W3C

Roles for Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA)

An RDF Role Taxonomy with Qname Support for Accessible Adaptable XML Applications

W3C Working Draft 21 September 2006

This version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-aria-role-20060921/
Latest version:
http://www.w3.org/TR/aria-role/
Editor:
Lisa Seeman, UB Access

Abstract

Accessibility is often dependent on Assistive Technology (AT), tools that provide alternate modes of access for people with disabilities by transforming complex user interfaces into an alternate presentation. This transformation requires information about the role, state, and other semantics of specific portions of a document to be able to transform them appropriately. Rich Web applications typically rely on hybrid technologies such as DHTML and AJAX that combine multiple technologies: SVG, HTML and JavaScript for example. The various technologies provide much but not all of the information needed to support AT adequately. This specification provides a Web-standard way to identify roles in dynamic Web content. The result is an interoperable way to associate behaviors and structure with existing markup.

This document and the States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-STATE] fill information gaps identified by the Roadmap for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-ROADMAP]. The role attribute defined in the XHTML Role Attribute Module [XHTML-ROLES] is the preferred way to expose these roles in XHTML applications.

Status of This Document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. A list of current W3C publications and the latest revision of this technical report can be found in the W3C technical reports index at http://www.w3.org/TR/.

This document is a First Public Working Draft by the Protocols & Formats Working Group of the Web Accessibility Initiative. The Working Group expects to advance this document to Recommendation.

This specification adds semantics to content to improve the accessibility and interoperability of Web Content and Applications. Feedback on the model set out here is important to the success of the Web community in creating Rich Internet Applications with full and facile accessibility. The PFWG would like to know, in particular, if:

When addressing these questions, please consider them in the context of the companion documents mentioned above in the abstract. Comments on this document may be sent to public-pfwg-comments@w3.org (Archive).

Publication as a Working Draft does not imply endorsement by the W3C Membership. This is a draft document and may be updated, replaced or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to cite this document as other than work in progress.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

Table of Contents

  1. 1 Introduction
    1. 1.1 Example: Grid
    2. 1.2 Terms and Definitions
    3. 1.3 About This Draft
  2. 2 The RDF Roles Model
    1. 2.1 Example: Tristate Checkbox
    2. 2.2 Properties
    3. 2.3 Roles
      1. 2.3.1 Base and Abstract Roles
      2. 2.3.2 Widget Roles
      3. 2.3.3 Structural Roles
  3. 3 Building Accessible Applications
    1. 3.1 How To Build Applications Using Roles
    2. 3.2 Example: Tree View
  4. 4 Conformance Requirements
    1. 4.1 Document Conformance
    2. 4.2 Host Language Conformance
    3. 4.3 User Agent Conformance
  5. 5 Extending Roles
    1. 5.1 How To Extend Roles
    2. 5.2 When To Extend Roles
  6. 6 Appendices
    1. 6.1 Implementation
    2. 6.2 References
    3. 6.3 Acknowledgments (Non-Normative)
      1. 6.3.1 Participants active in the PFWG at the time of publication
      2. 6.3.2 Other previously active PFWG participants and other contributors to Roadmap for Accessible Rich Internet Applications
      3. 6.3.3 Enabling funders
    4. 6.4 Temporary Appendix: Removed Structural Roles that were Included in Previous Working Drafts

1. Introduction

This section is informative.

Roles are a simple way for an author to make custom widgets (new interactive elements) accessible, usable and interoperable.

Complex user interfaces become inaccessible because adaptive technologies, that provide alternative access, are often left guessing at the semantics behind portions of a document (see the Roadmap for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-ROADMAP]). Using this specification you can assign a role name to an object that maps the object to the accessibility framework on the native platform and provides semantics needed by adaptive technologies.

This role taxonomy currently includes interaction widget and structural document objects. The supporting taxonomy is encoded in Resource Description Framework (RDF) [RDF]. The RDF taxonomy encodes inheritance information and details of what states and properties each role support. When possible, role information is mapped to platform accessibility API's.

Roles are element types and should not change with time or user actions. For assigning meaningful properties that change with time and events see States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-STATE].

1.1 Example: Grid

This section is informative.

In this example, a table has been assigned the role of a grid or spreadsheet.

<table id="table1" role="wairole:grid" >
...
</table>

Encapsulated in the role information is information for the platform accessibility infrastructure and/or accessibility tooling that enables it to be properly treated. (In this case that multiselectable is supported and cells may be editable.)

