12 IANA considerations

12.1 text/html

This registration is for community review and will be submitted to the IESG for review, approval, and registration with IANA.

Type name:
text
Subtype name:
html
Required parameters:
No required parameters
Optional parameters:
charset

The charset parameter may be provided to definitively specify the document's character encoding, overriding any character encoding declarations in the document. The parameter's value must be the name of the character encoding used to serialize the file. [ENCODING]

Encoding considerations:
8bit (see the section on character encoding declarations)
Security considerations:

Entire novels have been written about the security considerations that apply to HTML documents. Many are listed in this document, to which the reader is referred for more details. Some general concerns bear mentioning here, however:

HTML is scripted language, and has a large number of APIs (some of which are described in this document). Script can expose the user to potential risks of information leakage, credential leakage, cross-site scripting attacks, cross-site request forgeries, and a host of other problems. While the designs in this specification are intended to be safe if implemented correctly, a full implementation is a massive undertaking and, as with any software, user agents are likely to have security bugs.

Even without scripting, there are specific features in HTML which, for historical reasons, are required for broad compatibility with legacy content but that expose the user to unfortunate security problems. In particular, the img element can be used in conjunction with some other features as a way to effect a port scan from the user's location on the Internet. This can expose local network topologies that the attacker would otherwise not be able to determine.

HTML relies on a compartmentalization scheme sometimes known as the same-origin policy. An origin in most cases consists of all the pages served from the same host, on the same port, using the same protocol.

It is critical, therefore, to ensure that any untrusted content that forms part of a site be hosted on a different origin than any sensitive content on that site. Untrusted content can easily spoof any other page on the same origin, read data from that origin, cause scripts in that origin to execute, submit forms to and from that origin even if they are protected from cross-site request forgery attacks by unique tokens, and make use of any third-party resources exposed to or rights granted to that origin.

Interoperability considerations:
Rules for processing both conforming and non-conforming content are defined in this specification.
Published specification:
This document is the relevant specification. Labeling a resource with the text/html type asserts that the resource is an HTML document using the HTML syntax.
Applications that use this media type:
Web browsers, tools for processing Web content, HTML authoring tools, search engines, validators.
Additional information:
Magic number(s):
No sequence of bytes can uniquely identify an HTML document. More information on detecting HTML documents is available in the MIME Sniffing specification. [MIMESNIFF]
File extension(s):
"html" and "htm" are commonly, but certainly not exclusively, used as the extension for HTML documents.
Macintosh file type code(s):
TEXT
Person & email address to contact for further information:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Intended usage:
Common
Restrictions on usage:
No restrictions apply.
Author:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Change controller:
W3C

Fragment identifiers used with text/html resources either refer to the indicated part of the document or provide state information for in-page scripts.

12.2 multipart/x-mixed-replace

This registration is for community review and will be submitted to the IESG for review, approval, and registration with IANA.

Type name:
multipart
Subtype name:
x-mixed-replace
Required parameters:
Optional parameters:
No optional parameters.
Encoding considerations:
binary
Security considerations:
Subresources of a multipart/x-mixed-replace resource can be of any type, including types with non-trivial security implications such as text/html.
Interoperability considerations:
None.
Published specification:
This specification describes processing rules for Web browsers. Conformance requirements for generating resources with this type are the same as for multipart/mixed. [RFC2046]
Applications that use this media type:
This type is intended to be used in resources generated by Web servers, for consumption by Web browsers.
Additional information:
Magic number(s):
No sequence of bytes can uniquely identify a multipart/x-mixed-replace resource.
File extension(s):
No specific file extensions are recommended for this type.
Macintosh file type code(s):
No specific Macintosh file type codes are recommended for this type.
Person & email address to contact for further information:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Intended usage:
Common
Restrictions on usage:
No restrictions apply.
Author:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Change controller:
W3C

Fragment identifiers used with multipart/x-mixed-replace resources apply to each body part as defined by the type used by that body part.

12.3 application/xhtml+xml

This registration is for community review and will be submitted to the IESG for review, approval, and registration with IANA.

Type name:
application
Subtype name:
xhtml+xml
Required parameters:
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
Optional parameters:
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
Encoding considerations:
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
Security considerations:
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
Interoperability considerations:
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
Published specification:
Labeling a resource with the application/xhtml+xml type asserts that the resource is an XML document that likely has a root element from the HTML namespace. Thus, the relevant specifications are the XML specification, the Namespaces in XML specification, and this specification. [XML] [XMLNS]
Applications that use this media type:
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
Additional information:
Magic number(s):
Same as for application/xml [RFC3023]
File extension(s):
"xhtml" and "xht" are sometimes used as extensions for XML resources that have a root element from the HTML namespace.
Macintosh file type code(s):
TEXT
Person & email address to contact for further information:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Intended usage:
Common
Restrictions on usage:
No restrictions apply.
Author:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Change controller:
W3C

Fragment identifiers used with application/xhtml+xml resources have the same semantics as with any XML MIME type. [RFC3023]

12.4 application/x-www-form-urlencoded

This registration is for community review and will be submitted to the IESG for review, approval, and registration with IANA.

Type name:
application
Subtype name:
x-www-form-urlencoded
Required parameters:
No parameters
Optional parameters:
No parameters
Encoding considerations:
7bit (US-ASCII encoding of octets that themselves can be encoding text using any ASCII-compatible character encoding)
Security considerations:

In isolation, an application/x-www-form-urlencoded payload poses no security risks. However, as this type is usually used as part of a form submission, all the risks that apply to HTML forms need to be considered in the context of this type.

Interoperability considerations:
Rules for generating and processing application/x-www-form-urlencoded payloads are defined in this specification.
Published specification:
This document is the relevant specification. Algorithms for encoding and decoding are defined.
Applications that use this media type:
Web browsers and servers.
Additional information:
Magic number(s):
There is no reliable mechanism for recognising application/x-www-form-urlencoded payloads.
File extension(s):
Not applicable.
Macintosh file type code(s):
Not applicable.
Person & email address to contact for further information:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Intended usage:
Common
Restrictions on usage:
This type is only intended to be used to describe HTML form submission payloads.
Author:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Change controller:
W3C

Fragment identifiers have no meaning with the application/x-www-form-urlencoded type.

12.5 text/cache-manifest

This registration is for community review and will be submitted to the IESG for review, approval, and registration with IANA.

Type name:
text
Subtype name:
cache-manifest
Required parameters:
No parameters
Optional parameters:
No parameters
Encoding considerations:
8bit (always UTF-8)
Security considerations:

Cache manifests themselves pose no immediate risk unless sensitive information is included within the manifest. Implementations, however, are required to follow specific rules when populating a cache based on a cache manifest, to ensure that certain origin-based restrictions are honored. Failure to correctly implement these rules can result in information leakage, cross-site scripting attacks, and the like.

Interoperability considerations:
Rules for processing both conforming and non-conforming content are defined in this specification.
Published specification:
This document is the relevant specification.
Applications that use this media type:
Web browsers.
Additional information:
Magic number(s):
Cache manifests begin with the string "CACHE MANIFEST", followed by either a U+0020 SPACE character, a "tab" (U+0009) character, a "LF" (U+000A) character, or a "CR" (U+000D) character.
File extension(s):
"appcache"
Macintosh file type code(s):
No specific Macintosh file type codes are recommended for this type.
Person & email address to contact for further information:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Intended usage:
Common
Restrictions on usage:
No restrictions apply.
Author:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Change controller:
W3C

Fragment identifiers have no meaning with text/cache-manifest resources.

12.6 web+ scheme prefix

This section describes a convention for use with the IANA URI scheme registry. It does not itself register a specific scheme. [RFC4395]

URI scheme name:
Schemes starting with the four characters "web+" followed by one or more letters in the range a-z.
Status:
permanent
URI scheme syntax:
Scheme-specific.
URI scheme semantics:
Scheme-specific.
Encoding considerations:
All "web+" schemes should use UTF-8 encodings where relevant.
Applications/protocols that use this URI scheme name:
Scheme-specific.
Interoperability considerations:
The scheme is expected to be used in the context of Web applications.
Security considerations:
Any Web page is able to register a handler for all "web+" schemes. As such, these schemes must not be used for features intended to be core platform features (e.g. network transfer protocols like HTTP or FTP). Similarly, such schemes must not store confidential information in their URLs, such as usernames, passwords, personal information, or confidential project names.
Contact:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
Author/Change controller:
Ian Hickson <ian@hixie.ch>
References:
Custom scheme and content handlers, HTML Living Standard: http://www.whatwg.org/specs/web-apps/current-work/#custom-handlers

Index

The following sections only cover conforming elements and features.

Elements

This section is non-normative.

