This Wiki page is edited by participants of the Cognitive and Learning Disabilities Accessibility Task Force. It does not necessarily represent consensus and it may have incorrect information or information that is not supported by other Task Force participants, WAI, or W3C. It may also have some very useful information.
- 1 Gap Analysis: Table of content
- 1.1 Introduction
- 1.2 Source documents
- 1.3 Types of gaps
- 1.4 New success criteria
- 1.4.1 Under WCAG 1.3 - Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
- 1.4.2 Under WCAG 2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content.
- 1.4.3 Under WCAG 3.1
- 1.4.4 Items where New techniques are WCAG 2.0 required
- 1.4.5 Items where WCAG 2.0 SC levels should be changes
- 1.5 Edits to WCAG
- 1.6 Recommendations for new Success Criteria (SC)
- 1.7 New Requirements
- 1.8 Recommendations for User agent changes
- 1.9 Further work or appendixes
- 2 OLD links
Gap Analysis: Table of content
introduce User Research, Techniques and Issue Paper)
Types of gaps
New success criteria
Under WCAG 1.3 - Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.
We suggest adding the following as success criteria:
Enable adaptability Use semantics and standardized techniques and that enable the content to be adapted to the user scenario or enable extra help and support Techniques will included
- Use semantics and standardized techniques to provide extra help (COGA Techniques 4.1)
- Provide symbols on key content (COGA Techniques 4.2)
- Include features that support the user preferences
- Enable user agents to find the version of the content that best fits their needs
Under WCAG 2.2 Provide users enough time to read and use content.
We suggest adding the following as success criteria: Use clear visual affordances. (COGA Techniques 2.3)
Help the user maintain attention This includes
- Avoid distracting elements (COGA Techniques 2.11.1)
- No Interruptions (COGA Techniques 2.11.2)
- Help The User Focus (COGA Techniques 2.11.3)
Under WCAG 3.1
We suggest adding the following as success criteria:
Use a clear structure (COGA Techniques 2.1)This includes:
- Break your content into manageable chunks (COGA Techniques 2.1.1)
- Use headings and labels describe topic or purpose. (COGA Techniques 2.1.2)
- Use consistent styles (COGA Techniques 2.1.1)
- Use presentation, color and symbols to convey structure, and relationships (COGA Techniques 2.1.1)
- Use lists (COGA Techniques 2.1.1)
- Use presentation to show structure (COGA Techniques 2.1.1)
- Use symbols and images to show meaning (COGA Techniques 2.1.1)
Use a clear writing style (COGA Techniques 2.5)
- Be Clear and to the point (COGA Techniques 2.5.1)
- Give instructions clearly. (COGA Techniques 2.5.2)
- Use active rather than passive voice.(COGA Techniques 2.5.3)
- Avoid double negatives. (COGA Techniques 2.5.4)
- Checking Readability (COGA Techniques 2.5.5)
- Limit the number of features and choices on the same screen. (some users only) (COGA Techniques 2.5.5)
Under WCAG 3.2 Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.
We suggest adding the following success criteria: Be predictable (COGA Techniques 2.4) (also see Guideline 3.2 Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways. 3.2.1 On Focus: 3.2.2 On Input: 3.2.3 Consistent Navigation: 3.2.4 Consistent Identification: Ours also adds presentation to the mix and standard layout design The more predictable your content is the easier it is to know how to use it.
- Use a consistent layout for all your content
- Use the same icons and buttons to serve the same function
- Use the same linked text to go to the same page
- Use standard layout design, so it is easy to find common content.
In 2015 in English sites this includes:
- the search box is in the right hand corner
- a link to home page in the left hand corner
- site map in the footer, etc.
Under WCAG 3.3 Help users avoid and correct mistakes.
We suggest adding the following success criteria:
Provide rapid and direct feedback. (COGA Techniques 2.6 )
Help meaning (COGA Techniques 2.7 )
- Include short tooltips on all icons, jargon (COGA Techniques 2.7. )
- Use of charts and graphics (COGA Techniques 2.7.3 )
- Use of synchronized highlighting, of complex graphics and formula with speech (COGA Techniques 2.7.3 )
- Use a clear font and layout (COGA Techniques 2.8 )
Help users complete and check their work (COGA Techniques 2.9 )This includes
- Enough Time (COGA Techniques 2.9.1 )
- Avoid Loss of data (COGA Techniques 2.9.2 )
- Prevent errors (COGA Techniques 2.9.3 )
- Make it easy to undo mistakes (COGA Techniques 2.9.4 )
- Provide context sensitive help (COGA Techniques 2.10.1 )
- Include short tooltips on all icons, jargon (COGA Techniques 2.10.2 )
- Provide easy access to human help (COGA Techniques 2.10.2 )
- Provide speech support (COGA Techniques 2.10.2 )
Notes, details and potential techniques
The following is information from the COGA techniques. Please see the COGA techniques for information on who it helps etc.