A full spreadsheet example is available online at http://www.mozilla.org/access/dhtml/spreadsheet

Roles can be embedded in any host language, e.g. XHTML 1.1 [XHTML]. In many case Roles will work well with other supporting technologies, such as States and Properties for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-STATE] and XML Events [XML-EVENTS]

1.2 Terms and Definitions

This section is informative.

While some terms are defined in place, the following definitions are used throughout this document. Familiarity with W3C XHTML 1.1 Recommendation [XHTML] and the W3C XML 1.0 Recommendation [XML] is highly recommended.

Accessibility API
This is the accessibility API for a given platform. Examples of this are the Java Accessibility API [JAPI], Microsoft Active Accessibility [MSAA], Apple Accessibility for COCOA [AAC], and the Gnome Accessibility Toolkit (ATK) [GAP].
Functionality
processes and outcomes achievable through user action
User Agent
any software that retrieves and renders Web content for users
Example: Web browsers, media players, plug-ins, and other programs including assistive technologies that help retrieve and render Web content.
Assistive Technology (in the context of this document)
a user agent that:
  1. Relies on services (such as retrieving Web content and parsing markup) provided by one or more other "host" user agents. Assistive technologies communicate data and messages with host user agents by using and monitoring APIs.
  2. Provides services beyond those offered by the host user agents to meet the requirements of users with disabilities. Additional services include alternative renderings (e.g., as synthesized speech or magnified content), alternative input methods (e.g., voice), additional navigation or orientation mechanisms, and content transformations (e.g., to make tables more accessible).
Example: Examples of assistive technologies that are important in the context of this document include the following:
  • Screen magnifiers, which are used by people with visual disabilities to enlarge and change colors on the screen to improve the visual readability of rendered text and images;
  • screen readers, which are used by people who are blind or have reading disabilities to read textual information through synthesized speech or braille displays;
  • Voice recognition software, which may be used by people who have some physical disabilities;
  • Alternative keyboards, which are used by people with certain physical disabilities to simulate the keyboard;
  • Alternative pointing devices, which are used by people with certain physical disabilities to simulate mouse pointing and button activations.
Note: This definition is based on WCAG Accessibility Guidelines 2.0.

1.3 About This Draft

This section is informative.

This draft currently handles two aspects of roles - GUI functionality and structural relationships of the element. For more information see the Roadmap for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-ROADMAP] implementation examples for the use of roles making dynamically generated content accessible.

This taxonomy is designed in-part to support the common roles found in platform accessibility API (Accessible Programmable Interfaces) frameworks. Reference to roles found in this taxonomy by dynamic Web content may be used to support dynamic accessible content authoring, interoperability with assistive technologies.

The schema to support this standard has been designed to be extended so that custom roles can be created while providing a common schema for describing how to interact accessibly with a custom role. Note that much of this could be formalized in XML Schema [XSD]. However, being able to define similarities between roles, such as baseConcepts and more descriptive definitions would not be available in XSD.

At some point the working group intends to add roles for A, Adding concepts in the type of content for adaptation to the user scenario and B, Knowledge representation of Web content.

2.The RDF Roles Model

This section is normative.

This specification defines a Taxonomy called Roles. The Roles Taxonomy uses the XML Namespace [XMLNAMES] identifier

http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#

All examples are informative. Examples in this document that use the XML Namespace prefix "wairoles" all assume a valid xmlns declaration such as

xmlns:wairoles="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#"

in the document involved.

The remainder of this section describes the class's instances and properties in this taxonomy, the semantics, and provides an RDF [RDF] Schema.

2.1 Example: Tristate Checkbox

In this example a span has been used to create a tri-state checkbox (a checkbox control that has three possible states). A role is used to make the behavior of this simple widget known to the user agent. Properties that may change with user actions (such as checked) use States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications ([ARIA-STATE], Section 3.1.1.1).

   <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml"
            xmlns:wairole="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#"
            xmlns:aaa="http://www.w3.org/2005/07/aaa" >

   <head>...</head>
   <body>
       ...
       <span class="checkboxtristate" id="chbox1" role="wairole:checkboxtristate"  aaa:checked="mixed"
       onkeydown="return checkBoxEvent(event);" onclick="return checkBoxEvent(event);" tabindex="0" >
       A checkbox label
       </span>

       ...
   </body>
</html>

In this example the support schema will define a checkboxtristate as a type of checkbox (which itself is defined as a type of select). Although it inherits all the supported states of a select, we also expect it to support multiselect and checked set to mixed.