List of elements
Element Description Categories Parents† Children Attributes Interface
a Hyperlink flow; phrasing*; interactive phrasing transparent* globals; href; target; download; rel; hreflang; type HTMLAnchorElement
abbr Abbreviation flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
address Contact information for a page or article element flow flow flow* globals HTMLElement
area Hyperlink or dead area on an image map flow; phrasing phrasing* empty globals; alt; coords; shape; href; target; download; rel; hreflang; type HTMLAreaElement
article Self-contained syndicatable or reusable composition flow; sectioning flow flow globals HTMLElement
aside Sidebar for tangentially related content flow; sectioning flow flow globals HTMLElement
audio Audio player flow; phrasing; embedded; interactive phrasing source*; transparent* globals; src; crossorigin; preload; autoplay; mediagroup; loop; muted; controls HTMLAudioElement
b Keywords flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
base Base URL and default target browsing context for hyperlinks and forms metadata head empty globals; href; target HTMLBaseElement
bdi Text directionality isolation flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
bdo Text directionality formatting flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
blockquote A section quoted from another source flow; sectioning root flow flow globals; cite HTMLQuoteElement
body Document body sectioning root html flow globals; onafterprint; onbeforeprint; onbeforeunload; onfullscreenchange; onfullscreenerror; onhashchange; onmessage; onoffline; ononline; onpagehide; onpageshow; onpopstate; onresize; onstorage; onunload HTMLBodyElement
br Line break, e.g. in poem or postal address flow; phrasing phrasing empty globals HTMLBRElement
button Button control flow; phrasing; interactive; listed; labelable; submittable; form-associated phrasing phrasing* globals; autofocus; disabled; form; formaction; formenctype; formmethod; formnovalidate; formtarget; name; type; value HTMLButtonElement
canvas Scriptable bitmap canvas flow; phrasing; embedded phrasing transparent globals; width; height HTMLCanvasElement
caption Table caption none table flow* globals HTMLTableCaptionElement
cite Title of a work flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
code Computer code flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
col Table column none colgroup empty globals; span HTMLTableColElement
colgroup Group of columns in a table none table col globals; span HTMLTableColElement
menuitem Menu command metadata; flow; phrasing head; phrasing empty globals; type; label; icon; disabled; checked; radiogroup; command HTMLMenuItemElement
data Machine-readable equivalent flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals; value HTMLDataElement
datalist Container for options for combo box control flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing; option globals HTMLDataListElement
dd Content for corresponding dt element(s) none dl flow globals HTMLElement
del A removal from the document flow; phrasing* phrasing transparent globals; cite; datetime HTMLModElement
details Disclosure control for hiding details flow; sectioning root; interactive flow summary*; flow globals; open HTMLDetailsElement
dfn Defining instance flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing* globals HTMLElement
dialog Dialog box or window flow; sectioning root dt; th; flow flow globals; open HTMLDialogElement
div Generic flow container flow flow flow globals HTMLDivElement
dl Association list consisting of zero or more name-value groups flow flow dt*; dd* globals HTMLDListElement
dt Legend for corresponding dd element(s) none dl flow* globals HTMLElement
em Stress emphasis flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
embed Plugin flow; phrasing; embedded; interactive phrasing empty globals; src; type; width; height; any* HTMLEmbedElement
fieldset Group of form controls flow; sectioning root; listed; form-associated flow legend*; flow globals; disabled; form; name HTMLFieldSetElement
figcaption Caption for figure none figure flow globals HTMLElement
figure Figure with optional caption flow; sectioning root flow figcaption*; flow globals HTMLElement
footer Footer for a page or section flow flow flow* globals HTMLElement
form User-submittable form flow flow flow* globals; accept-charset; action; autocomplete; enctype; method; name; novalidate; target HTMLFormElement
h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 Section heading flow; heading flow phrasing globals HTMLHeadingElement
head Container for document metadata none html metadata content* globals HTMLHeadElement
header Introductory or navigational aids for a page or section flow flow flow* globals HTMLElement
hr Thematic break flow flow empty globals HTMLHRElement
html Root element none none* head*; body* globals; manifest HTMLHtmlElement
i Alternate voice flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
iframe Nested browsing context flow; phrasing; embedded; interactive phrasing text* globals; src; srcdoc; name; sandbox; seamless; allowfullscreen; width; height HTMLIFrameElement
img Image flow; phrasing; embedded; interactive* phrasing empty globals; alt; src; crossorigin; usemap; ismap; width; height HTMLImageElement
input Form control flow; phrasing; interactive*; listed; labelable; submittable; resettable; form-associated phrasing empty globals; accept; alt; autocomplete; autofocus; checked; dirname; disabled; form; formaction; formenctype; formmethod; formnovalidate; formtarget; height; list; max; maxlength; min; multiple; name; pattern; placeholder; readonly; required; size; src; step; type; value; width HTMLInputElement
ins An addition to the document flow; phrasing* phrasing transparent globals; cite; datetime HTMLModElement
kbd User input flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
keygen Cryptographic key-pair generator form control flow; phrasing; interactive; listed; labelable; submittable; resettable; form-associated phrasing empty globals; autofocus; challenge; disabled; form; keytype; name HTMLKeygenElement
label Caption for a form control flow; phrasing; interactive; form-associated phrasing phrasing* globals; form; for HTMLLabelElement
legend Caption for fieldset none fieldset phrasing globals HTMLLegendElement
li List item none ol; ul; menu* flow globals; value* HTMLLIElement
link Link metadata metadata; flow*; phrasing* head; noscript*; phrasing* empty globals; href; crossorigin; rel; media; hreflang; type; sizes HTMLLinkElement
main Main content of a document flow flow flow* globals HTMLElement
map Image map flow; phrasing* phrasing transparent; area* globals; name HTMLMapElement
mark Highlight flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
menu Menu of commands flow flow; menu* li*; flow*; menuitem*; hr*; menu* globals; type; label HTMLMenuElement
meta Text metadata metadata; flow*; phrasing* head; noscript*; phrasing* empty globals; name; http-equiv; content; charset HTMLMetaElement
meter Gauge flow; phrasing; labelable phrasing phrasing* globals; value; min; max; low; high; optimum HTMLMeterElement
nav Section with navigational links flow; sectioning flow flow globals HTMLElement
noscript Fallback content for script metadata; flow; phrasing head*; phrasing* varies* globals HTMLElement
object Image, nested browsing context, or plugin flow; phrasing; embedded; interactive*; listed; submittable; form-associated phrasing param*; transparent globals; data; type; typemustmatch; name; usemap; form; width; height HTMLObjectElement
ol Ordered list flow flow li globals; reversed; start type HTMLOListElement
optgroup Group of options in a list box none select option globals; disabled; label HTMLOptGroupElement
option Option in a list box or combo box control none select; datalist; optgroup text* globals; disabled; label; selected; value HTMLOptionElement
output Calculated output value flow; phrasing; listed; labelable; resettable; form-associated phrasing phrasing globals; for; form; name HTMLOutputElement
p Paragraph flow flow phrasing globals HTMLParagraphElement
param Parameter for object none object empty globals; name; value HTMLParamElement
pre Block of preformatted text flow flow phrasing globals HTMLPreElement
progress Progress bar flow; phrasing; labelable phrasing phrasing* globals; value; max HTMLProgressElement
q Quotation flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals; cite HTMLQuoteElement
rp Parenthesis for ruby annotation text none ruby phrasing globals HTMLElement
rt Ruby annotation text none ruby phrasing globals HTMLElement
ruby Ruby annotation(s) flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing; rt; rp* globals HTMLElement
s Inaccurate text flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
samp Computer output flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
script Embedded script metadata; flow; phrasing head; phrasing script, data, or script documentation* globals; src; type; charset; async; defer; crossorigin HTMLScriptElement
section Generic document or application section flow; sectioning flow flow globals HTMLElement
select List box control flow; phrasing; interactive; listed; labelable; submittable; resettable; form-associated phrasing option, optgroup globals; autofocus; disabled; form; multiple; name; required; size HTMLSelectElement
small Side comment flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
source Media source for video or audio none video; audio empty globals; src; type; media HTMLSourceElement
span Generic phrasing container flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLSpanElement
strong Importance flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
style Embedded styling information metadata; flow head; noscript*; flow* varies* globals; media; type; scoped HTMLStyleElement
sub Subscript flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
summary Caption for details none details phrasing globals HTMLElement
sup Superscript flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
table Table flow flow caption*; colgroup*; thead*; tbody*; tfoot*; tr* globals; border HTMLTableElement
tbody Group of rows in a table none table tr globals HTMLTableSectionElement
td Table cell sectioning root tr flow globals; colspan; rowspan; headers HTMLTableDataCellElement
textarea Multiline text field flow; phrasing; interactive; listed; labelable; submittable; resettable; form-associated phrasing text globals; autofocus; cols; dirname; disabled; form; maxlength; name; placeholder; readonly; required; rows; wrap HTMLTextAreaElement
tfoot Group of footer rows in a table none table tr globals HTMLTableSectionElement
th Table header cell none tr flow* globals; colspan; rowspan; headers; scope; abbr HTMLTableHeaderCellElement
thead Group of heading rows in a table none table tr globals HTMLTableSectionElement
time Machine-readable equivalent of date- or time-related data flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals; datetime HTMLTimeElement
title Document title metadata head text* globals HTMLTitleElement
tr Table row none table; thead; tbody; tfoot th*; td globals HTMLTableRowElement
track Timed text track none audio; video empty globals; default; kind; label; src; srclang HTMLTrackElement
u Keywords flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
ul List flow flow li globals HTMLUListElement
var Variable flow; phrasing phrasing phrasing globals HTMLElement
video Video player flow; phrasing; embedded; interactive phrasing source*; transparent* globals; src; crossorigin; poster; preload; autoplay; mediagroup; loop; muted; controls; width; height HTMLVideoElement
wbr Line breaking opportunity flow; phrasing phrasing empty globals HTMLElement

An asterisk (*) in a cell indicates that the actual rules are more complicated than indicated in the table above.

† Categories in the "Parents" column refer to parents that list the given categories in their content model, not to elements that themselves are in those categories. For example, the a element's "Parents" column says "phrasing", so any element whose content model contains the "phrasing" category could be a parent of an a element. Since the "flow" category includes all the "phrasing" elements, that means the th element could be a parent to an a element.

Element content categories

This section is non-normative.

