UAs

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The purpose of this page is to gather together information on existing HTML UAs. It may even be useful to add more detailed version information (e.g., release date, features added) or even separate pages on each UA/engine.

Quick Links: Renderers | 3rd-Party Assistive Technologies | Acessibility-oriented UAs | All-in-One Suites | Content Management Tools | Authoring Tools | List Management Tools | Email Clients | Related Pages


General Purpose Rendering Engines (listed alphabetically)

  • Amaya engine and browser (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Unix).
  • Cobra: a pure Java HTML renderer and DOM parser. (requires J2SE 5+ or JDK 1.5+). Used in:
    • Lobo - an open source web browser written completely in Java; Lobo supports HTML 4, Javascript (AJAX) and CSS2. Lobo uses the Cobra rendering engine and HTML parser. The renderer is Swing/AWT based.
  • Gecko from Mozilla. Used in:
    • Mozilla (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux)
    • Firefox (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux)
    • Netscape (Windows, Mac OS X)
    • Epiphany (GNOME's integrated web browser)
      • Camino: open-source browser optimized for Mac OS X with a Cocoa object-oriented UI and the Gecko renderer
  • Minimo, a mobile web-browser from Mozilla, supports JavaScript and AJAX (Windows Mobile OS)
    • Note: The Minimo Project page lists "cross-platform capability" as one of Minimo's strong points, but does not elaborate on which platforms, other than Windows Mobile
      • MozzIE: a plug-in for Microsoft Internet Explorer that allows the display of XHTML and XForms using the Mozilla Gecko rendering engine
  • iCab engine and browser (Mac OS X) from iCab
    • Since Version 4 iCab uses the Webkit Engine. The iCab Engine is only used in legacy versions
  • Interactor from Oregan Networks. Suitable for embedded devices. Used in:
    • Oregan Media Browser (Linux, Windows, VXWorks, Nucleus, WinCE)
  • KHTML from KDE. Used in:
  • Presto from Opera Software. Used in:
    • Opera (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux)
  • Trident from Microsoft. Used in:
  • WebKit from WebKit/MacOSForge. Used in
    • Safari (Mac OS X, Windows and iPhone)
    • Shira (Mac OS X)
    • OmniWeb (Mac OS X)
    • S60 Browser from Nokia (Symbian OS)

Third-Party Assisstive Technologies

Alternative Input

  • ClickCatch: an autoclicker, which simulates mouse clicks with constant intervals of time.
  • Click-N-Type Virtual Keyboard: an on-screen virtual keyboard, giving access to the keyboard characters through the use of a mouse or other pointing device.
  • GazeTalk: a predictive text entry system that has a restricted on-screen keyboard with ambiguous layout for severely disabled people. The main reason for using such a keyboard layout is that it enables the use of an eye tracker with a low spatial resolution (e.g., a web-camera based eye tracker).
  • Jambu: makes the web easier to access for those who interact with computers using switches and head mice or other types of alternative Input devices. It is designed for users with mobility impairments who find keyboard and mice difficult or impossible to use.
  • MorseAll: allows a user to control a computer using only the mouse buttons; it also enables a user to produce keystrokes by tapping Morse code with just a single button or with a three-button mouse for faster entry.
  • Mouseketeer: mouse clicking replacement software which can execute left click, right click, double click, highlight and drag-drop actions.
  • MouseWrap: makes the mouse pointer circulate around the screen instead of stopping at the edges, so that moving the pointer requires less movement by the user. "Movement pattern recognition" also gives a user access to custom actions, for example, cut and paste.
  • Open Eyes: an open-source open-hardware toolkit for low-cost real-time eye tracking.
  • PointNClick: a free stand-alone on-screen virtual mouse designed for anyone with a disability that makes it difficult or impossible to click a physical computer mouse. As long as they can move a mouse, trackball or other pointing device, they can send mouse clicks to virtually any Windows application or DOS application that can run within a window and even many that are full screen.
  • pVoice: an application for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). Users who cannot speak and who have very little possiblities to operate a computer can use pVoice by selecting photo's or symbols to generate speech output
  • Sensory Switch Driver: supports both USB and serial switches; configureable switch response, with options for ignoring accidental switch presses, which can be configured for individual users, allowing several switch users to share the same computer
  • Speech Dasher: a novel interface for the input of text using a combination of speech and gestures; a speech recognition engine provides the initial guess of the user's desired text while a gesture-based interface allows the user to confirm and correct the recognizer's output
  • SUITEKeys: provides access to a virtual keyboard and mouse through continuous speech input on Windows platforms.
  • Whistling User Interface: a whistling-driven mouse pointer which provides an alternative way to control a pointer
  • ZenKEY: enables control of almost all aspects of a computer via the keyboard, by creating new keyboard shortcuts. ZenKEY can also control the mouse pointer, including its speed, from keyboard shortcuts.

