Techniques for WCAG 2.0

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F91: Failure of Success Criterion 1.3.1 for not correctly marking up table headers

Important Information about Techniques

See Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria for important information about the usage of these informative techniques and how they relate to the normative WCAG 2.0 success criteria. The Applicability section explains the scope of the technique, and the presence of techniques for a specific technology does not imply that the technology can be used in all situations to create content that meets WCAG 2.0.



This failure relates to:

User Agent and Assistive Technology Support Notes

See User Agent Support Notes for F91.


This failure occurs when data tables do not use header elements (th) or other appropriate table mark-up (the scope attribute, headers and id or the ARIA roles columnheader / rowheader) to make the headers programatically determinable from within table content. Making headers programmatically determinable is especially important when data cells are only intelligible together with header information. When screen reader users navigate through the table content horizontally or vertically, the headers that change can be read out to provide the necessary context for the information in the data cells.


Failure Example 1: Headers not marked up appropriately

This table does not use th (or other appropriate header markup) for headers. Instead, it uses td elements for all cells. Navigating cell by cell, screen readers will often fail to read the header cells associated with content.

Example Code:

      <td>Height (cm)</td>
      <td>Weight (kg)</td>

View example 1 (opens in same browser window)



For all data tables, check if table headers can be correctly programmatically determined by use of one of the following mechanisms:

  1. headers marked up with table header (th) elements

  2. scope attributes on th for tables with more than a single row or column of table headers.

  3. scope attributes on th for tables with more than a single row or column of table headers.

  4. headers and data cells associated using headers and id attributes

  5. headers marked up as td elements with the scope attribute

  6. headers marked up with ARIA role attributes rowheader or columnheader

Expected Results