List of element content categories
Category Elements Elements with exceptions
Metadata content base; link; meta; noscript; script; style; title
Flow content a; abbr; address; article; aside; audio; b; bdi; bdo; blockquote; br; button; canvas; cite; code; data; datalist; del; details; dfn; dialog; div; dl; em; embed; fieldset; figure; footer; form; h1; h2; h3; h4; h5; h6; header; hr; i; iframe; img; input; ins; kbd; keygen; label; main; map; mark; math; menu; meter; nav; noscript; object; ol; output; p; pre; progress; q; ruby; s; samp; script; section; select; small; span; strong; sub; sup; svg; table; textarea; time; u; ul; var; video; wbr; Text area (if it is a descendant of a map element); link (if the itemprop attribute is present); meta (if the itemprop attribute is present); style (if the scoped attribute is present)
Sectioning content article; aside; nav; section
Heading content h1; h2; h3; h4; h5; h6;
Phrasing content a; abbr; audio; b; bdi; bdo; br; button; canvas; cite; code; data; datalist; del; dfn; em; embed; i; iframe; img; input; ins; kbd; keygen; label; map; mark; math; meter; noscript; object; output; progress; q; ruby; s; samp; script; select; small; span; strong; sub; sup; svg; textarea; time; u; var; video; wbr; Text area (if it is a descendant of a map element); link (if the itemprop attribute is present); meta (if the itemprop attribute is present)
Embedded content audio canvas embed iframe img math object svg video
Interactive content a; button; details; embed; iframe; keygen; label; select; textarea; audio (if the controls attribute is present); img (if the usemap attribute is present); input (if the type attribute is not in the Hidden state); object (if the usemap attribute is present); video (if the controls attribute is present)
Sectioning roots blockquote; body; details; dialog; fieldset; figure; td
Form-associated elements button; fieldset; input; keygen; label; object; output; select; textarea
Listed elements button; fieldset; input; keygen; object; output; select; textarea
Submittable elements button; input; keygen; object; select; textarea
Resettable elements input; keygen; output; select; textarea
Labelable elements button; input; keygen; meter; output; progress; select; textarea
Palpable content a; abbr; address; article; aside; b; bdi; bdo; blockquote; button; canvas; cite; code; data; details; dfn; div; em; embed; fieldset; figure; footer; form; h1; h2; h3; h4; h5; h6; header; i; iframe; img; ins; kbd; keygen; label; map; mark; math; meter; nav; object; output; p; pre; progress; q; ruby; s; samp; section; select; small; span; strong; sub; sup; svg; table; textarea; time; u; var; video audio (if the controls attribute is present); dl (if the element's children include at least one name-value group); input (if the type attribute is not in the Hidden state); menu (if the type attribute is in the toolbar state); ol (if the element's children include at least one li element); ul (if the element's children include at least one li element); Text that is not inter-element whitespace

Attributes

This section is non-normative.

List of attributes (excluding event handler content attributes)
Attribute Element(s) Description Value
abbr th Alternative label to use for the header cell when referencing the cell in other contexts Text*
accept input Hint for expected file type in file upload controls Set of comma-separated tokens* consisting of valid MIME types with no parameters or audio/*, video/*, or image/*
accept-charset form Character encodings to use for form submission Ordered set of unique space-separated tokens, ASCII case-insensitive, consisting of names of ASCII-compatible character encodings*
accesskey HTML elements Keyboard shortcut to activate or focus element Ordered set of unique space-separated tokens, case-sensitive, consisting of one Unicode code point in length
action form URL to use for form submission Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
allowfullscreen iframe Whether to allow the iframe's contents to use requestFullscreen() Boolean attribute
alt area; img; input Replacement text for use when images are not available Text*
async script Execute script asynchronously Boolean attribute
autocomplete form Default setting for autofill feature for controls in the form "on"; "off"
autocomplete input; select; textarea Hint for form autofill feature Autofill field name and related tokens*
autofocus button; input; keygen; select; textarea Automatically focus the form control when the page is loaded Boolean attribute
autoplay audio; video Hint that the media resource can be started automatically when the page is loaded Boolean attribute
border table Explicit indication that the table element is not being used for layout purposes The empty string, or "1"
challenge keygen String to package with the generated and signed public key Text
charset meta Character encoding declaration Encoding name*
charset script Character encoding of the external script resource Encoding name*
checked menuitem; input Whether the command or control is checked Boolean attribute
cite blockquote; del; ins; q Link to the source of the quotation or more information about the edit Valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces
class HTML elements Classes to which the element belongs Set of space-separated tokens
cols textarea Maximum number of characters per line Valid non-negative integer greater than zero
colspan td; th Number of columns that the cell is to span Valid non-negative integer greater than zero
command menuitem Command definition ID*
content meta Value of the element Text*
contenteditable HTML elements Whether the element is editable "true"; "false"
contextmenu HTML elements The element's context menu ID*
controls audio; video Show user agent controls Boolean attribute
coords area Coordinates for the shape to be created in an image map Valid list of integers*
crossorigin audio; img; link; script; video How the element handles crossorigin requests. "anonymous"; "use-credentials"
data object Address of the resource Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
datetime del; ins Date and (optionally) time of the change Valid date string with optional time
datetime time Machine-readable value Valid month string, valid date string, valid yearless date string, valid time string, valid local date and time string, valid time-zone offset string, valid global date and time string, valid week string, valid non-negative integer, or valid duration string
default track Enable the track if no other text track is more suitable. Boolean attribute
defer script Defer script execution Boolean attribute
dir HTML elements The text directionality of the element "ltr"; "rtl"; "auto"
dirname input; textarea Name of form field to use for sending the element's directionality in form submission Text*
disabled button; menuitem; fieldset; input; keygen; optgroup; option; select; textarea Whether the form control is disabled Boolean attribute
download a; area Whether to download the resource instead of navigating to it, and its file name if so Text
draggable HTML elements Whether the element is draggable "true"; "false"
dropzone HTML elements Accepted item types for drag-and-drop Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, ASCII case-insensitive, consisting of accepted types and drag feedback*
enctype form Form data set encoding type to use for form submission "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"; "multipart/form-data"; "text/plain"
for label Associate the label with form control ID*
for output Specifies controls from which the output was calculated Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, case-sensitive, consisting of IDs*
form button; fieldset; input; keygen; label; object; output; select; textarea Associates the control with a form element ID*
formaction button; input URL to use for form submission Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
formenctype button; input Form data set encoding type to use for form submission "application/x-www-form-urlencoded"; "multipart/form-data"; "text/plain"
formmethod button; input HTTP method to use for form submission "GET"; "POST"
formnovalidate button; input Bypass form control validation for form submission Boolean attribute
formtarget button; input Browsing context for form submission Valid browsing context name or keyword
headers td; th The header cells for this cell Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, case-sensitive, consisting of IDs*
height canvas; embed; iframe; img; input; object; video Vertical dimension Valid non-negative integer
hidden HTML elements Whether the element is relevant Boolean attribute
high meter Low limit of high range Valid floating-point number*
href a; area Address of the hyperlink Valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces
href link Address of the hyperlink Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
href base Document base URL Valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces
hreflang a; area; link Language of the linked resource Valid BCP 47 language tag
http-equiv meta Pragma directive Text*
icon menuitem Icon for the command Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
id HTML elements The element's ID Text*
inert HTML elements Whether the element is inert Boolean attribute
inputmode input; textarea Hint for selecting an input modality verbatim; latin; latin-name; latin-prose; full-width-latin; kana; katakana; numeric; tel; email; url
ismap img Whether the image is a server-side image map Boolean attribute
itemid HTML elements Global identifier for a microdata item Valid URL potentially surrounded by spaces
itemprop HTML elements Property names of a microdata item Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, case-sensitive, consisting of valid absolute URLs, defined property names, or text*
itemref HTML elements Referenced elements Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, case-sensitive, consisting of IDs*
itemscope HTML elements Introduces a microdata item Boolean attribute
itemtype HTML elements Item types of a microdata item Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, case-sensitive, consisting of valid absolute URL*
keytype keygen The type of cryptographic key to generate Text*
kind track The type of text track "subtitles"; "captions"; "descriptions"; "chapters"; "metadata"
label menuitem; menu; optgroup; option; track User-visible label Text
lang HTML elements Language of the element Valid BCP 47 language tag or the empty string
list input List of autocomplete options ID*
loop audio; video Whether to loop the media resource Boolean attribute
low meter High limit of low range Valid floating-point number*
manifest html Application cache manifest Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
max input Maximum value Varies*
max meter; progress Upper bound of range Valid floating-point number*
maxlength input; textarea Maximum length of value Valid non-negative integer
media link; source; style Applicable media Valid media query
mediagroup audio; video Groups media elements together with an implicit MediaController Text
method form HTTP method to use for form submission "GET"; "POST";
min input Minimum value Varies*
min meter Lower bound of range Valid floating-point number*
multiple input; select Whether to allow multiple values Boolean attribute
muted audio; video Whether to mute the media resource by default Boolean attribute
name button; fieldset; input; keygen; output; select; textarea Name of form control to use for form submission and in the form.elements API Text*
name form Name of form to use in the document.forms API Text*
name iframe; object Name of nested browsing context Valid browsing context name or keyword
name map Name of image map to reference from the usemap attribute Text*
name meta Metadata name Text*
name param Name of parameter Text
novalidate form Bypass form control validation for form submission Boolean attribute
open details Whether the details are visible Boolean attribute
open dialog Whether the dialog box is showing Boolean attribute
optimum meter Optimum value in gauge Valid floating-point number*
pattern input Pattern to be matched by the form control's value Regular expression matching the JavaScript Pattern production
placeholder input; textarea User-visible label to be placed within the form control Text*
poster video Poster frame to show prior to video playback Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
preload audio; video Hints how much buffering the media resource will likely need "none"; "metadata"; "auto"
radiogroup menuitem Name of group of commands to treat as a radio button group Text
readonly input; textarea Whether to allow the value to be edited by the user Boolean attribute
rel a; area; link Relationship between the document containing the hyperlink and the destination resource Set of space-separated tokens*
required input; select; textarea Whether the control is required for form submission Boolean attribute
reversed ol Number the list backwards Boolean attribute
rows textarea Number of lines to show Valid non-negative integer greater than zero
rowspan td; th Number of rows that the cell is to span Valid non-negative integer
sandbox iframe Security rules for nested content Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, ASCII case-insensitive, consisting of "allow-forms", "allow-pointer-lock", "allow-popups", "allow-same-origin", "allow-scripts and "allow-top-navigation"
spellcheck HTML elements Whether the element is to have its spelling and grammar checked "true"; "false"
scope th Specifies which cells the header cell applies to "row"; "col"; "rowgroup"; "colgroup"
scoped style Whether the styles apply to the entire document or just the parent subtree Boolean attribute
seamless iframe Whether to apply the document's styles to the nested content Boolean attribute
selected option Whether the option is selected by default Boolean attribute
shape area The kind of shape to be created in an image map "circle"; "default"; "poly"; "rect"
size input; select Size of the control Valid non-negative integer greater than zero
sizes link Sizes of the icons (for rel="icon") Unordered set of unique space-separated tokens, ASCII case-insensitive, consisting of sizes*
span col; colgroup Number of columns spanned by the element Valid non-negative integer greater than zero
src audio; embed; iframe; img; input; script; source; track; video Address of the resource Valid non-empty URL potentially surrounded by spaces
srcdoc iframe A document to render in the iframe The source of an iframe srcdoc document*
srclang track Language of the text track Valid BCP 47 language tag
start ol Ordinal value of the first item Valid integer
step input Granularity to be matched by the form control's value Valid floating-point number greater than zero, or "any"
style HTML elements Presentational and formatting instructions CSS declarations*
tabindex HTML elements Whether the element is focusable, and the relative order of the element for the purposes of sequential focus navigation Valid integer
target a; area Browsing context for hyperlink navigation Valid browsing context name or keyword
target base Default browsing context for hyperlink navigation and form submission Valid browsing context name or keyword
target form Browsing context for form submission Valid browsing context name or keyword
title HTML elements Advisory information for the element Text
title abbr; dfn Full term or expansion of abbreviation Text
title menuitem Hint describing the command Text
title link Title of the link Text
title link; style Alternative style sheet set name Text
translate HTML elements Whether the element is to be translated when the page is localized "yes"; "no"
type a; area; link Hint for the type of the referenced resource Valid MIME type
type button Type of button "submit"; "reset"; "button"; "menu"
type embed; object; script; source; style Type of embedded resource Valid MIME type
type input Type of form control input type keyword
type menu Type of menu "popup"; "toolbar"
type menuitem Type of command "command"; "checkbox"; "radio"
type ol Kind of list marker "1"; "a"; "A"; "i"; "I"
typemustmatch object Whether the type attribute and the Content-Type value need to match for the resource to be used Boolean attribute
usemap img; object Name of image map to use Valid hash-name reference*
value button; option Value to be used for form submission Text
value data Machine-readable value Text*
value input Value of the form control Varies*
value li Ordinal value of the list item Valid integer
value meter; progress Current value of the element Valid floating-point number
value param Value of parameter Text
width canvas; embed; iframe; img; input; object; video Horizontal dimension Valid non-negative integer
wrap textarea How the value of the form control is to be wrapped for form submission "soft"; "hard"

