Internationalization (i18n) Activity

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W3C Validator Suite
Includes i18n Checker

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July 2011 (13)
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ITS 2.0 is a W3C Recommendation!

The MultilingualWeb-LT Working Group has published a W3C Recommendation of Internationalization Tag Set (ITS) Version 2.0.

ITS 2.0 provides a foundation for integrating automated processing of human language into core Web technologies. ITS 2.0 bears many commonalities with its predecessor, ITS 1.0, but provides additional concepts that are designed to foster the automated creation and processing of multilingual Web content.

Work on application scenarios for ITS 2.0 and gathering of usage and implementation experience will now take place in the ITS Interest Group.

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New Working Group Note: Use Cases and Exploratory Approaches for Ruby Markup Note

The Internationalization Working Group has published a Group Note, Use Cases & Exploratory Approaches for Ruby Markup.

This document was designed to support discussion about what is needed in the HTML5 specification, and possibly other markup vocabularies, to adequately support ruby markup. It describes a number of use cases associated with ruby usage, and then examines a number of possible ruby markup approaches for each use case, listing pros and cons for each approach.

New article: Using HTML’s translate attribute

The translate attribute in HTML5 has been long awaited by those involved with translation, since it will improve translation of content whether it be in industrial localization environments or by individuals wanting to translate a single page using an online translation service, such as those offered by Google, Microsoft and Yandex.

This article discusses what the translate attribute is for, and how it should be used.

Read the article.

New article: Indicating the language of a link destination

This article is based on text that was originally published in the WG Note, Internationalization Best Practices: Specifying Language in XHTML & HTML Content. The Note will be updated in due course, at which time the material will be removed from the Note.

The article discusses some of the pros and cons for signalling the language of a page which a link points to, if that page is not in the same language as the current content. It also looks at how people have done this in the past using the hreflang attribute.

Because of its history, the article has not been through the normal review process, but comments can be sent using the feedback form.

A future version of the article may look at alternative approaches and implementations, such as those used for European languages.

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New article: Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm basics

Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm basics is a repackaging of the initial part of “What you need to know about the bidi algorithm and inline markup” as a standalone article. It provides a gentle introduction to the behaviour of the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, and helps you understand why bidirectional text in Arabic, Hebrew, Thaana, Urdu, etc. behaves the way it does.

4 new articles about working with HTML markup in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts

Creating HTML Pages in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts
This tutorial has been modified to bring it in line with the current tutorial format. Rather than contain duplicate content, it now introduces the novice to key concepts and points off to useful further reading in an organized fashion. It has been completely rewritten.

Text direction and structural markup in HTML
This article has been created from material formerly in the tutorial “Creating HTML Pages in Arabic, Hebrew and Other Right-to-left Scripts” and augmented with information about new HTML5 markup constructs that are beginning to see adoption. It should be regarded as a new article, focusing on applying bidi markup to document- and block-level content, including forms.

What you need to know about the bidi algorithm and inline markup
This is an update of an existing article, but it has been almost completely rewritten. The most significant changes are the new parts describing how to apply the new HTML5 constructs which are beginning to see adoption. Additional changes will be needed as HTML5 bidi markup is finalised over the coming months. The article also proposes a simpler way to approach markup of bidi text, particularly useful for those with less experience, that relies less on a deep understanding of the issues involved.

Visual vs. logical ordering of text
This is a new article created from material that has been removed from the previously mentioned articles. It was removed into a separate article because visual ordering is much less important these days, and to avoid duplication. Only a few changes have been made to the content itself.

Just Published! New Version of Working Group Note, Requirements for Japanese Text Layout (日本語組版処理の要件)

Requirements for Japanese Text Layout describes requirements for Japanese layout realized with technologies like CSS, SVG and XSL-FO. For non-Japanese speakers it provides access to a wealth of detailed and authoritative information about Japanese typesetting. The document is mainly based on a standard for Japanese layout, JIS X 4051 and its authors include key contributors to that standard. However, it also addresses areas which are not covered by JIS X 4051.

This second version of the document contains a significant amount of additional information related to hanmen design, such as handling headings, placement of illustrations and tables, handling of notes and reference marks, etc.

The document was created by the Japanese Layout Task Force (with participation from four W3C Working Groups, CSS, Internationalization Core, SVG and XSL)

A Japanese version is also available.

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RSS feed links changed

The Internationalization Activity home page has recently been ported to WordPress. This means that the URIs for the various RSS feeds have changed. You can find the new links at the page W3C I18n news filters and RSS feeds.

The current URIs will continue to work for a short while, to support the transition, but you should change as soon as possible.

URIs for category filters have also changed, as have those for search key text within posts (useful for finding the history of a particular article or document). The latter have been converted to tags.

Just published: 1 new and 3 updated articles about language declarations in HTML

One tutorial and two articles have been updated, and a new article has been created from material that was moved out of the tutorial. The updates all involve major rewrites of the former text. These changes incorporate up-to-date information about how language declarations are handled in HTML5, and generally refresh and improve the previous material.

The new articles are:

 Working with language in HTML (tutorial)

 Why use the language attribute?

 Declaring language in HTML

 HTTP headers, meta elements and language information

All articles use a new HTML5-based template with additional change to the boilerplate code.

New article: Personal names around the world

How do people’s names differ around the world, and what are the implications of those differences on the design of forms, databases, ontologies, etc. for the Web?

People who create web forms, databases, or ontologies are often unaware how different people’s names can be in other countries. They build their forms or databases in a way that assumes too much on the part of foreign users. This article introduces you first to some of the different styles used for personal names, and then some of the possible implications for handling those on the Web.

 Read the article.

By Richard Ishida, W3C.


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