Color Identification Software

Recently Released/Updated Color Identification Software

  • test the contrast between two different colors against WCAG 2.0 guidelines with Luminosity Colour Contrast Ratio Analyser from Juicy Studios
  • GrayBit test your site's accessibility by converting it to grayscale
  • VisCheck: test your web site’s colors against three different kinds of color blindness: deuteranope, protanope and tritanope

Color Identification Software (Main Index)

  • Eye Dropper: a magnified window is attached to the pointer to show the user the exact location and color the pointer is on. Within the same window, the program displays the hex color values of what is being pointed at.
  • EyePilot: assists color-blind persons to navigate and use color coded information (available for both Windows and Macintosh)
  • Instant EyeDropper: color identifier (pastes hex value to clipboard on RightMouseClick)
  • Sensible Colors: "Colors for the Color-Blind"
  • Visolve: software that transforms colors of a computer display into the discriminable colors for various people including people with color vision deficiency, commonly called color blindness. In addition to distinguishing colors and finding a specific color, it aims to help people with color blindness to guess a normal color, and to feel the color gradations in natural scenery, etc. Visolve can execute the following three types of color transformation, filtering, and hatching: Red-Green transform, Blue-Yellow Transform, and Saturation Increase
  • WhatColor a "PC Tool for Colourblind People" (Windows 95 through Vista) WhatColor identifies a color of the pixel on the screen. It tells you not only RGB values, but also the name of the color of the point.

On-Screen Keyboards

  • Dasher: rapid text entry system alternative to keyboard. Also available for Windows. (GPL)
  • GOK: GNOME On-Screen Keyboard: a keyboard assistant for users with mobility difficulties. (LGPL)
    • note: Caribou' is an alternative to GOK, but not yet a fully mature replacement
  • PVoice: an application for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC).Disabled people who cannot speak and have very limited possiblities to operate a computer can use pVoice by selecting photographs or symbols to generate speech output.

Screen Magnification

  • Dolphin's Lunar: screen magnification program (Windows)
  • Dolphin's LunarPlus: screen-magnifier with speech (Windows)
  • Dolphin's SuperNova: screen-magnifier and screen-reader with Braille support (Windows)
  • MAGic screen-magnification program from Freedom Scientific
  • Magnus: screen magnifier for Windows
  • Sonar4: provides an expanded ring around the mouse pointer for users who have difficulty locating the pointer
  • Virtual Magnifying Glass: an easy-to-use screen magnification tool for Windows.