An asterisk (*) in a cell indicates that the actual rules are more complicated than indicated in the table above.


List of event handler content attributes
Attribute Element(s) Description Value
onabort HTML elements abort event handler Event handler content attribute
onafterprint body afterprint event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onbeforeprint body beforeprint event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onbeforeunload body beforeunload event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onblur HTML elements blur event handler Event handler content attribute
oncancel HTML elements cancel event handler Event handler content attribute
oncanplay HTML elements canplay event handler Event handler content attribute
oncanplaythrough HTML elements canplaythrough event handler Event handler content attribute
onchange HTML elements change event handler Event handler content attribute
onclick HTML elements click event handler Event handler content attribute
onclose HTML elements close event handler Event handler content attribute
oncontextmenu HTML elements contextmenu event handler Event handler content attribute
oncuechange HTML elements cuechange event handler Event handler content attribute
ondblclick HTML elements dblclick event handler Event handler content attribute
ondrag HTML elements drag event handler Event handler content attribute
ondragend HTML elements dragend event handler Event handler content attribute
ondragenter HTML elements dragenter event handler Event handler content attribute
ondragexit HTML elements dragexit event handler Event handler content attribute
ondragleave HTML elements dragleave event handler Event handler content attribute
ondragover HTML elements dragover event handler Event handler content attribute
ondragstart HTML elements dragstart event handler Event handler content attribute
ondrop HTML elements drop event handler Event handler content attribute
ondurationchange HTML elements durationchange event handler Event handler content attribute
onemptied HTML elements emptied event handler Event handler content attribute
onended HTML elements ended event handler Event handler content attribute
onerror HTML elements error event handler, and handler for script error notifications Event handler content attribute
onfocus HTML elements focus event handler Event handler content attribute
onfullscreenchange body fullscreenchange event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onfullscreenerror body fullscreenerror event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onhashchange body hashchange event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
oninput HTML elements input event handler Event handler content attribute
oninvalid HTML elements invalid event handler Event handler content attribute
onkeydown HTML elements keydown event handler Event handler content attribute
onkeypress HTML elements keypress event handler Event handler content attribute
onkeyup HTML elements keyup event handler Event handler content attribute
onload HTML elements load event handler Event handler content attribute
onloadeddata HTML elements loadeddata event handler Event handler content attribute
onloadedmetadata HTML elements loadedmetadata event handler Event handler content attribute
onloadstart HTML elements loadstart event handler Event handler content attribute
onmessage body message event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onmousedown HTML elements mousedown event handler Event handler content attribute
onmouseenter HTML elements mouseenter event handler Event handler content attribute
onmouseleave HTML elements mouseleave event handler Event handler content attribute
onmousemove HTML elements mousemove event handler Event handler content attribute
onmouseout HTML elements mouseout event handler Event handler content attribute
onmouseover HTML elements mouseover event handler Event handler content attribute
onmouseup HTML elements mouseup event handler Event handler content attribute
onmousewheel HTML elements mousewheel event handler Event handler content attribute
onoffline body offline event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
ononline body online event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onpagehide body pagehide event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onpageshow body pageshow event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onpause HTML elements pause event handler Event handler content attribute
onplay HTML elements play event handler Event handler content attribute
onplaying HTML elements playing event handler Event handler content attribute
onpopstate body popstate event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onprogress HTML elements progress event handler Event handler content attribute
onratechange HTML elements ratechange event handler Event handler content attribute
onreset HTML elements reset event handler Event handler content attribute
onresize body resize event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onscroll HTML elements scroll event handler Event handler content attribute
onseeked HTML elements seeked event handler Event handler content attribute
onseeking HTML elements seeking event handler Event handler content attribute
onselect HTML elements select event handler Event handler content attribute
onshow HTML elements show event handler Event handler content attribute
onsort HTML elements sort event handler Event handler content attribute
onstalled HTML elements stalled event handler Event handler content attribute
onstorage body storage event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onsubmit HTML elements submit event handler Event handler content attribute
onsuspend HTML elements suspend event handler Event handler content attribute
ontimeupdate HTML elements timeupdate event handler Event handler content attribute
onunload body unload event handler for Window object Event handler content attribute
onvolumechange HTML elements volumechange event handler Event handler content attribute
onwaiting HTML elements waiting event handler Event handler content attribute

Element Interfaces

This section is non-normative.

List of interfaces for elements
Element(s) Interface(s)
a HTMLAnchorElement : HTMLElement
abbr HTMLElement
address HTMLElement
area HTMLAreaElement : HTMLElement
article HTMLElement
aside HTMLElement
audio HTMLAudioElement : HTMLMediaElement : HTMLElement
b HTMLElement
base HTMLBaseElement : HTMLElement
bdi HTMLElement
bdo HTMLElement
blockquote HTMLQuoteElement : HTMLElement
body HTMLBodyElement : HTMLElement
br HTMLBRElement : HTMLElement
button HTMLButtonElement : HTMLElement
canvas HTMLCanvasElement : HTMLElement
caption HTMLTableCaptionElement : HTMLElement
cite HTMLElement
code HTMLElement
col HTMLTableColElement : HTMLElement
colgroup HTMLTableColElement : HTMLElement
menuitem HTMLMenuItemElement : HTMLElement
data HTMLDataElement : HTMLElement
datalist HTMLDataListElement : HTMLElement
dd HTMLElement
del HTMLModElement : HTMLElement
details HTMLDetailsElement : HTMLElement
dfn HTMLElement
dialog HTMLDialogElement : HTMLElement
div HTMLDivElement : HTMLElement
dl HTMLDListElement : HTMLElement
dt HTMLElement
em HTMLElement
embed HTMLEmbedElement : HTMLElement
fieldset HTMLFieldSetElement : HTMLElement
figcaption HTMLElement
figure HTMLElement
footer HTMLElement
form HTMLFormElement : HTMLElement
h1 HTMLHeadingElement : HTMLElement
h2 HTMLHeadingElement : HTMLElement
h3 HTMLHeadingElement : HTMLElement
h4 HTMLHeadingElement : HTMLElement
h5 HTMLHeadingElement : HTMLElement
h6 HTMLHeadingElement : HTMLElement
head HTMLHeadElement : HTMLElement
header HTMLElement
hr HTMLHRElement : HTMLElement
html HTMLHtmlElement : HTMLElement
i HTMLElement
iframe HTMLIFrameElement : HTMLElement
img HTMLImageElement : HTMLElement
input HTMLInputElement : HTMLElement
ins HTMLModElement : HTMLElement
kbd HTMLElement
keygen HTMLKeygenElement : HTMLElement
label HTMLLabelElement : HTMLElement
legend HTMLLegendElement : HTMLElement
li HTMLLIElement : HTMLElement
link HTMLLinkElement : HTMLElement
main HTMLElement
map HTMLMapElement : HTMLElement
mark HTMLElement
menu HTMLMenuElement : HTMLElement
meta HTMLMetaElement : HTMLElement
meter HTMLMeterElement : HTMLElement
nav HTMLElement
noscript HTMLElement
object HTMLObjectElement : HTMLElement
ol HTMLOListElement : HTMLElement
optgroup HTMLOptGroupElement : HTMLElement
option HTMLOptionElement : HTMLElement
output HTMLOutputElement : HTMLElement
p HTMLParagraphElement : HTMLElement
param HTMLParamElement : HTMLElement
pre HTMLPreElement : HTMLElement
progress HTMLProgressElement : HTMLElement
q HTMLQuoteElement : HTMLElement
rp HTMLElement
rt HTMLElement
ruby HTMLElement
s HTMLElement
samp HTMLElement
script HTMLScriptElement : HTMLElement
section HTMLElement
select HTMLSelectElement : HTMLElement
small HTMLElement
source HTMLSourceElement : HTMLElement
span HTMLSpanElement : HTMLElement
strong HTMLElement
style HTMLStyleElement : HTMLElement
sub HTMLElement
summary HTMLElement
sup HTMLElement
table HTMLTableElement : HTMLElement
tbody HTMLTableSectionElement : HTMLElement
td HTMLTableDataCellElement : HTMLTableCellElement : HTMLElement
textarea HTMLTextAreaElement : HTMLElement
tfoot HTMLTableSectionElement : HTMLElement
th HTMLTableHeaderCellElement : HTMLTableCellElement : HTMLElement
thead HTMLTableSectionElement : HTMLElement
time HTMLTimeElement : HTMLElement
title HTMLTitleElement : HTMLElement
tr HTMLTableRowElement : HTMLElement
track HTMLTrackElement : HTMLElement
u HTMLElement
ul HTMLUListElement : HTMLElement
var HTMLElement
video HTMLVideoElement : HTMLMediaElement : HTMLElement
wbr HTMLElement