2.5.1 Be clear and to the point. Ensure that:
- the message is clear
- extraneous information is separated (preferably removed)
- one message is delivered at a time
- key points are separated out
- use short clear sentences
- avoid multiple points in one sentence
- choose words that are in general use
- use common words that are easily understood by your audience
- avoid hyphenated words and acronyms (unless they are easily understandable)
- be factual
- use clear headings to signpost information
- lists and bullet points are used
- order of statements is logical
- use words that make it clear what will happen when links and buttons are used (such as "search" in place of "submit")
- (in part covered by 3.1.4 Abbreviations and 3.1.3 Unusual Words: A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon. (Level AAA)
2.5.2 Give instructions clearly.
- use short clear sentences
- use simple, clear words
- do not miss out steps
- do not assume users can guess what you mean
- leave plenty of space between lines (at least 1.5 spacing between lines
- limit decisions/options for user
2.5.3 Use active rather than passive voice. Ensure that the subject starts the sentence Possible use of ‘you’ but careful use of other pronouns such as ‘she’, ‘he’ etc ii Determiners such as ‘this’ and ‘that’ can confuse
2.5.5 Checking Readability (covered in part by 3.1.5 Reading Level AAA) Check long documents in sections to determine which parts are too hard to read. Flesch Reading Ease score: Rates text on a 100-point scale. The higher the score, the easier it is to understand the document. For most standard documents, aim for a score of approximately 70 to 80. Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level score: Rates text on a U.S. grade-school level. For example, a score of 5.0 means that a fifth grader, i.e., a Year 6, average 10 years old, can understand the document. For most standard documents, aim for a score of approximately 5.0 by using short sentences, not by simplifying vocabulary.
2.9 Help users complete and check their work 2.9.1 Enough Time Timed event should be avoided – if they are necessary there need to be clear controls, pauses and the ability to return to the original point and an alternative is included. (Compare to WCAG 2.2.1 Timing Adjustable: For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true: (Level A) however the options is not useful for COGA- Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, "press the space bar"), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times; etc.
Covered better at AAA 2.2.3 No Timing: Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events. (Level AAA)
2.9.2 Avoid Loss of data Data needs to be held, saved and available if web pages are refreshed by accident, closed or new tabs are opened. There needs to be the ability to return to forms partially filled and the ability to save content but security issues may prevent this on some websites.
2.9.3 Prevent errors (also see 3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data) and 3.3.6 Error Prevention (AAA for all): For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true: Reversible: Submissions are reversible. Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them. Confirmed:
We add here: possible prevent the user from making errors and needing to fix them
- Require as little information as possible. Make it visually clear what information is required
- Provide instructions
- Accept as many formats as possible, such as different ways of writing a phone number and date formats
- Correct errors in the backend, such as the post code being written in the text field with the city or state information
- Provide a summary before submitting important information. Make it one click to repair information
- Users often confuse advertisements and native content. Put advertisements in a box clearly marked as "advertisement". Keep advertisement septate from native content.
- Users often forget about the scroll. Put any important features, such as save and send, above the scroll.
- Never trick the user into buying or agreeing to something that they did not understand, or create a price structure that is unclear. For example,
- never increase the number of items (such as having a default of two) if the user may not notice
- never have hidden charges that are only brought to the users attention after they have given their credit card information. All charges must be clear before the start of the transaction task.
- With calendar applications it should be impossible to give a start date after an end date
- remind users where they are and what they are doing (such as click-able breadcrumbs that give a brief summary of what was done at each step)
2.9.4 Make it easy to undo mistakes (note this is not an alternative but a must)
- Where technically feasible undo and redo should be provided.
- Users should be able to go back steps to correct errors without losing their work. For example, breadcrumbs can be provided with previous steps clickable.
- Avoid reset buttons which can be confusing and users can hit them accidentally, losing their work.
- Provide clickable breadcrumbs that allow users to see the previous steps, go back, and change them.
- Support should be provided if undo is not available.
- Error text should say what the error is and tell the user how to correct it.
- Error text should be simple, clear and friendly.