2.2 Role Properties

Roles are defined and described by their properties. Properties define the structural function of a role, such as: What a roles is, concepts behind it , what it can contain, what it must contain.

In the case of widgets this also includes how it interacts with the user agent based on mapping to HTML forms and XForms, allowed states and required states.

Relationships between concepts

The are three properties that describe the relationship between concepts. They are:

The Roles Taxonomy supports the following additional properties:

Additional Properties Supported by Role Taxonomy

Property

Description

Values

supportedState

a supportedState must be supported by this role. Typically refers to states from the aaa namespace

Any valid [RDF] object reference, such as a URI.

mustContain

A child element that must be contained by this role. For example a list must contain a listitem.

Any valid [RDF] object reference, such as a URI or [RDF] ID.

scope

Context, where this role is allowed. For example a list item is allowed inside a list.

Any valid [RDF] object reference, such as a URI or [RDF] ID.

media

The media type, where the Role is allowed - a type of scope

Any valid [RDF] object reference, such as a URI or [RDF] ID.

nameRef

How a role type name is extracted and referenced inside a document. For example the [DOM] might reference a role by its title.

Any valid [RDF] object reference, such as a URI or [RDF] Node ID.

Recommended values: Child, title, content.

2.3 Roles

To support the current user scenario this specification defines roles that A, help define Widgets (For example, a tristate Checkbox) and B, help define page structure (for example, a section header).

Graph of the data model—Picture of the relationships described in the role data model (large)

2.3.1 Roles: Abstract and Base Classes

*Note: More base types will be added as the working group adds user cases

The following roles are used as base types for applied roles. They are not used by Web Authors and would not be exposed as role definitions for incorporation into a Web page. Base classes are referenced within the taxonomy and are used to build a picture of the role taxonomy class hierarchy within the taxonomy.

Base Roles

Role

Description

roletype

Describes the structural and functional purpose of an element. A Role is also a concept.

input

Generic type for widgets that can have a value

textbox

Generic type for the inputs that allow free-form text as their value

select

A form control that allows the user to make selections from a set of choices

range

Represents a range of values that can be set by the user.

section

A logical part of a DeliveryUnit (page or a document)

sectionhead

A heading without level

window

Browser or application window

2.3.2 Widget Roles

Widget Roles all map to accessibility API's.

Properties of Widget Roles

Widget Role

Description

link

Interactive reference to a resource (note, that in [XHTML] 2.0 any element can have an href attribute and thus be a link)

combobox

Combobox is a presentation of a select, where you can type to locate a selected item.

NOTE: In [XForms] the same select can have one of 3 appearances: combo-box, drop-down box or group of radio-buttons. Besides, many browsers (if not all of them) allow users to type in a drop-down select as well.

option

A selectable item in a list represented by a Select.

checkbox

A control that has two possible states, an equivalent to a boolean

checkboxtristate

A control that has three possible states, (1 0 -1) Often found in installer where an option has been partially installed

radio

A radio is an option in single-select list.

radiogroup

Maybe, we would rather have a generic "group of choices" type.

button

Allows for user-triggered actions. Buttons are mostly used for discrete, atomic actions. Its value is cognitive; the idea that this is a user action opportunity is made very clear by making it look like a front-panel button on a device. The animation of the button in response to indirect (by mouse) manipulation fosters the illusion of direct manipulation and keeps user cognition in sync with the UI perception of user action events. Standardizing the appearance of buttons enhances recognition as buttons and arraying them compactly in toolbars, for example.

menuitemradio

Indicates that you have a menu item which is part of a group of menuitemradio roles. The checking of one menuitemradio in a group will unchecked the other group members. Furthermore, when implementing these menuitems should be separated into a group by a separator.

menuitemcheckbox

Defines a menuitem which is checkable (tri-state).

progressbar

Used by applications for tasks that take a long time to execute, to show the execution progress.

User understands that the user's action request has been accepted and that the application continues (or ceases, in the case of a static display) to make progress toward completing the requested action.

secret

Provides the user with the ability to supply information to the system in a manner that makes it difficult for someone, other than the user, who may be observing the process, to discern the value that is being supplied.

Detriments: Passwords have to be typed blind, without the usual echo to the screen. Web users get used to having their input echoed, type badly, and in particular not having people able to confirm what is entered runs risk such as having account locked if three non-accepted tries happen in some time window.