All Interfaces

This section is non-normative.

Events

This section is non-normative.

List of events
Event Interface Description
abort Event Fired at the Window when the download was aborted by the user
afterprint Event Fired at the Window after printing
beforeprint Event Fired at the Window before printing
beforeunload BeforeUnloadEvent Fired at the Window when the page is about to be unloaded, in case the page would like to show a warning prompt
blur Event Fired at nodes losing focus
change Event Fired at controls when the user commits a value change
click Event Fired at an element before its activation behavior is run
contextmenu Event Fired at elements when the user requests their context menu
DOMContentLoaded Event Fired at the Document once the parser has finished
error Event Fired at elements when network and script errors occur
focus Event Fired at nodes gaining focus
hashchange HashChangeEvent Fired at the Window when the fragment identifier part of the document's address changes
input Event Fired at controls when the user changes the value
invalid Event Fired at controls during form validation if they do not satisfy their constraints
load Event Fired at the Window when the document has finished loading; fired at an element containing a resource (e.g. img, embed) when its resource has finished loading
message MessageEvent Fired at an object when the object receives a message
offline Event Fired at the Window when the network connections fails
online Event Fired at the Window when the network connections returns
pagehide PageTransitionEvent Fired at the Window when the page's entry in the session history stops being the current entry
pageshow PageTransitionEvent Fired at the Window when the page's entry in the session history becomes the current entry
popstate PopStateEvent Fired at the Window when the user navigates the session history
readystatechange Event Fired at the Document when it finishes parsing and again when all its subresources have finished loading
reset Event Fired at a form element when it is reset
show Event Fired at a menu element when it is shown as a context menu
submit Event Fired at a form element when it is submitted
unload Event Fired at the Window object when the page is going away

See also media element events, application cache events, and drag-and-drop events.

References

All references are normative unless marked "Non-normative".