2.10 Provide Help 2.10.1 Provide context sensitive help (covered by 3.3.5 Help: Context-sensitive help is available. (Level AAA) at low level
2.10.4 Provide speech support - Note Always make sure you have used accessible format and that all content can be converted to speech (see WCAG 2.0) However, screen readers can be complex to use. If you want the maximum number of people to use your site add an icon or button on the page that reads the content to the user without requiring them to install a screen reader.
2.11 Attention (WCAG does not address coga needs with WCAG 2.2.4 Interruptions: Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency. (Level AAA) 2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide: For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true: (Level A) Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential; and Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.)
2.11.1 Avoid distracting elements such as
- Blinking text (the threshold lickering or flashing content, refer to Guideline 2.3. is not relevant)
- Scrolling banners are avoided
- Text is kept to narrow columns in the center of the site
- Low or No unasked for Background Audio or video (1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio AAA and 1.4.2 Audio Control: If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level. (Level A)
- Extraneous and inconsequential media events are avoided
- No sudden changes occur on the site ( Covered in part in wcag)
2.11.2 No Interruptions No sudden changes occur on the site
- No unasked for media events
- chat can be easily turned off
- Bulleted list item
(3.2.5 Change on Request: Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes. (Level AAA)) (WCAG 2.2.4 Interruptions: Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency. (Level AAA)
NOTE Add4.4 Augmentative with signs (See wcag 1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded): Sign language interpretation is provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media. (Level AAA) Add dyscalculia examples!!!
Items where New techniques are WCAG 2.0 required
1.3.1 Info and Relationships: Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A)
The following are techniques under development. We can not recommend their use until they have been proven to work reliably.
- 1 Add technique to enable interoperable symbol mapping for products for Non verbal people.
In the Web Content: Syntax: aria-concept = "uri". Example (Pseudocode): <img aria-concept="http://wordnet.org/somepage#girlnode" scr="girlwithbow.gif" />
- 2 Add technique at a useragent symbol file end:
<mysymbol scr="girlwithskirt.gif" aria-concept="http://wordnet.or g/somepage#girlnode" lang="en" /> Note this is not about standardizing the symbols but a way of mapping them
Items where WCAG 2.0 SC levels should be changes
We recommend the following level AAA are considered more important for COGA
1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio No Background: The audio does not contain background sounds or Turn Off: The background sounds can be turned off.
We would need to change it as well to - Turn Off: The background sounds can EASILY be turned off.
1.4.8 Visual Presentation: For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following: (Level AAA)
- Foreground and background colors can be selected by the user.
- Width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK).
- Text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).
- Line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing.
- Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window.
2.2.3 No Timing: Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events. (Level AAA)
2.2.5 Re-authenticating: When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating. (Level AAA)
2.4.8 Location: Information about the user's location within a set of Web pages is available. (Level AAA)
2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only): A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general. (Level AAA)
We would want to lose the text "except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general"
2.4.10 Section Headings: Section headings are used to organize the content. (Level AAA) Note 1: "Heading" is used in its general sense and includes titles and other ways to add a heading to different types of content.
3.1.3 Unusual Words: A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon. (Level AAA)
3.1.4 Abbreviations: A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available. (Level AAA)
3.1.5 Reading Level: When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available. (Level AAA)
3.2.5 Change on Request: Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes. (Level AAA)
3.3.5 Help: Context-sensitive help is available. (Level AAA)
3.3.6 Error Prevention (All): For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true: (Level AAA) Reversible: Submissions are reversible. Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them. Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.
We would want a change that ALL are required.
Edits to WCAG
Contrast The visual presentation of text and images of text AND ICONS have a contrast ratio of at least
Recommendations for new Success Criteria (SC)
Recommendations for User agent changes
Further work or appendixes
Aria-context needs implementations - this will define scope and limitation. Aria-context is language dependent
Supportive meta data
We this is old content for the gap analysis. I am keeping it so we do not miss or lose anything.
Section 1: Abstract and Introduction
Section 2: Background research (modularized in part)
Review of use cases external to standards
- State of the art in classification of cognitive function (stable to reference modular document)
- User group research module (May include larger group with sub groups such as Aphasia and language disorders)
Proposed initial list for phase 1 includes but is not limited to:
Other are welcome. Template
Phase 2: More groups such as: Effects of PTSD on cognitive function)
Review of current standards and technologies(modularized) Template
- How they are used for Cog A11y and
- Potentials and possibilities
Business case and dynamics
- Cognitive load –dispatches
- Aging society
- Veterans with brain injury
- Detracting from other peoples experience
- Legitimate variance nurodiversity
- Legislation based guidelines are burdensome and restrict author freedoms (hence metadata markup clues)
- Cross cultural and language learners