Detriment: Policy not to display is usually taken to be absolute; whereas a user with screen blank and earphone in use can get the typing echoed privately not subject to having a lurker purloin the password.

separator

A line or bar that separates and distinguishes sections of content. This is a visual separator between sections of content. Separators are found between lists of menu items in a menu.

slider

A user input where the user selects an input in a given range. It is a form of Range that expects an analog keyboard interface.

This is a range type for which with the added functionality of being able to select a value from the given range through the use of a visible slider. The slider would be keyboard accessible and provide a visible thumb position that represents the current position within the slider.

spinbutton

A form of Range that expects a user selecting from discreet choices.

This is another range type with the added functionality of being able to select from the given range through the use of an up and down button. Visibly, the current value is incremented or decremented to a maximum or minimum value correspondingly. This functionality should be accomplished programmatically through the use of up and down arrows on the keyboard.

textarea

This is a multi-line editable text box. If a standard form element exists with this functionality it should be used.

Intended use is in languages that do not have a textarea object (such as SVG). The user would use this role when additional states or properties are applied to a standard textarea control. This is to indicate to the user agent that it must process additional states and properties such as invalid and required.

textfield

Free-form data entry for short on-line content.

Intended use is in languages that do not have a textfield object (such as SVG). The user would use this role when additional states or properties are applied to a standard textarea control. This is to indicate to the user agent that it must process additional states and properties such as invalid and required.

tree

A form of a Select (or, generally, of a list having groups inside groups) - where sub trees can be collapsed and expanded

treegroup

This is a group of sibling tree items that have a common parent. Intended use is for creating groups of treeitems within a tree container.

treeitem

An option item of a tree. This is an element within a tree which may be expanded or collapsed

status

Process--advisory information. This is a container for process advisory information to give feedback to the user. It must have a subtree. This object typically does not receive focus. Some cells of a Braille display may be reserved to render the status.

alert

A message with an alert or error information. Alerts are used to convey messages to alert the user. In the case of audio warnings this is an accessible alternative for a hearing impaired user. The Alert role goes on the container of the subtree containing the alert message.

alertdialog

A window with an alert or error information. Alerts are used to convey messages to alert the user. In the case of audio warnings this is an accessible alternative for a hearing impaired user. The Alert role goes on the container of the subtree containing the alert message.

dialog

A dialog is a small application window that sits above the application and is designed to interrupt the current processing of an application in order to prompt the user to enter information or require a response. Dialog boxes should have a title. They must have a focused item.

2.3.3 Structural Roles

Roles for document structure are also required to support the accessibility of dynamic Web content to assist adaptive technology in determining active content vs. static document content. Structural Roles, by themselves do not all map to accessibility API's, but are used to create widget roles or assist content adaptation.

This schema is likely to evolve as new use cases are added to the scope of this specification.

Properties of Structural Roles

Roles

Description

presentation

An element who's role is Presentational does not need to be mapped to the accessibility API.

Intended use is when an element is used to change the look of the page but does not have all the functional, interactive, or structural relevance implied by the element type.

Example use cases:

  • A layout table is a presentation.
  • An object tag whose content is decorative like a white space image or decorative flash object
  • An image used for white space

The user agent may remove all structural aspects of the element being repurposed. For example, a table marked as presentation would remove the table, td, th, tr, etc. elements while preserving the individual text elements within it. Because the AT knows to ignore the structural aspects implied in a table, no harm is done by using a table for layout.

application

A software unit executing a set of tasks for its users

The intent is to hint to the assistive technology to switch its normal browsing mode functionality to one in which they would for an application.

Use case: In an email application it has a document and an application in it. The author would want to use typical application navigation mode to cycle through the list of emails. Much of this navigation would be defined by the application author. However, when reading an email message the ATV will want to switch to a document mode where it controls browsing navigation.

document

Content that contains information, such as a book. The document role is used to tell the screen reader to switch back to its normal document browsing mode. Screen readers consume most of the keyboard navigation keys to provide its own keyboard UI for this type of navigation.

group

A group is a collection of sections or user interface objects that should be presented to the user in a coherent fashion.

Group members that are outside the DOM subtree of the group would need to have explicit relationships assigned to participate in the group.

Groups may be nested.

imggroup

An imggroup is a container for a collection elements that form an image. An imggroup can contain captions, descriptive text as well as multiple image files that when viewed together give the impression of a single image.

directory

A list of references to members of a single group.

region

A group of elements that together form a perceivable unit, that the author feels should be included in a summary of page features. A region must have a title.

