Internationalization (i18n) Activity

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i18n WG

i18n Interest Group

i18n Tag Set (ITS) IG

Chinese Layout Task Force

Indic Layout Task Force

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July 2011 (13)
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June 2008 (13)

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Category: w3cWebDesign


First Public Working Draft of Indic Layout Requirements published

The W3C Internationalization Working Group has published a First Public Working Draft of Indic Layout Requirements on behalf of the Indic Layout Task Force, part of the W3C Internationalization Interest Group.

This document describes the basic requirements for Indic script layout and text support on the Web and in eBooks. These requirements provide information for Web technologies such as CSS, HTML and SVG about how to support users of Indic scripts. The current document focuses on Devanagari, but there are plans to widen the scope to encompass additional Indian scripts as time goes on.

Publication as a First Public Working Draft, signals the beginning of the process, rather than an end point. We are now looking for comments on the document. Please send any comments you have to The archive is public, but you need to subscribe to post to it.


Recent translations into Simplified Chinese

These articles were translated into Simplified Chinese thanks to Sam Chen.

Recent translations into German

These articles were translated into German thanks to Gunnar Bittersmann.

Final report for Chinese Layout Requirements Workshop available

The final report for the Workshop on Chinese Language Text Layout Requirements, which was held on September 11, 2014, at Beihang University, is now available. See also the Chinese version of this report.

The report contains links to slides.

The workshop gave a strong message of support for W3C Beihang and CESI to cooperate and lead the work on the Chinese Layout Requirement Document. In addition to Simplified and Traditional Chinese, there was also strong interest from representatives of the Mongolian, Tibetan and Uighur script communities to participate in the work. The closing session of the workshop proposed a number of steps to continue the efforts.

The W3C staff is driving the process of setting up this task force and reaching out to a wide range of interested stakeholders. This consultation will seek to clarify the mission for the task force, the target topics and industry priorities, and opportunities for liaisons with other related standards development organizations.

Encoding is a Candidate Recommendation

The Encoding specification has been published as a Candidate Recommendation. This is a snapshot of the WHATWG document, as of 4 September 2014, published after discussion with the WHATWG editors. No changes have been made in the body of this document other than to align with W3C house styles. The primary reason that W3C is publishing this document is so that HTML5 and other specifications may normatively refer to a stable W3C Recommendation.

Going forward, the Internationalization Working Group expects to receive more comments in the form of implementation feedback and test cases. The Working Group
believes it will have satisfied its implementation criteria no earlier than 16 March 2015. If you would like to contribute test cases or information about implementations, please send mail to

The utf-8 encoding is the most appropriate encoding for interchange of Unicode, the universal coded character set. Therefore for new protocols and formats, as well as existing formats deployed in new contexts, this specification requires (and defines) the utf-8 encoding.

The other (legacy) encodings have been defined to some extent in the past. However, user agents have not always implemented them in the same way, have not always used the same labels, and often differ in dealing with undefined and former proprietary areas of encodings. This specification addresses those gaps so that new user agents do not have to reverse engineer encoding implementations and existing user agents can converge.


Updated article: Declaring language in HTML

The article Declaring language in HTML was changed at the end of May. A noticeable change was the introduction of additional headings, to enable readers to more quickly spot relevant information. Also a new section was added: What if element content and attribute values are in different languages?

German, Spanish, Russian and Ukranian translators are asked to update their translations.

Categories: Update, w3cWebDesign

Predefined Counter Styles Draft Published

The W3C i18n Working Group has published a new Working Draft of Predefined Counter Styles. This document describes numbering systems used by various cultures around the world and can be used as a reference for those wishing to create user-defined counter styles for CSS. The latest draft synchronizes the document with changes to the related document CSS Counter Styles Level 3, for which a second Last Call is about to be announced. If you have comments on the draft, please send to

XLIFF 2.0 becomes OASIS standard

The XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF) version 2.0 has been approved as an OASIS Standard.

XLIFF is the open standard bi-text format: Bi-text keeps source language and target language data in sync during localization.

The publication of XLIFF 2.0 is of high importance for W3C since several of the main ITS 2.0 data categories can be used within XLIFF 2.0 to provide content related information during the localization process. Full ITS 2.0 support is planned for the upcoming XLIFF 2.1 version.

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Report available for W3C MultilingualWeb workshop in Madrid

A report summarizing the MultilingualWeb workshop in Madrid is now available from the MultilingualWeb site. It contains a summary of each session with links to presentation slides and minutes taken during the workshop in Madrid. The workshop was a huge success, with approximately 110 participants, and with the associated LIDER roadmapping workshop. The Workshop was hosted by Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, sponsored by the EU-funded LIDER project, by Verisign and by Lionbridge.
A new workshop in the MultilingualWeb series is planned for 2015.


Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching and Searching Draft Published

This document builds upon on the Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals to provide authors of specifications, software developers, and content developers a common reference on string matching on the World Wide Web and thereby increase interoperability. String matching is the process by which a specification or implementation defines whether two string values are the same or different from one another.

The main target audience of this specification is W3C specification developers. This specification and parts of it can be referenced from other W3C specifications and it defines conformance criteria for W3C specifications, as well as other specifications.

This version of this document represents a significant change from its previous edition. Much of the content is changed and the recommendations are significantly altered. This fact is reflected in a change to the name of the document from “Character Model: Normalization” to “Character Model for the World Wide Web: String Matching and Searching”.

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