part work; for example, "iii" or "2".
  • pageStart (Text) The page on which the work starts; for example "135" or "xiii".
  • pageEnd (Text) The page on which the work ends; for example "138" or "xvi".
  • pagination (Text) Any description of pages that is not separated into pageStart & pageEnd; for example, "1-6, 9, 55" or "10-12, 46-49".


New Type: PublicationIssue

A part of a successively published publication such as a periodical or publication volume, often numbered, usually containing a grouping of works such as articles.

Type hierarchy

  • Thing > CreativeWork > PublicationIssue

Properties for PublicationIssue

  • issueNumber (Text) Identifies the issue of publication; for example, "iii" or "2".
  • pageStart (Text) The page on which the work starts; for example "135" or "xiii".
  • pageEnd (Text) The page on which the work ends; for example "138" or "xvi".
  • pagination (Text) Any description of pages that is not separated into pageStart & pageEnd; for example, "1-6, 9, 55" or "10-12, 46-49".


Type: Article

New Properties for Article

  • pageStart (Text) The page on which the work starts; for example "135" or "xiii".
  • pageEnd (Text) The page on which the work ends; for example "138" or "xvi".
  • pagination (Text) Any description of pages that is not separated into pageStart & pageEnd; for example, "1-6, 9, 55" or "10-12, 46-49".


Type: CreativeWork

New Properties for CreativeWork

  • isPartOf (CreativeWork) A related CreativeWork (e.g. collection, gallery, publication, multi-part work) that this is either logically or physically included.
    • Note this proposal recommends the promotion of isPartOf from WebPage to CreativeWork with the above adjusted description.
  • hasPart (CreativeWork) A related CreativeWork that is included either logically or physically in this CreativeWork; for example, things in a collection, parts in a multi-part work, or articles in a periodical or publication issue.


Type: Blog

A blog fits the description of a publication in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations to continue indefinitely, also some blogs have been allocated an ISSN. Moving Blog in the hierarchy to be a sub-type of Periodical would beneficially aid the description of blogs without any impact on previously created descriptions.

Type hierarchy

  • Thing > CreativeWork > Periodical > Blog


Relationship with other vocabularies

The following properties and classes should be considered equivalents (owl:equivalentProperty / owl:equivalentClass) in bibo:

  • schema:issueNumber -> bibo:issue
  • schema:issn -> bibo:issn, bibo:eissn
  • schema:pageStart -> bibo:pageStart
  • schema:pageEnd -> bibo:pageEnd
  • schema:pagination -> bibo:pages
  • schema:Periodical -> bibo:Periodical
  • schema:PublicationIssue -> bibo:Issue (volume property excepted)
  • schema:isbn -> bibo:isbn

Examples for Periodical, PublicationVolume, PublicationIssue, and Article

The following examples could be used on the schema:Periodical, schema:PublicationIssue, schema:PublicationVolume, and schema:Article documentation.

Example 1

A list of the issues for a single volume of a given periodical.

Original HTML

 <body>
   <h1>The Lancet</h1>
   <p>Volume 376, July 2010-December 2010</p>
   <p>Published by Elsevier
   <ul>
     <li>ISSN: 0140-6736</li>
   </ul>
   <h3>Issues:</h3>
   <ul>
     <li>No. 9734 Jul 3, 2010 p 1-68</li>
     <li>No. 9735 Jul 10, 2010 p 69-140</li>
   </ul>
 </body>

With schema.org

 <article vocab="http://schema.org/" typeof="Periodical">
   <h1 property="name">The Lancet</h1>
   <p>Volume 376, July 2010-December 2010</p>
   <p>Published by <span property="publisher">Elsevier</span>
   <ul>
     <li>ISSN: <span property="issn">0140-6736</span></li>
   </ul>
   <h3>Issues:</h3>
   <div property="hasPart" typeof="PublicationVolume">
     <meta property="volumeNumber" content="376">
     <ul>
       <li property="hasPart" typeof="PublicationIssue">No. 
         <span property="issueNumber">9734</span>
         <time datetime="2010-07-03" property="datePublished">Jul 3, 2010</time>
         p <span property="pageStart">1</span>-<span property="pageEnd">68</span>
       </li>
       <li property="hasPart" typeof="PublicationIssue">No.
         <span property="issueNumber">9735</span>
         <time datetime="2010-07-03" property="datePublished">Jul 10, 2010</time>
         p <span property="pageStart">69</span>-<span property="pageEnd">140</span>
       </li>
       </ul>
    </div>
 </article>

Example 2

An article, fully linked to the issue, volume, and periodical in which it was published.