A region does not necessarily follow the logical structure of the content, but follows the perceivable structure of the page.

[XHTML] standard document roles would be considered regions. Each region must have a title.

liveregion

This is a region of a Web page that is likely to change. This is a region of the page which responds to a push, a timed change, or a user event, such as AJAX controlled regions.

Properties that define these type of changes are not limited to this region.

log

A liveregion where new information is added and old information may disappear such as; chat logs, messaging, game log or an error log.

grid

A grid is a table type that may be editable. Grids contain cells that may be focusable. Grids allow the user to move focus between grid cells with 2-D navigation. Grids may have row and column headers which also have functional value based on the implementation. Grid cells may have values determined by an equation.

Grids are single selectable or mutliselectable. Properties for selectable or mulitselectable must be provided by the author. Grids may be used for spreadsheets such as in Open Office, Microsoft Office, etc.

gridcell

A cell in a grid. Cells may have relationships such as (controller_for controlled_by) to address the application of functional relationships.

tabcontainer

A tabcontainer is a container for tabs, a tablist, and tabpanels that belong together.

Tabpanels are commonly used in applications that have a large number of options that can be categorized in logical groups.

Each tab in a tablist serves as both a menu item and as a title for the tab content associated with the tab.

In graphical renderings the selected tab and Tabpanels usually share the same background color and the non-selected tabs have a different background color to make the selected tab and tabpanel stand out visually and provide a visual association with the tab and tabcontent. Only one tabpanel's contents is visible at a time.

tab

A tab is a tabpanel header. Tab is used as a grouping label, providing a link for selecting the resources associated with the group to be rendered to the user.

One of the tabs in tablist must be the current tab and the tabpanel, associated with the tab, must be rendered to the user. Other tabpanels are typically hidden from the user, until the user selects the tab associated with that tabpanel.

The currently selected tab should be marked with selected=true.tablist is the container for a set of elements with the role attribute set to tab. Only one tab may be selected at a time. At any time, one tab must be selected.

tabpanel

Tabpanel is a container for the resources associated with a tab. Note: There must be a means to associate a content container element with its associated tab in a tablist.

tablist

A list of references to tabpanels of a tabcontainer.

table

A table contains cells of tabular data arranged in rows and columns.

The table role is used as a container for tabular data. The table construct describes relationships between data such that it may also be used for different presentations. For example, the role of a table could be added to a pie chart. This does not imply presentation. It is structural equivalent to an [XHTML] table. In [XHTML], a user should use table.

td

A table cell containing data.

th

A table cell containing header information.

rowheader

A table cell containing header information for a row. The rowheader establishes a relationship between it and all cells in the corresponding row. It is a structural equivalent to an HTML th with a row scope. This would be used as a row header in a table or grid. It also could be used in a pie chart to show a similar relationship in the data.

columnheader

A table cell containing header information for a column. The columnheader establishes a relationship between it and all cells in the corresponding row. It is a structural equivalent to an HTML th with a column scope. This would be used as a column header in a table or grid. It also could be used in a pie chart to show a similar relationship in the data.

list

Group of small items

listitem

An entry in a list.

menu

Offers a list of choices like a GUI menu. Often a list of links to important sections of a Document or a Site.

toolbar

A toolbar is a collection of commonly used functions represented in compact visual form.

The toolbar is a subset of functions found in a menubar designed minimize real estate and conserve user device interaction.

If this is not keyboard accessible the actions defined in the toolbar must be reproduced in an accessible, device independent fashion.

menubar

A container that contains menu items. Each menu item may activate a menu. Navigation behavior should be similar to a GUI menu bar

It is used to create a menubar similar to those found in Windows, the Mac, and Gnome desktops. A menubar is used to create a consistent climate of frequently used commands.

menuitem

A link in a menu. This is an option in a group of choices contained in a menu. It may be disabled or active. It may also have a popup.

breadcrumbs

Bread crumb navigation list. Each element in the list is a representation of hierarchy represented linearly. The logical order of the text begins with the root element.

3 Building Accessible Applications

This section is informative.

An application becomes accessible when:

  1. Each element or widget is marked with full and corrected semantics that fully describes it's behavior (using element names or roles).
  2. The relationships between elements and groups are known
  3. States, properties, and relationships are valid for each elements behavior and are accessible via the Document Object Model (DOM) [DOM].
  4. There is an element having the correct input focus.