Screen Readers

  • AtGentive: "Attention Agents for Collaborative Learners"
  • Emacspeak
  • Gnopernicus
  • HAL a screen reader for Windows from Dophin Access
    • Note: HAL also supports refreshable Braille displays
  • JAWS (for Windows) from Freedom Scientific
    • Note: JAWS includes support for refreshable Braille displays.
  • Jupiter: a "speech system for Linux"; unique features include: reading the accumulated log of an interactive session (as well as screen review mode), audio feedback as text is displayed on the screen, alternative keyboard (for one-handed typing), customizable speech commands (not just key bindings), a modular interface between the kernel and the speech package, and escape sequences that allow applications to speak for themselves.
  • LookOUT screen-reader for the Windows platform
  • LSR: an extensible Python-based screen reader for the Gnome desktop. (IBM CPL)
  • Microsoft Narrator
  • NVDA: NonVisual Desktop Access (free, open source screen reader for Windows)
  • Orca
  • PCVoz a screen-reader for Windows (Spanish is default/English is an option)
  • Penfriend XL - screen-reader which also provides word prediction and on-screen keyboards in many languages, marketed primarily to those with learning disabilities (Windows)
  • ReadPlease - a screen-reader developed for and used by individuals with certain types of dyslexia (Windows)
  • Speakup: a screen review package for the Linux operating system, which allows a user to interact with applications and the GNU/Linux operating system with audible feedback from the console using a synthetic speech device.
  • Sreader: provides voice-output for Linux using which reads the screen and puts the information through to a software Text-To-Speech package, such as [ festival] or a hardware speech synthesizer.
  • Thunder Screen-Reader: a screen reader for the XP or Vista Windows operating systems; includes WebbIE, a text browser which eliminates visual clutter and presents a website in clear line by line text which can be adjusted to suit the user
  • VoiceOver from Apple
    • Note: VoiceOver will support refreshable Braille displays in the next version due in October 2007.
  • WindowEyes from GW Micro
    • Note: WindowEyes also supports refreshable Braille displays.

Speech-Recognition

  • Open Mind Speech: free (GPL) speech recognition tools and applications, as well as collect speech data from "e-citizens" using the Internet.
  • Speech Dasher: a novel interface for the input of text using a combination of speech and gestures; a speech recognition engine provides the initial guess of the user's desired text while a gesture-based interface allows the user to confirm and correct the recognizer's output

Accessibility-oriented UAs

Aural/Self-Voicing Browsers

  • Aural Browser (A-Browser) from IBM (news story)
  • BrailleSurf: although still available, technical development of BrailleSurf ceased in 2001, there is a successor project: MozBraille: an extension for FireFox which makes it a "stand alone" browser for blind and partially sighted persons; features: braille output (to braille terminal), text-to-speech, and "big characters" view
    • Note: MozBraille is part of the Vickie Project, whose aim is to create an "electronic school bag" for visually impaired children
  • BrookesTalk: a voice web browser for blind and visually impaired people;
  • Home Page Reader (discontinued) from IBM
  • Opera (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux) from Opera Software
  • Talklets (A web-server-based aural browser)
  • Sensus Web Browser: still downloadable, but no longer supported
  • Simply Internet 2000: can be run in 2 modes: speech-friendly (works with third party screen readers) or speech-enabled (self-voicing)
  • WeMedia Talking Browser: not a screen reader, but a talking web browser through which a user can surf the net, complete with large buttons and keystroke commands for easy navigation; WeMedia "speaks" any text a user selects within the browser.
  • WWAAC Web Browser: a talking, keyboard, switch and mouse pointer accessible web browser with page summarizing tools; features a highly configerable user interface
  • WeMedia Talking Browser: not a screen reader, but a talking web browser through which a user can surf the net, complete with large buttons and keystroke commands for easy navigation; WeMedia "speaks" any text a user selects within the browser.
  • WWAAC Web Browser: a talking, keyboard, switch and mouse pointer accessible web browser with page summarizing tools; features a highly configerable user interface

Browsers Developed to Work with Third-Party Assisstive Technologies

  • webbIE a complete suite of products developed for accessibility and compatibility with third-party assisstive technologies (includes text-only mode browsing, an accessible podcatcher. RSS feed manager, a Gutenburg library collector/renderer, and more)

Firefox Accessibility Extensions (listed alphabetically)