Original HTML

  <div>
    <strong>Title:</strong> Be Careful What You Wish For: FRBR, Some Lacunae, A Review<br />
    <strong>Author:</strong> Smiraglia, Richard P.<br />
    <strong>Subjects:</strong> Catalog ; Works <br />
    <strong>Is Part Of:</strong>
    <div>Cataloging &amp; Classification Quarterly, 2012, Vol. 50 (5),</div>
    <div>p.360-368 [Peer Reviewed Journal]<br />
      <strong>Description:</strong>
        The library catalog as a catalog of works
        was an infectious idea, which together with research led to
        reconceptualization in the form of the FRBR conceptual model. Two
        categories of lacunae emerge—the expression entity, and gaps in the
        model such as aggregates and dynamic documents. Evidence needed to
        extend the FRBR model is available in contemporary research on
        instantiation. The challenge for the bibliographic community is to
        begin to think of FRBR as a form of knowledge organization system,
        adding a final dimension to classification. The articles in the present
        special issue offer a compendium of the promise of the FRBR
        model.
    </div>
    <strong>Publisher:</strong> Taylor &amp; Francis Group<br />
    <strong>Source:</strong> Routledge, Taylor &amp; Francis Group<br />
    <strong>ISSN:</strong> 0163-9374 ;<br />
    <strong>E-ISSN:</strong> 1544-4554;<br />
    <strong>DOI:</strong>
    <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2012.682254">10.1080/01639374.2012.682254</a>
  </div>

Data, as Turtle

@prefix : <http://schema.org/> .

[] a :Article ;
    :about "Catalog", "Works" ;
    :author "Smiraglia, Richard P." ;
    :description """The library catalog as a catalog of works
        was an infectious idea, which together with research led to
        reconceptualization in the form of the FRBR conceptual model. Two
        categories of lacunae emerge—the expression entity, and gaps in the
        model such as aggregates and dynamic documents. Evidence needed to
        extend the FRBR model is available in contemporary research on
        instantiation. The challenge for the bibliographic community is to
        begin to think of FRBR as a form of knowledge organization system,
        adding a final dimension to classification. The articles in the present
        special issue offer a compendium of the promise of the FRBR
        model.""" ;
    :isPartOf <#issue> ;
    :name "Be Careful What You Wish For: FRBR, Some Lacunae, A Review" ;
    :pageEnd "368" ;
    :pageStart "360" ;
    :sameAs <http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2012.682254> .

<#issue> a :PublicationIssue ;
    :datePublished "2012" ;
    :isPartOf [ a :PublicationVolume ;
            :isPartOf <#periodical> ;
            :volumeNumber "50" ] ;
    :issueNumber "5" .

<#periodical> a :Periodical ;
    :issn "0163-9374",
        "1544-4554" ;
    :name "Cataloging & Classification Quarterly" ;
    :publisher "Taylor & Francis Group" .
 

Using microdata

  <div itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article">
    <strong>Title:</strong> <span itemprop="name">Be Careful What You Wish For: FRBR, Some Lacunae, A Review</span><br />
    <strong>Author:</strong> <span itemprop="author">Smiraglia, Richard P.</span><br />
    <strong>Subjects:</strong> <span itemprop="about">Catalog</span> ; <span itemprop="about">Works</span> <br />
    <strong>Is Part Of:</strong>
    <div itemprop="isPartOf" itemscope
         itemtype="http://schema.org/PublicationIssue" itemid="http://example.org/article#issue">
      <span itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Periodical" itemid="http://example.org/article#periodical">
        <span itemprop="name">Cataloging &amp; Classification Quarterly</span>,
      </span>
      <span itemprop="datePublished">2012</span>,
      Vol.<span itemprop="isPartOf" itemscope
                itemtype="http://schema.org/PublicationVolume"><link
                itemprop="isPartOf" href="http://example.org/article#periodical" /><span
                itemprop="volumeNumber">50</span></span>(<span
            itemprop="issueNumber">5</span>),
    </div>
    <div>
      p.<span itemprop="pageStart">360</span>-<span itemprop="pageEnd">368</span> [Peer Reviewed Journal]<br />
      <strong>Description:</strong>
      <span itemprop="description">The library catalog as a catalog of works
        was an infectious idea, which together with research led to
        reconceptualization in the form of the FRBR conceptual model. Two
        categories of lacunae emerge—the expression entity, and gaps in the
        model such as aggregates and dynamic documents. Evidence needed to
        extend the FRBR model is available in contemporary research on
        instantiation. The challenge for the bibliographic community is to
        begin to think of FRBR as a form of knowledge organization system,
        adding a final dimension to classification. The articles in the present
        special issue offer a compendium of the promise of the FRBR
        model.</span>
    </div>
    <span itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Periodical" itemid="http://example.org/article#periodical">
      <strong>Publisher:</strong>
      <span itemprop="publisher">Taylor &amp; Francis Group</span><br />
      <strong>Source:</strong> Routledge, Taylor &amp; Francis Group<br />
      <strong>ISSN:</strong> <span itemprop="issn">0163-9374</span> ;<br />
      <strong>E-ISSN:</strong> <span itemprop="issn">1544-4554</span> ;<br />
    </span>
    <strong>DOI:</strong>
    <a itemprop="sameAs" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2012.682254">10.1080/01639374.2012.682254</a>
  </div>