[ABNF]
Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF, D. Crocker, P. Overell. IETF.
[ABOUT]
The 'about' URI scheme,S. Moonesamy, Ed. IETF.
[AES128CTR]
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). NIST.
[AGIF]
(Non-normative) GIF Application Extension: NETSCAPE2.0. R. Frazier.
[APNG]
(Non-normative) APNG Specification. S. Parmenter, V. Vukicevic, A. Smith. Mozilla.
[ARIA]
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA), J. Craig, M. Cooper, L. Pappas, R. Schwerdtfeger, L. Seeman. W3C.
[ARIAIMPL]
WAI-ARIA 1.0 User Agent Implementation Guide, A. Snow-Weaver, M. Cooper. W3C.
[ATAG]
(Non-normative) Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) 2.0, J. Richards, J. Spellman, J. Treviranus. W3C.
[ATOM]
(Non-normative) The Atom Syndication Format, M. Nottingham, R. Sayre. IETF.
[BCP47]
Tags for Identifying Languages; Matching of Language Tags, A. Phillips, M. Davis. IETF.
[BECSS]
Behavioral Extensions to CSS, I. Hickson. W3C.
[BEZIER]
Courbes à poles, P. de Casteljau. INPI, 1959.
[BIDI]
UAX #9: Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm, M. Davis. Unicode Consortium.
[BIG5]
(Non-normative) Chinese Coded Character Set in Computer. Institute for Information Industry, March 1984.
[BOCU1]
(Non-normative) UTN #6: BOCU-1: MIME-Compatible Unicode Compression, M. Scherer, M. Davis. Unicode Consortium.
[CANVAS2D]
(Non-normative) HTML Canvas 2D Context, R. Cabanier, E. Graff, J. Munro, T. Wiltzius. W3C.
[CESU8]
(Non-normative) UTR #26: Compatibility Encoding Scheme For UTF-16: 8-BIT (CESU-8), T. Phipps. Unicode Consortium.
[CHARMOD]
(Non-normative) Character Model for the World Wide Web 1.0: Fundamentals, M. Dürst, F. Yergeau, R. Ishida, M. Wolf, T. Texin. W3C.
[CLDR]
Unicode Common Locale Data Repository. Unicode.
[COMPUTABLE]
(Non-normative) On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, A. Turing. In Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society, series 2, volume 42, pages 230-265. London Mathematical Society, 1937.
[COOKIES]
HTTP State Management Mechanism, A. Barth. IETF.
[CORS]
Cross-Origin Resource Sharing, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
[CP50220]
CP50220, Y. Naruse. IANA.
[CP51932]
CP51932, Y. Naruse. IANA.
[CSP]
(Non-normative) Content Security Policy, B. Sterne, A. Barth. W3C.
[CSS]
Cascading Style Sheets Level 2 Revision 1, B. Bos, T. Çelik, I. Hickson, H. Lie. W3C.
[CSSANIMATIONS]
(Non-normative) CSS Animations, D. Jackson, D. Hyatt, C. Marrin, S. Galineau, L. Baron. W3C.
[CSSATTR]
CSS Styling Attribute Syntax, T. Çelik, E. Etemad. W3C.
[CSSCOLOR]
CSS Color Module Level 3, T. Çelik, C. Lilley, L. Baron. W3C.
[CSSFONTS]
CSS Fonts Module Level 3, J. Daggett. W3C.
[CSSIMAGES]
CSS Image Values and Replaced Content Module, E. Etemad, T. Atkins. W3C.
[CSSOM]
Cascading Style Sheets Object Model (CSSOM), A. van Kesteren. W3C.
[CSSOMVIEW]
CSSOM View Module, A. van Kesteren. W3C.
[CSSRUBY]
CSS3 Ruby Module, R. Ishida. W3C.
[CSSTRANSITIONS]
(Non-normative) CSS Transitions, D. Jackson, D. Hyatt, C. Marrin, L. Baron. W3C.
[CSSUI]
CSS3 Basic User Interface Module, T. Çelik. W3C.
[CSSVALUES]
CSS3 Values and Units, H. Lie, T. Atkins, E. Etemad. W3C.
[DASH]
Dynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH). ISO.
[DOM]
DOM, A. van Kesteren, A. Gregor, Ms2ger. WHATWG.
[DOMEVENTS]
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 3 Events Specification, T. Leithead, J. Rossi, D. Schepers, B. Höhrmann, P. Le Hégaret, T. Pixley. W3C.
[DOMPARSING]
DOM Parsing and Serialization, T. Leithead. Work in Progress. W3C.
[DOT]
(Non-normative) The DOT Language. Graphviz.
[E163]
Recommendation E.163 — Numbering Plan for The International Telephone Service, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle II.2, pp. 128-134, November 1988.
[ECMA262]
ECMAScript Language Specification. ECMA.
[ECMA357]
(Non-normative) ECMAScript for XML (E4X) Specification. ECMA.
[EDITING]
HTML Editing APIs, A. Gregor. W3C Editing APIs CG.
[ENCODING]
Encoding, A. van Kesteren, J. Bell. WHATWG.
[EUCKR]
Hangul Unix Environment. Korea Industrial Standards Association. Ref. No. KS C 5861-1992.
[EUCJP]
Definition and Notes of Japanese EUC. UI-OSF-USLP. In English in the abridged translation of the UI-OSF Application Platform Profile for Japanese Environment, Appendix C.
[EVENTSOURCE]
Server-Sent Events, I. Hickson. W3C.
[FILEAPI]
File API, A. Ranganathan, J. Sicking. W3C.
[FILESYSTEMAPI]
File API: Directories and System, E. Uhrhane. W3C.
[FULLSCREEN]
Fullscreen, A. van Kesteren, T. Çelik. W3C.
[GBK]
Chinese Internal Code Specification. Chinese IT Standardization Technical Committee.
[GIF]
(Non-normative) Graphics Interchange Format. CompuServe.
[GRAPHICS]
(Non-normative) Computer Graphics: Principles and Practice in C, Second Edition, J. Foley, A. van Dam, S. Feiner, J. Hughes. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-84840-6.
[GREGORIAN]
(Non-normative) Inter Gravissimas, A. Lilius, C. Clavius. Gregory XIII Papal Bull, February 1582.
[HATOM]
(Non-normative) hAtom, D Janes. Microformats.
[HMAC]
The Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code (HMAC). NIST.
[HPAAIG]
HTML to Platform Accessibility APIs Implementation Guide. W3C.
[HTML4]
(Non-normative) HTML 4.01 Specification, D. Raggett, A. Le Hors, I. Jacobs. W3C.
[HTML5]
HTML5, R. Berjon, T. Leithead, E. Doyle Navara, E. O'Connor, S. Pfeiffer. W3C.
[HTML]
HTML, I. Hickson. WHATWG.
[HTMLALTTECHS]
(Non-normative) HTML5: Techniques for providing useful text alternatives, S. Faulkner. W3C.
[HTMLDIFF]
(Non-normative) HTML5 differences from HTML4, S. Pieters. W3C.
[HTTP]
Hypertext Transfer Protocol — HTTP/1.1, R. Fielding, J. Gettys, J. Mogul, H. Frystyk, L. Masinter, P. Leach, T. Berners-Lee. IETF.
[HTTPS]
(Non-normative) HTTP Over TLS, E. Rescorla. IETF.
[IANALINKTYPE]
Link Relations. IANA.
[IANAPERMHEADERS]
Permanent Message Header Field Names. IANA.
[ICE]
Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE): A Protocol for Network Address Translator (NAT) Traversal for Offer/Answer Protocols, J. Rosenberg. IETF.
[IEEE754]
IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754). IEEE. ISBN 978-0-7381-5753-5.
[ISO8601]
(Non-normative) ISO8601: Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times. ISO.
[ISO885911]
ISO-8859-11: Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded character sets — Part 11: Latin/Thai alphabet. ISO.
[JLREQ]
Requirements for Japanese Text Layout. W3C.
[JPEG]
JPEG File Interchange Format, E. Hamilton.
[JSON]
The application/json Media Type for JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), D. Crockford. IETF.
[JSURL]
The 'javascript' resource identifier scheme, B. Höhrmann. IETF. Work in progress.
[MAILTO]
(Non-normative) The 'mailto' URI scheme, M. Duerst, L. Masinter, J. Zawinski. IETF.
[MATHML]
Mathematical Markup Language (MathML), D. Carlisle, P. Ion, R. Miner, N. Poppelier. W3C.
[MEDIAFRAG]
Media Fragments URI, R. Troncy, E. Mannens, S. Pfeiffer, D. Van Deursen. W3C.
[MFREL]
Microformats Wiki: existing rel values. Microformats.
[MIMESNIFF]
MIME Sniffing, G. Hemsley. WHATWG.
[MNG]
MNG (Multiple-image Network Graphics) Format. G. Randers-Pehrson.
[MPEG2]
ISO/IEC 13818-1: Information technology — Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems. ISO/IEC.
[MPEG4]
ISO/IEC 14496-12: ISO base media file format. ISO/IEC.
[MQ]
Media Queries, H. Lie, T. Çelik, D. Glazman, A. van Kesteren. W3C.
[NPAPI]
(Non-normative) Gecko Plugin API Reference. Mozilla.
[NPN]
Transport Layer Security (TLS) Next Protocol Negotiation Extension, A. Langley. IETF. Work in progress.
[OGGSKELETONHEADERS]
SkeletonHeaders. Xiph.Org.
[OPENSEARCH]
Autodiscovery in HTML/XHTML. In OpenSearch 1.1 Draft 4, Section 4.6.2. OpenSearch.org.
[ORIGIN]
The Web Origin Concept, A. Barth. IETF.
[PAGEVIS]
(Non-normative) Page Visibility, J. Mann, A. Jain. W3C.
[PDF]
(Non-normative) Document management — Portable document format — Part 1: PDF. ISO.
[PINGBACK]
Pingback 1.0, S. Langridge, I. Hickson.
[PNG]
Portable Network Graphics (PNG) Specification, D. Duce. W3C.
[POINTERLOCK]
Pointer Lock, V. Scheib. W3C.
[POLYGLOT]
(Non-normative) Polyglot Markup: HTML-Compatible XHTML Documents, E. Graff. W3C.
[PORTERDUFF]
Compositing Digital Images, T. Porter, T. Duff. In Computer graphics, volume 18, number 3, pp. 253-259. ACM Press, July 1984.
[PPUTF8]
(Non-normative) The Properties and Promises of UTF-8, M. Dürst. University of Zürich. In Proceedings of the 11th International Unicode Conference.
