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      1. 4.9.10 The th element
      2. 4.9.11 Attributes common to td and th elements
      3. 4.9.13 Examples

4.9.10 The th element

Categories
None.
Contexts in which this element can be used:
As a child of a tr element.
Content model:
Phrasing content.
Content attributes:
Global attributes
colspan
rowspan
headers
scope
DOM interface:
interface HTMLTableHeaderCellElement : HTMLTableCellElement {
           attribute DOMString scope;
};

The th element represents a header cell in a table.

The th element may have a scope content attribute specified. The scope attribute is an enumerated attribute with five states, four of which have explicit keywords:

The row keyword, which maps to the row state
The row state means the header cell applies to some of the subsequent cells in the same row(s).
The col keyword, which maps to the column state
The column state means the header cell applies to some of the subsequent cells in the same column(s).
The rowgroup keyword, which maps to the row group state
The row group state means the header cell applies to all the remaining cells in the row group. A th element's scope attribute must not be in the row group state if the element is not anchored in a row group.
The colgroup keyword, which maps to the column group state
The column group state means the header cell applies to all the remaining cells in the column group. A th element's scope attribute must not be in the column group state if the element is not anchored in a column group.
The auto state
The auto state makes the header cell apply to a set of cells selected based on context.

The scope attribute's missing value default is the auto state.

The scope IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name, limited to only known values.

The following example shows how the scope attribute's rowgroup value affects which data cells a header cell applies to.

Here is a markup fragment showing a table:

<table>
 <thead>
  <tr> <th> ID <th> Measurement <th> Average <th> Maximum
 <tbody>
  <tr> <td> <th scope=rowgroup> Cats <td> <td>
  <tr> <td> 93 <th scope=row> Legs <td> 3.5 <td> 4
  <tr> <td> 10 <th scope=row> Tails <td> 1 <td> 1
 <tbody>
  <tr> <td> <th scope=rowgroup> English speakers <td> <td>
  <tr> <td> 32 <th scope=row> Legs <td> 2.67 <td> 4
  <tr> <td> 35 <th scope=row> Tails <td> 0.33 <td> 1
</table>

This would result in the following table:

ID Measurement Average Maximum
Cats
93 Legs 3.5 4
10 Tails 1 1
English speakers
32 Legs 2.67 4
35 Tails 0.33 1

The headers in the first row all apply directly down to the rows in their column.

The headers with the explicit scope attributes apply to all the cells in their row group other than the cells in the first column.

The remaining headers apply just to the cells to the right of them.

4.9.11 Attributes common to td and th elements

The td and th elements may have a colspan content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer greater than zero.

The td and th elements may also have a rowspan content attribute specified, whose value must be a valid non-negative integer.

These attributes give the number of columns and rows respectively that the cell is to span. These attributes must not be used to overlap cells.


The td and th element may have a headers content attribute specified. The headers attribute, if specified, must contain a string consisting of an unordered set of unique space-separated tokens that are case-sensitive, each of which must have the value of an ID of a th element taking part in the same table as the td or th element.

A th element with ID id is said to be directly targeted by all td and th elements in the same table that have headers attributes whose values include as one of their tokens the ID id. A th element A is said to be targeted by a th or td element B if either A is directly targeted by B or if there exists an element C that is itself targeted by the element B and A is directly targeted by C.

A th element must not be targeted by itself.


The td and th elements implement interfaces that inherit from the HTMLTableCellElement interface:

interface HTMLTableCellElement : HTMLElement {
           attribute unsigned long colSpan;
           attribute unsigned long rowSpan;
  [PutForwards=value] readonly attribute DOMSettableTokenList headers;
  readonly attribute long cellIndex;
};
cell . cellIndex

Returns the position of the cell in the row's cells list. This does not necessarily correspond to the x-position of the cell in the table, since earlier cells might cover multiple rows or columns.

Returns 0 if the element isn't in a row.

The colSpan IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name. The value must be limited to only non-negative numbers greater than zero.