Using RDFa

  <div vocab="http://schema.org/" typeof="Article">
    <strong>Title:</strong> <span property="name">Be Careful What You Wish For: FRBR, Some Lacunae, A Review</span><br />
    <strong>Author:</strong> <span property="author">Smiraglia, Richard P.</span><br />
    <strong>Subjects:</strong> <span property="about">Catalog</span> ; <span property="about">Works</span> <br />
    <strong>Is Part Of:</strong>
    <div property="isPartOf" typeof="PublicationIssue" resource="#issue">
      <span typeof="Periodical" resource="#periodical">
        <span property="name">Cataloging &amp; Classification Quarterly</span>,
      </span>
      <span property="datePublished">2012</span>,
      Vol.<span property="isPartOf" typeof="PublicationVolume"><link
                property="isPartOf" resource="#periodical" /><span
                property="volumeNumber">50</span></span>(<span
            property="issueNumber">5</span>),
    </div>
    <div>
      p.<span property="pageStart">360</span>-<span property="pageEnd">368</span> [Peer Reviewed Journal]<br />
      <strong>Description:</strong>
      <span property="description">The library catalog as a catalog of works
        was an infectious idea, which together with research led to
        reconceptualization in the form of the FRBR conceptual model. Two
        categories of lacunae emerge—the expression entity, and gaps in the
        model such as aggregates and dynamic documents. Evidence needed to
        extend the FRBR model is available in contemporary research on
        instantiation. The challenge for the bibliographic community is to
        begin to think of FRBR as a form of knowledge organization system,
        adding a final dimension to classification. The articles in the present
        special issue offer a compendium of the promise of the FRBR
        model.</span>
    </div>
    <span resource="#periodical">
      <strong>Publisher:</strong>
      <span property="publisher">Taylor &amp; Francis Group</span><br />
      <strong>Source:</strong> Routledge, Taylor &amp; Francis Group<br />
      <strong>ISSN:</strong> <span property="issn">0163-9374</span> ;<br />
      <strong>E-ISSN:</strong> <span property="issn">1544-4554</span> ;<br />
    </span>
    <strong>DOI:</strong>
    <a property="sameAs" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639374.2012.682254">10.1080/01639374.2012.682254</a>
  </div>

Example of a multi-volume book (to add to Book and PublicationVolume documentation)

The following example describes a trilogy of books with numbered volumes.

Original HTML

<p>
  The <strong>Lord of the Rings</strong> is an English-language fictional trilogy by J. R. R. Tolkien (1892-1973).
</p>
<p>
  The books in the trilogy are:
</p>
<ul>
  <li>Vol. 1: The Fellowship of the Ring</li>
  <li>Vol. 2: The Two Towers</li>
  <li>Vol. 3: The Return of the King</li>
</ul>

With schema.org (RDFa)

<div vocab="http://schema.org/">
<p typeof="Book" resource="#trilogy">
<link property="about" href="http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337">
  The <strong property="name">Lord of the Rings</strong> is an 
  <span property="inLanguage" content="en">English-language</span> 
  <span property="genre" property="Fiction">fictional</span> trilogy by
<span property="author" typeof="Person" resource="#author">
  <link property="sameAs" href="http://viaf.org/viaf/95218067">
  <span property="name" content="Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel)">J. R. R. Tolkien</span>
  (<span property="birthDate">1892</span>-<span property="deathDate">1973</span>).
</span>
<link property="hasPart" href="#book1">
<link property="hasPart" href="#book2">
<link property="hasPart" href="#book3">
</p>
<p>
  The books in the trilogy are:
</p>
<ul>
  <li typeof="Book PublicationVolume" resource="#book1">
    Vol. <span property="volumeNumber">1</span>:
    <link property="about" href="http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337">
    <link property="isPartOf" href="#trilogy">
    <link property="author" href="#author">
    <meta property="inLanguage" content="en">
    <span property="name">The Fellowship of the Ring</span>
  </li>
  <li typeof="Book PublicationVolume" resource="#book2">
    Vol. <span property="volumeNumber">3</span>:
    <link property="about" href="http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337">
    <link property="isPartOf" href="#trilogy">
    <link property="author" href="#author">
    <meta property="inLanguage" content="en">
    <span property="name">The Two Towers</span>
  </li>
  <li typeof="Book PublicationVolume" resource="#book3">
    Vol. <span property="volumeNumber">3</span>:
    <link property="about" href="http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337">
    <link property="isPartOf" href="#trilogy">
    <link property="author" href="#author">
    <meta property="inLanguage" content="en">
    <span property="name">The Return of the King</span>
  </li>
</ul>
</div>