[PSL]
Public Suffix List. Mozilla Foundation.
[RFC1034]
Domain Names - Concepts and Facilities, P. Mockapetris. IETF, November 1987.
[RFC1123]
Requirements for Internet Hosts -- Application and Support, R. Braden. IETF, October 1989.
[RFC1321]
The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm, R. Rivest. IETF.
[RFC1345]
Character Mnemonics and Character Sets, K. Simonsen. IETF.
[RFC1468]
Japanese Character Encoding for Internet Messages, J. Murai, M. Crispin, E. van der Poel. IETF.
[RFC1494]
(Non-normative) Equivalences between 1988 X.400 and RFC-822 Message Bodies, H. Alvestrand, S. Thompson. IETF.
[RFC1554]
ISO-2022-JP-2: Multilingual Extension of ISO-2022-JP, M. Ohta, K. Handa. IETF.
[RFC1557]
Korean Character Encoding for Internet Messages, U. Choi, K. Chon, H. Park. IETF.
[RFC1842]
ASCII Printable Characters-Based Chinese Character Encoding for Internet Messages, Y. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Li, J. Ding, Y. Jiang. IETF.
[RFC1922]
Chinese Character Encoding for Internet Messages, HF. Zhu, DY. Hu, ZG. Wang, TC. Kao, WCH. Chang, M. Crispin. IETF.
[RFC2045]
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies, N. Freed, N. Borenstein. IETF.
[RFC2046]
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types, N. Freed, N. Borenstein. IETF.
[RFC2119]
Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels, S. Bradner. IETF.
[RFC2237]
Japanese Character Encoding for Internet Messages, K. Tamaru. IETF.
[RFC2246]
The TLS Protocol Version 1.0, T. Dierks, C. Allen. IETF.
[RFC2313]
PKCS #1: RSA Encryption, B. Kaliski. IETF.
[RFC2318]
The text/css Media Type, H. Lie, B. Bos, C. Lilley. IETF.
[RFC2388]
Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data, L. Masinter. IETF.
[RFC2397]
The "data" URL scheme, L. Masinter. IETF.
[RFC2445]
Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification (iCalendar), F. Dawson, D. Stenerson. IETF.
[RFC2483]
URI Resolution Services Necessary for URN Resolution, M. Mealling, R. Daniel. IETF.
[RFC2781]
UTF-16, an encoding of ISO 10646, P. Hoffman, F. Yergeau. IETF.
[RFC3676]
The Text/Plain Format and DelSp Parameters, R. Gellens. IETF.
[RFC2806]
(Non-normative) URLs for Telephone Calls, A. Vaha-Sipila. IETF.
[RFC3023]
XML Media Types, M. Murata, S. St. Laurent, D. Kohn. IETF.
[RFC3279]
Algorithms and Identifiers for the Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile, W. Polk, R. Housley, L. Bassham. IETF.
[RFC3490]
Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA), P. Faltstrom, P. Hoffman, A. Costello. IETF.
[RFC3629]
UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646, F. Yergeau. IETF.
[RFC3864]
Registration Procedures for Message Header Fields, G. Klyne, M. Nottingham, J. Mogul. IETF.
[RFC4281]
The Codecs Parameter for "Bucket" Media Types, R. Gellens, D. Singer, P. Frojdh. IETF.
[RFC4329]
(Non-normative) Scripting Media Types, B. Höhrmann. IETF.
[RFC4366]
Transport Layer Security (TLS) Extensions, S. Blake-Wilson, M. Nystrom, D. Hopwood, J. Mikkelsen, T. Wright. IETF.
[RFC4395]
Guidelines and Registration Procedures for New URI Schemes, T. Hansen, T. Hardie, L. Masinter. IETF.
[RFC4648]
The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data Encodings, S. Josefsson. IETF.
[RFC5280]
Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile, D. Cooper, S. Santesson, S. Farrell, S. Boeyen, R. Housley, W. Polk. IETF.
[RFC5322]
Internet Message Format, P. Resnick. IETF.
[RFC5724]
URI Scheme for Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) Short Message Service (SMS), E. Wilde, A. Vaha-Sipila. IETF.
[RFC6266]
Use of the Content-Disposition Header Field in the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), J. Reschke. IETF.
[RFC6350]
vCard Format Specification, S. Perreault. IETF.
[SCSU]
(Non-normative) UTR #6: A Standard Compression Scheme For Unicode, M. Wolf, K. Whistler, C. Wicksteed, M. Davis, A. Freytag, M. Scherer. Unicode Consortium.
[SDP]
SDP: Session Description Protocol, M. Handley, V. Jacobson, C. Perkins. IETF.
[SDPLABEL]
The Session Description Protocol (SDP) Label Attribute, O. Levin, G. Camarillo. IETF.
[SDPOFFERANSWER]
An Offer/Answer Model with the Session Description Protocol (SDP), J. Rosenberg, H. Schulzrinne. IETF.
[SELECTORS]
Selectors, E. Etemad, T. Çelik, D. Glazman, I. Hickson, P. Linss, J. Williams. W3C.
[SHA1]
Secure Hash Standard. NIST.
[SHIFTJIS]
JIS X0208: 7-bit and 8-bit double byte coded KANJI sets for information interchange. Japanese Industrial Standards Committee.
[SRGB]
IEC 61966-2-1: Multimedia systems and equipment — Colour measurement and management — Part 2-1: Colour management — Default RGB colour space — sRGB. IEC.
[STUN]
Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN), J. Rosenberg, R. Mahy, P. Matthews, D. Wing. IETF.
[SVG]
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) Tiny 1.2 Specification, O. Andersson, R. Berjon, E. Dahlström, A. Emmons, J. Ferraiolo, A. Grasso, V. Hardy, S. Hayman, D. Jackson, C. Lilley, C. McCormack, A. Neumann, C. Northway, A. Quint, N. Ramani, D. Schepers, A. Shellshear. W3C.
[TIS620]
UDC 681.3.04:003.62. Thai Industrial Standards Institute, Ministry of Industry, Royal Thai Government. ISBN 974-606-153-4.
[TURN]
Traversal Using Relays around NAT (TURN): Relay Extensions to Session Traversal Utilities for NAT (STUN), R. Mahy, P. Matthews, J. Rosenberg. IETF.
[TIMEZONES]
(Non-normative) Working with Time Zones, A. Phillips, N. Lindenberg, M. Davis, M.J. Dürst, F. Sasaki, R. Ishida. W3C.
[TYPEDARRAY]
Typed Array Specification, D. Herman, K. Russell. Khronos.
[TZDATABASE]
Time Zone Database. IANA.
[UAAG]
(Non-normative) User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG) 2.0, J. Allan, K. Ford, J. Richards, J. Spellman. W3C.
[UCA]
UTR #10: Unicode Collation Algorithm, M. Davis, K. Whistler. Unicode Consortium.
[UNDO]
UndoManager and DOM Transaction, R. Niwa.
[UNICODE]
The Unicode Standard. Unicode Consortium.
[UNIVCHARDET]
(Non-normative) A composite approach to language/encoding detection, S. Li, K. Momoi. Netscape. In Proceedings of the 19th International Unicode Conference.
[URL]
URL, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
[UTF7]
UTF-7: A Mail-Safe Transformation Format of Unicode, D. Goldsmith, M. Davis. IETF.
[UTF8DET]
(Non-normative) Multilingual form encoding, M. Dürst. W3C.
[UTR36]
(Non-normative) UTR #36: Unicode Security Considerations, M. Davis, M. Suignard. Unicode Consortium.
[WCAG]
(Non-normative) Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0, B. Caldwell, M. Cooper, L. Reid, G. Vanderheiden. W3C.
[WEBADDRESSES]
Web addresses in HTML5, D. Connolly, C. Sperberg-McQueen.
[WEBGL]
WebGL Specification, C. Marrin. Khronos Group.
[WEBIDL]
Web IDL, C. McCormack. W3C.
Web Linking, M. Nottingham. IETF.
[WEBMCG]
WebM Container Guidelines. The WebM Project.
[WEBSOCKET]
The WebSocket API, I. Hickson. W3C.
[WEBSTORAGE]
Web Storage, I. Hickson. W3C.
[WEBVTT]
WebVTT, I. Hickson. W3C.
[WEBWORKERS]
Web Workers, I. Hickson. W3C.
[WHATWGBLOG]
The WHATWG Blog. WHATWG.
[WHATWGWIKI]
The WHATWG Wiki. WHATWG.
[WIN1252]
Windows 1252. Microsoft.
[WIN1254]
Windows 1254. Microsoft.
[WIN31J]
Windows Codepage 932. Microsoft.
[WIN874]
Windows 874. Microsoft.
[WIN949]
Windows Codepage 949. Microsoft.
[WSP]
The WebSocket protocol, I. Fette, A. Melnikov. IETF.
[X121]
Recommendation X.121 — International Numbering Plan for Public Data Networks, CCITT Blue Book, Fascicle VIII.3, pp. 317-332.
[X690]
Recommendation X.690 — Information Technology — ASN.1 Encoding Rules — Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical Encoding Rules (CER), and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER). International Telecommunication Union.
[XFN]
XFN 1.1 profile, T. Çelik, M. Mullenweg, E. Meyer. GMPG.
[XHR]
XMLHttpRequest, A. van Kesteren. WHATWG.
[XHTML1]
XHTML(TM) 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition). W3C.
[XHTMLMOD]
Modularization of XHTML(TM), M. Altheim, F. Boumphrey, S. Dooley, S. McCarron, S. Schnitzenbaumer, T. Wugofski. W3C.
[XML]
Extensible Markup Language, T. Bray, J. Paoli, C. Sperberg-McQueen, E. Maler, F. Yergeau. W3C.
[XMLBASE]
XML Base, J. Marsh, R. Tobin. W3C.
[XMLNS]
Namespaces in XML, T. Bray, D. Hollander, A. Layman, R. Tobin. W3C.
[XPATH10]
XML Path Language (XPath) Version 1.0, J. Clark, S. DeRose. W3C.
[XSLT10]
(Non-normative) XSL Transformations (XSLT) Version 1.0, J. Clark. W3C.