The rowSpan IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name. Its default value, which must be used if parsing the attribute as a non-negative integer returns an error, is 1.

The headers IDL attribute must reflect the content attribute of the same name.

4.9.12 Examples

The following shows how might one mark up the bottom part of table 45 of the Smithsonian physical tables, Volume 71:

<table>
 <caption>Specification values: <b>Steel</b>, <b>Castings</b>,
 Ann. A.S.T.M. A27-16, Class B;* P max. 0.06; S max. 0.05.</caption>
 <thead>
  <tr>
   <th rowspan=2>Grade.</th>
   <th rowspan=2>Yield Point.</th>
   <th colspan=2>Ultimate tensile strength</th>
   <th rowspan=2>Per cent elong. 50.8mm or 2 in.</th>
   <th rowspan=2>Per cent reduct. area.</th>
  </tr>
  <tr>
   <th>kg/mm<sup>2</sup></th>
   <th>lb/in<sup>2</sup></th>
  </tr>
 </thead>
 <tbody>
  <tr>
   <td>Hard</td>
   <td>0.45 ultimate</td>
   <td>56.2</td>
   <td>80,000</td>
   <td>15</td>
   <td>20</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
   <td>Medium</td>
   <td>0.45 ultimate</td>
   <td>49.2</td>
   <td>70,000</td>
   <td>18</td>
   <td>25</td>
  </tr>
  <tr>
   <td>Soft</td>
   <td>0.45 ultimate</td>
   <td>42.2</td>
   <td>60,000</td>
   <td>22</td>
   <td>30</td>
  </tr>
 </tbody>
</table>

This table could look like this:

Specification values: Steel, Castings, Ann. A.S.T.M. A27-16, Class B;* P max. 0.06; S max. 0.05.
Grade. Yield Point. Ultimate tensile strength Per cent elong. 50.8 mm or 2 in. Per cent reduct. area.
kg/mm2 lb/in2
Hard 0.45 ultimate 56.2 80,000 15 20
Medium 0.45 ultimate 49.2 70,000 18 25
Soft 0.45 ultimate 42.2 60,000 22 30

The following shows how one might mark up the gross margin table on page 46 of Apple, Inc's 10-K filing for fiscal year 2008:

<table>
 <thead>
  <tr>
   <th>
   <th>2008
   <th>2007
   <th>2006
 <tbody>
  <tr>
   <th>Net sales
   <td>$ 32,479
   <td>$ 24,006
   <td>$ 19,315
  <tr>
   <th>Cost of sales
   <td>  21,334
   <td>  15,852
   <td>  13,717
 <tbody>
  <tr>
   <th>Gross margin
   <td>$ 11,145
   <td>$  8,154
   <td>$  5,598
 <tfoot>
  <tr>
   <th>Gross margin percentage
   <td>34.3%
   <td>34.0%
   <td>29.0%
</table>

The following shows how one might mark up the operating expenses table from lower on the same page of that document:

<table>
 <colgroup> <col>
 <colgroup> <col> <col> <col>
 <thead>
  <tr> <th> <th>2008 <th>2007 <th>2006
 <tbody>
  <tr> <th scope=rowgroup> Research and development
       <td> $ 1,109 <td> $ 782 <td> $ 712
  <tr> <th scope=row> Percentage of net sales
       <td> 3.4% <td> 3.3% <td> 3.7%
 <tbody>
  <tr> <th scope=rowgroup> Selling, general, and administrative
       <td> $ 3,761 <td> $ 2,963 <td> $ 2,433
  <tr> <th scope=row> Percentage of net sales
       <td> 11.6% <td> 12.3% <td> 12.6%
</table>

This table could look like this:

2008 2007 2006
Research and development $ 1,109 $ 782 $ 712
Percentage of net sales 3.4% 3.3% 3.7%
Selling, general, and administrative $ 3,761 $ 2,963 $ 2,433
Percentage of net sales 11.6% 12.3% 12.6%