JSON-LD (experimental)

<script type="application/ld+json">
{
   "@context" : "http://schema.org", 
   "@graph": [
        {
            "@id": "#trilogy", 
            "@type": "Book", 
            "about": "http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337", 
            "author": "#author", 
            "hasPart": [
                {
                    "@id": "#book1", 
                    "@type": [
                        "Book", 
                        "PublicationVolume"
                    ], 
                    "about": "http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337", 
                    "author": "#author", 
                    "volumeNumber": "1", 
                    "inLanguage": "en", 
                    "isPartOf": "#trilogy", 
                    "name": "The Fellowship of the Ring"
                }, 
                {
                    "@id": "#book2", 
                    "@type": [
                        "Book", 
                        "PublicationVolume"
                    ], 
                    "about": "http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337", 
                    "author": "#author", 
                    "volumeNumber": "3", 
                    "inLanguage": "en", 
                    "isPartOf": "#trilogy", 
                    "name": "The Two Towers"
                }, 
                {
                    "@id": "#book3", 
                    "@type": [
                        "Book", 
                        "PublicationVolume"
                    ], 
                    "about": "http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337", 
                    "author": "#author", 
                    "volumeNumber": "3", 
                    "inLanguage": "en", 
                    "isPartOf": "#trilogy", 
                    "name": "The Return of the King"
                }
            ], 
            "genre": "fictional", 
            "inLanguage": "en", 
            "name": "Lord of the Rings"
        }, 
        {
            "@id": "#author", 
            "@type": "Person", 
            "birthDate": "1892", 
            "sameAs": "http://viaf.org/viaf/95218067", 
            "deathDate": "1973", 
            "name": "Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel)"
        }
    ]
}
</script>

Original turtle


<http://exampleworks.org/work/12345> 
	a schema:Book;
	schema:name "Lord of the Rings";
	schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337>;
	schema:author <http://viaf.org/viaf/95218067>;
	schema:author [ a schema:Person;
					schema:name "Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973."];
	schema:inLanguage "en";
	schema:genre "Fiction";
	schema:description	"v. 1. The fellowship of the ring.--v. 2. The two towers.--v. 3. The return of the king.";
	schema:hasPart <http://exampleworks.org/work/12346>; 
	schema:hasPart <http://exampleworks.org/work/12347>;
	schema:hasPart <http://exampleworks.org/work/12348>.

<http://exampleworks.org/work/12346> 
	a schema:Book;
        a schema:PublicationVolume;
	schema:name "The fellowship of the ring";
	schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337>;
	schema:author <http://viaf.org/viaf/95218067>;
	schema:author [ a schema:Person;
					schema:name "Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973."];
	schema:inLanguage "en";
	schema:genre "Fiction";
	schema:description	"Lord of the Rings Pt1";
        schema:volumeNumber "1";
	schema:isPartOf <http://exampleworks.org/work/12345>.

<http://exampleworks.org/work/12347> 
	a schema:Book;
        a schema:PublicationVolume;
	schema:name "The two towers";
	schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337>;
	schema:author <http://viaf.org/viaf/95218067>;
	schema:author [ a schema:Person;
					schema:name "Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973."];
	schema:inLanguage "en";
	schema:genre "Fiction";
	schema:description	"Lord of the Rings Pt2";
        schema:volumeNumber "2";
	schema:isPartOf <http://exampleworks.org/work/12345>.

<http://exampleworks.org/work/12348> 
	a schema:Book;
        a schema:PublicationVolume;
	schema:name "The return of the king.";
	schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1020337>;
	schema:author <http://viaf.org/viaf/95218067>;
	schema:author [ a schema:Person;
					schema:name "Tolkien, J. R. R. (John Ronald Reuel), 1892-1973."];
	schema:inLanguage "en";
	schema:genre "Fiction";
	schema:description	"Lord of the Rings Pt3";
        schema:volumeNumber "3";
	schema:isPartOf <http://exampleworks.org/work/12345>.