Acknowledgements

Thanks to Tim Berners-Lee for inventing HTML, without which none of this would exist.

Thanks to Aankhen, Aaron Boodman, Aaron Leventhal, Adam Barth, Adam de Boor, Adam Hepton, Adam Roben, Addison Phillips, Adele Peterson, Adrian Bateman, Adrian Sutton, Agustín Fernández, Aharon (Vladimir) Lanin, Ajai Tirumali, Akatsuki Kitamura, Alan Plum, Alastair Campbell, Alejandro G. Castro, Alex Bishop, Alex Nicolaou, Alex Rousskov, Alexander J. Vincent, Alexandre Morgaut, Alexey Feldgendler, Алексей Проскуряков (Alexey Proskuryakov), Alexis Deveria, Allan Clements, Amos Jeffries, Anders Carlsson, Andreas, Andreas Kling, Andrei Popescu, André E. Veltstra, Andrew Barfield, Andrew Clover, Andrew Gove, Andrew Grieve, Andrew Oakley, Andrew Sidwell, Andrew Simons, Andrew Smith, Andrew W. Hagen, Andrey V. Lukyanov, Andy Heydon, Andy Palay, Anne van Kesteren, Anthony Boyd, Anthony Bryan, Anthony Hickson, Anthony Ricaud, Antti Koivisto, Arne Thomassen, Aron Spohr, Arphen Lin, Arun Patole, Aryeh Gregor, Asbjørn Ulsberg, Ashley Gullen, Ashley Sheridan, Atsushi Takayama, Aurelien Levy, Ave Wrigley, Axel Dahmen, Ben Boyle, Ben Godfrey, Ben Lerner, Ben Leslie, Ben Meadowcroft, Ben Millard, Benjamin Carl Wiley Sittler, Benjamin Hawkes-Lewis, Benoit Ren, Bert Bos, Bijan Parsia, Bil Corry, Bill Mason, Bill McCoy, Billy Wong, Bjartur Thorlacius, Björn Höhrmann, Blake Frantz, Bob Lund, Bob Owen, Boris Zbarsky, Brad Fults, Brad Neuberg, Brad Spencer, Brady Eidson, Brendan Eich, Brenton Simpson, Brett Wilson, Brett Zamir, Brian Campbell, Brian Korver, Brian Kuhn, Brian M. Dube, Brian Ryner, Brian Smith, Brian Wilson, Bryan Sullivan, Bruce D'Arcus, Bruce Lawson, Bruce Miller, C. Williams, Cameron McCormack, Cameron Zemek, Cao Yipeng, Carlos Gabriel Cardona, Carlos Perelló Marín, Chao Cai, 윤석찬 (Channy Yun), Charl van Niekerk, Charles Iliya Krempeaux, Charles McCathieNevile, Chris Apers, Chris Cressman, Chris Evans, Chris Morris, Chris Pearce, Chris Weber, Christian Biesinger, Christian Johansen, Christian Schmidt, Christoph Päper, Christopher Aillon, Christopher Ferris, Chriswa, Clark Buehler, Cole Robison, Colin Fine, Collin Jackson, Corprew Reed, Craig Cockburn, Csaba Gabor, Csaba Marton, Cynthia Shelly, Dan Yoder, Daniel Barclay, Daniel Bratell, Daniel Brooks, Daniel Brumbaugh Keeney, Daniel Cheng, Daniel Davis, Daniel Glazman, Daniel Peng, Daniel Schattenkirchner, Daniel Spång, Daniel Steinberg, Danny Sullivan, Darin Adler, Darin Fisher, Darxus, Dave Camp, Dave Hodder, Dave Lampton, Dave Singer, Dave Townsend, David Baron, David Bloom, David Bruant, David Carlisle, David E. Cleary, David Egan Evans, David Flanagan, David Gerard, David Håsäther, David Hyatt, David I. Lehn, David John Burrowes, David Kendal, David Matja, David Remahl, David Smith, David Woolley, DeWitt Clinton, Dean Edridge, Dean Edwards, Debi Orton, Derek Featherstone, Devdatta, Dimitri Glazkov, Dimitry Golubovsky, Dirk Pranke, Divya Manian, Dmitry Titov, dolphinling, Dominique Hazaël-Massieux, Don Brutzman, Doron Rosenberg, Doug Kramer, Doug Simpkinson, Drew Wilson, Edmund Lai, Eduard Pascual, Eduardo Vela, Edward O'Connor, Edward Welbourne, Edward Z. Yang, Ehsan Akhgari, Eira Monstad, Eitan Adler, Eliot Graff, Elisabeth Robson, Elizabeth Castro, Elliott Sprehn, Elliotte Harold, Eric Carlson, Eric Lawrence, Eric Rescorla, Eric Semling, Erik Arvidsson, Erik Rose, Evan Martin, Evan Prodromou, Evert, fantasai, Felix Sasaki, Francesco Schwarz, Francis Brosnan Blazquez, Franck 'Shift' Quélain, Frank Barchard, 鵜飼文敏 (Fumitoshi Ukai), Futomi Hatano, Gavin Carothers, Gavin Kistner, Gareth Rees, Garrett Smith, Geoff Richards, Geoffrey Garen, Geoffrey Sneddon, Gez Lemon, George Lund, Gianmarco Armellin, Giovanni Campagna, Giuseppe Pascale, Glenn Adams, Glenn Maynard, Graham Klyne, Greg Botten, Greg Houston, Greg Wilkins, Gregg Tavares, Gregory J. Rosmaita, Grey, Guilherme Johansson Tramontina, Gytis Jakutonis, Håkon Wium Lie, Hallvord Reiar Michaelsen Steen, Hans S. Tømmerhalt, Hans Stimer, Harald Alvestrand, Henri Sivonen, Henrik Lied, Henry Mason, Heydon Pickering, Hugh Guiney, Hugh Winkler, Ian Bicking, Ian Clelland, Ian Davis, Ian Fette, Ido Green, Ignacio Javier, Ivan Enderlin, Ivo Emanuel Gonçalves, J. King, Jacob Davies, Jacques Distler, Jake Verbaten, James Craig, James Graham, James Justin Harrell, James Kozianski, James M Snell, James Perrett, James Robinson, Jamie Lokier, Janusz Majnert, Jan-Klaas Kollhof, Jason Duell, Jason Kersey, Jason Lustig, Jason White, Jasper Bryant-Greene, Jasper St. Pierre, Jatinder Mann, Jed Hartman, Jeff Balogh, Jeff Cutsinger, Jeff Schiller, Jeff Walden, Jeffrey Zeldman, 胡慧鋒 (Jennifer Braithwaite), Jens Bannmann, Jens Fendler, Jens Lindström, Jens Meiert, Jeremey Hustman, Jeremy Keith, Jeremy Orlow, Jeroen van der Meer, Jian Li, Jim Jewett, Jim Ley, Jim Meehan, Jim Michaels, Jirka Kosek, Jjgod Jiang, João Eiras, Joe Clark, Joe Gregorio, Joel Spolsky, Johan Herland, John Boyer, John Bussjaeger, John Carpenter, John Daggett, John Fallows, John Foliot, John Harding, John Keiser, John Snyders, John Stockton, John-Mark Bell, Johnny Stenback, Jon Ferraiolo, Jon Gibbins, Jon Perlow, Jonas Sicking, Jonathan Cook, Jonathan Rees, Jonathan Watt, Jonathan Worent, Jonny Axelsson, Jordan Tucker, Jorgen Horstink, Jorunn Danielsen Newth, Joseph Kesselman, Joseph Mansfield, Joseph Pecoraro, Josh Aas, Josh Hart, Josh Levenberg, Joshua Bell, Joshua Randall, Jukka K. Korpela, Jules Clément-Ripoche, Julian Reschke, Jürgen Jeka, Justin Lebar, Justin Novosad, Justin Schuh, Justin Sinclair, Kai Hendry, 呂康豪 (KangHao Lu), Kartikaya Gupta, Kathy Walton, Kelly Ford, Kelly Norton, Kevin Benson, Kevin Gadd, Kevin Cole, Kornél Pál, Kornel Lesinski, Kris Northfield, Kristof Zelechovski, Krzysztof Maczyński, 黒澤剛志 (Kurosawa Takeshi), Kyle Barnhart, Kyle Hofmann, Kyle Huey, Léonard Bouchet, Léonie Watson, Lachlan Hunt, Larry Masinter, Larry Page, Lars Gunther, Lars Solberg, Laura Carlson, Laura Granka, Laura L. Carlson, Laura Wisewell, Laurens Holst, Lee Kowalkowski, Leif Halvard Silli, Lenny Domnitser, Leonard Rosenthol, Leonie Watson, Leons Petrazickis, Lobotom Dysmon, Logan, Loune, Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton, Maciej Stachowiak, Magnus Kristiansen, Maik Merten, Malcolm Rowe, Manish Tripathi, Marcus Bointon, Mark Birbeck, Mark Davis, Mark Miller, Mark Nottingham, Mark Pilgrim, Mark Rowe, Mark Schenk, Mark Vickers, Mark Wilton-Jones, Martijn Wargers, Martin Atkins, Martin Dürst, Martin Honnen, Martin Janecke, Martin Kutschker, Martin Nilsson, Martin Thomson, Masataka Yakura, Matt May, Mathias Bynens, Mathieu Henri, Matias Larsson, Matt Falkenhagen, Matt Schmidt, Matt Wright, Matthew Gregan, Matthew Mastracci, Matthew Raymond, Matthew Thomas, Mattias Waldau, Max Romantschuk, Menno van Slooten, Micah Dubinko, Michael 'Ratt' Iannarelli, Michael A. Nachbaur, Michael A. Puls II, Michael Carter, Michael Daskalov, Michael Day, Michael Dyck, Michael Enright, Michael Gratton, Michael Nordman, Michael Powers, Michael Rakowski, Michael(tm) Smith, Michal Zalewski, Michel Fortin, Michelangelo De Simone, Michiel van der Blonk, Mihai Şucan, Mihai Parparita, Mike Brown, Mike Dierken, Mike Dixon, Mike Schinkel, Mike Shaver, Mikko Rantalainen, Mohamed Zergaoui, Mounir Lamouri, Ms2ger, NARUSE Yui, Neil Deakin, Neil Rashbrook, Neil Soiffer, Nicholas Shanks, Nicholas Stimpson, Nicholas Zakas, Nickolay Ponomarev, Nicolas Gallagher, Noah Mendelsohn, Noah Slater, Noel Gordon, NoozNooz42, Norbert Lindenberg, Ojan Vafai, Olaf Hoffmann, Olav Junker Kjær, Oldřich Vetešník, Oli Studholme, Oliver Hunt, Oliver Rigby, Olivier Gendrin, Olli Pettay, oSand, Pablo Flouret, Patrick H. Lauke, Patrik Persson, Paul Adenot, Paul Norman, Per-Erik Brodin, Perry Smith, Peter Beverloo, Peter Karlsson, Peter Kasting, Peter Moulder, Peter Occil, Peter Stark, Peter Van der Beken, Peter-Paul Koch, Phil Pickering, Philip Jägenstedt, Philip Taylor, Philip TAYLOR, Philippe De Ryck, Prateek Rungta, Pravir Gupta, 李普君 (Pujun Li), Rachid Finge, Rafał Miłecki, Raj Doshi, Rajas Moonka, Ralf Stoltze, Ralph Giles, Raphael Champeimont, Remci Mizkur, Remco, Remy Sharp, Rene Saarsoo, Rene Stach, Ric Hardacre, Rich Doughty, Richard Ishida, Rigo Wenning, Rikkert Koppes, Rimantas Liubertas, Riona Macnamara, Rob Ennals, Rob Jellinghaus, Rob S, Robert Blaut, Robert Collins, Robert Kieffer, Robert Millan, Robert O'Callahan, Robert Sayre, Robin Berjon, Rodger Combs, Roland Steiner, Roma Matusevich, Roman Ivanov, Roy Fielding, Ruud Steltenpool, Ryan King, Ryosuke Niwa, S. Mike Dierken, Salvatore Loreto, Sam Dutton, Sam Kuper, Sam Ruby, Sam Weinig, Samuel Bronson, Samy Kamkar, Sander van Lambalgen, Sarven Capadisli, Scott González, Scott Hess, Sean Fraser, Sean Hayes, Sean Hogan, Sean Knapp, Sebastian Markbåge, Sebastian Schnitzenbaumer, Seth Call, Seth Dillingham, Shanti Rao, Shaun Inman, Shiki Okasaka, Sierk Bornemann, Sigbjørn Vik, Silver Ghost, Silvia Pfeiffer, Šime Vidas, Simon Montagu, Simon Pieters, Simon Spiegel, skeww, Smylers, Stanton McCandlish, Stefan Håkansson, Stefan Haustein, Stefan Santesson, Stefan Weiss, Steffen Meschkat, Stephen Ma, Stephen White, Steve Comstock, Steve Faulkner, Steve Runyon, Steven Bennett, Steven Garrity, Steven Tate, Stewart Brodie, Stuart Ballard, Stuart Langridge, Stuart Parmenter, Subramanian Peruvemba, Sunava Dutta, Susan Borgrink, Susan Lesch, Sylvain Pasche, T. J. Crowder, Tab Atkins, Takeshi Yoshino, Tantek Çelik, 田村健人 (TAMURA Kent), Ted Mielczarek, Terrence Wood, Thomas Broyer, Thomas Koetter, Thomas O'Connor, Tim Altman, Tim Johansson, TJ VanToll, Toby Inkster, Todd Moody, Tom Baker, Tom Pike, Tommy Thorsen, Travis Leithead, Tyler Close, Victor Carbune, Vladimir Katardjiev, Vladimir Vukićević, voracity, Wakaba, Wayne Carr, Wayne Pollock, Wellington Fernando de Macedo, Weston Ruter, Wilhelm Joys Andersen, Will Levine, William Swanson, Wladimir Palant, Wojciech Mach, Wolfram Kriesing, Xan Gregg, Yang Chen, Ye-Kui Wang, Yehuda Katz, Yi-An Huang, Yngve Nysaeter Pettersen, Yonathan Randolph, Yuzo Fujishima, Zhenbin Xu, Zoltan Herczeg, and Øistein E. Andersen, for their useful comments, both large and small, that have led to changes to this specification over the years.

Thanks also to everyone who has ever posted about HTML to their blogs, public mailing lists, or forums, including all the contributors to the various W3C HTML WG lists and the various WHATWG lists.

Special thanks to Richard Williamson for creating the first implementation of canvas in Safari, from which the canvas feature was designed.

Special thanks also to the Microsoft employees who first implemented the event-based drag-and-drop mechanism, contenteditable, and other features first widely deployed by the Windows Internet Explorer browser.

Thanks to the participants of the microdata usability study for allowing us to use their mistakes as a guide for designing the microdata feature.

Special thanks and $10,000 to David Hyatt who came up with a broken implementation of the adoption agency algorithm that the editor had to reverse engineer and fix before using it in the parsing section.

Thanks to the many sources that provided inspiration for the examples used in the specification.

Thanks also to the Microsoft blogging community for some ideas, to the attendees of the W3C Workshop on Web Applications and Compound Documents for inspiration, to the #mrt crew, the #mrt.no crew, and the #whatwg crew, and to Pillar and Hedral for their ideas and support.