Techniques for WCAG 2.0

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F47: Failure of Success Criterion 2.2.2 due to using the blink element



This failure relates to:

User Agent and Assistive Technology Support Notes

See User Agent Support Notes for F47.


The blink element, while not part of the official HTML or XHTML specification, is supported by many user agents. It causes any text inside the element to blink at a predetermined rate. This cannot be interrupted by the user, nor can it be disabled as a preference. The blinking continues as long as the page is displayed. Therefore, content that uses blink fails the Success Criterion because blinking can continue for more than three seconds.


Failure Example 1

A product list page uses the blink element to draw attention to sale prices. This fails the Success Criterion because users cannot control the blink.

Example Code:

<p>My Great Product <blink>Sale! $44,995!</blink></p>



  1. Examine code for the presence of the blink element.

Expected Results

Techniques are Informative

Techniques are informative—that means they are not required. The basis for determining conformance to WCAG 2.0 is the success criteria from the WCAG 2.0 standard—not the techniques. For important information about techniques, please see the Understanding Techniques for WCAG Success Criteria section of Understanding WCAG 2.0.