  • Accessibar an "Accessibility Toolbar" which enables easy manipulation of web page display with limited text-to-speech capabilities
  • CLC Star: stylesheet tweaker for Accessibility and Readability in FireFox (although designed to work with FireVox and CLiCk, Speak, it is a stand-alone extension which can function for itself)
  • CLiCk, Speak:
    • Developer's Note: "Unlike FireVox, which is designed for visually impaired users, CLiCK, Speak is designed for sighted user who want or need text-to-speech functionality. [...] If you're a sighted user who wants to have web pages read to you because you have cognitive issues (for example, dyslexia), because you have literacy issues (like me - I can understand spoken Mandarin Chinese just fine, but reading is difficult for me), because you want to reduce eyestrain and listen to a web page being read, etc., then you are likely to prefer CLiCk, Speak over Fire Vox."
  • Fangs (visual emulation of aural browser)
  • Fire Vox a self-voicing CSS3-Speech compliant extension (requires Windows or Java runtime)
  • Firefox Accessibility Extension
  • Longdesc Add-On
  • Maavis is a "new accessibility program that provides greatly simplified access to computer activities including videos, music, photos, web information and video calls, which is specifically designed for older people in care who have dementia or related issues, Maavis aims to engage and provide discussion opportunities through being a transparent medium delivering interesting activities. By providing a non threatening 'appliance' that appears to be something of a 'clever TV' it has been designed to allay the fears of those who are alienated by or highly nervous of ICT and the interweb."
  • MozBraille: an extension for FireFox which makes it a "stand alone" browser for blind and partially sighted persons; features: braille output (to braille terminal), text-to-speech, and "big characters" view
    • Note: MozBraille is part of the Vickie Project, whose aim is to create an "electronic school bag" for visually impaired children
  • Mouse Gestures: allows the use of mouse gestures to control the FireFox web browser, so as to allow "mouse only" internet browsing
  • NoSquint: a FireFox extension that allows you to adjust the default text zoom level.
  • ReefChat: a free and open source accessible Ajax chat application developed by Peter Thiessen and designed to work with the FireVox screen reader or any other screen reader that supports WAI-ARIA. Features include: accessible layout; ARIA Live Region support; message highlighting based on message importance; message filtering using FireVox screen reader; and chat transcript history (ReefChat gets its name from a coral reef where fish meet to socialize.)
    • Note: this application requires access to a server, preferably Linux based. For the database, it requires MySQL and the scripting language PHP. Refer to the ReefChat Installation page for more details
  • WebAnywhere: A Screen Reader On the Go
  • WebVisum: available in English, German, Russian, Italian and Slovak

Screen-Reader Simulators

Text-Based Browsers

  • Lynx: a widely used text-based browser; works well with all output modalities
  • NetTamer: a text-based shareware browser whose developers promise "will run on your customer's oldest and slowest PC"

Voice Browsers

  • ConversaWeb: voice-activated browser allowing spoken selection of links using "saycons".
  • WebHearIt: a telephone-based tool which uses the telephone keypad as an interface to navigate "suitably configured" pages.
  • TelWeb: An experimental telephone-based browser allowing access to any site using voice and dialled commands.

Accessibility Inspectors and Toolkits


All-in-One Internet Application Suites (Browsers/Editors/Media Collectors)

  • Amaya editor and browser (Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Unix)
  • SeaMonkey, from Mozilla, is a browser, advanced email and newsgroup client, IRC chat client, and a WYSIWYG HTML editor (Windows, Linux, Mac OSx)
    • Note: The SeaMonkey project is an effort to deliver production-quality releases of code derived from the application formerly known as "Mozilla Application Suite". It includes the NGLayout/Gecko layout engine and is built atop the XPCOM component architecture.



HTML Content Management Tools

The Web Repair Initiative hosts a list of over 300 wikis, blogs, forums, CMSs, embedable editors, etc.


Authoring Tools

The Web Repair Initiative hosts a list of over 300 wikis, blogs, forums, CMSs, embedable editors, etc.


HTML compatible list serves


HTML email clients

This section is for mail clients that support HTML content (such as "text/html") for either just reading email or composing email too. Many web-based mail clients typically support HTML. The use of HTML in email has developed without necessarily adhering to W3C HTML recommendations and so is often very presentational HTML. However, the following lists any mail clients that provide HTML content support.


Related Pages