Roles make the different elements in the application semantically rich. User agents use the role semantics to understand how to handle each element. Roles can be used to build accessible applications by providing any missing information that the assistive technology needs to anticipate the behavior of the elements inside the application.

For example, to support accessibility the browser may create accessible objects of a Web page through the Accessibility API of the operating system. When the full semantics are provided and understood by the browser, the application will properly map the page to accessible objects of the operating system.

3.1 How To Build Applications Using Roles

This section is informative.

3.1.1 Step 1: Use your native mark up as well as you can

Use the semantic elements that are defined in the native markup language. For example, if you are using XHTML it is better to use the checkbox than to use a div element with role checkbox. Because properly used content is already repurposable, roles are best used when the mark up language does not support all the semantics that you need. When a role is used the semantics and behavior of the element are overridden by the role behavior.

3.1.2 Step 2: Find the right roles

Set roles to make sure elements behave predictably and correctly describes the behavior of each element within your application (unless elements behaviors are fully described by the native markup language). Roles for interactive elements should support all the states that the element could use.

3.1.3 Step 3: Look for groups

Look for groups within a page, and mark them using the most appropriate role that best describes their usage.

For example: a region of the page that contains a group of elements that are likely to change through an AJAX application could be tagged as a "liveregion".

3.1.4 Step 4: Build relationships

Look for relationships between groups and mark the using the most appropriate property or attribute.

Sometimes the relationships can be made clear via the native mark up language, such as the label tag in HTML.

Sometimes this can be implied via the DOM. For example, when a well marked up list contains list items it is known that they belong to the containing list. In such cases you do not need to set additional properties to make that explicit.

In other cases use the States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications to state relationships. For example: If container A contains search results, and container B contains the search controls, then mark each container as a region and set the aaa: property in region B to reference region A.

3.1.5 Step 5: Set properties

Extra states and properties have been provided by the States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications [ARIA-STATE]. For example: If the user is required to fill in a form element set the aaa:required property to true.

An important addition in the States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications is new extensions of TABINDEX. Now, with the TABINDEX change, the author is allowed to give any element keyboard focus (and not just form elements or anchors). In this paradigm shift, the user experience should be to use tabbing or keyboard mnemonics to move focus to widgets on the Web page and then use the arrow keys to navigate the object. The TABINDEX change enables support of User Agent Accessibility Guidelines ([UAAG]).

Example: building a tree view in XHTML 1.0

This section is informative.

picture of a tree view

A basic tree view allows the user to select different list items and expand and collapse embedded lists. Arrow keys are used to navigate through a tree, including left/right to collapse/expand sub trees. Double clicking with mouse also toggles expansion.

Step one: Look at your native mark up language

There is no tree element in XHTML 1.0 that supports our behavior including expansion, so we will need to use roles. Therefore, our first step is setting roles.

Step two: Finding the right roles

Our tree will need roles that support embedded list behavior and expandable/collapsible embedded lists. The roles that support tree behavior for a tree are:

Tree: The main container element for our tree. A form of a Select (or, generally, of a list having groups inside groups) - where sub trees can be collapsed and expanded.

Treegroup: This is a group of sibling tree items that have a common parent. Intended use is for creating groups of treeitems within a tree container.

Treeitem: An option item of a tree. This is an element within a tree which may be expanded or collapsed.

Step three and four: Look for groups and build relationships

Tree relationships can be made simply via the DOM and logical structure of your page.

A tree element will be the main container containing all other elements in the tree.

Each selectable item in the tree will be a treeitem

When a tree item contains an embedded list of tree items they will be all embedded in a treegroup. A treegroup should be contained inside the tree item that is the parent item.

Tree relationships are like list relationships in XHTML. A treegroup and tree elements act like list containers (OL and UL). A tree item acts like a list item (li) in XHTML.

Because treeitems and treegroups commonly both use div elements it is recommended to add a comment next to closing treeitems that contain embedded tree groups.

<div x2:role="wairole:tree" >
 <div role="wairole:treeitem" >Veggies
  <div role="wairole:treegroup">
   <div role="wairole:treeitem">Green
     <div role="wairole:treegroup">
     <div role="wairole:treeitem">Asparagus</div>
     <div role="wairole:treeitem">Kale</div>
     <div role="wairole:treeitem" >Leafy
      <div role="wairole:treegroup">
       <div role="wairole:treeitem">Lettuce</div>
       <div role="wairole:treeitem">Kale</div>
       <div role="wairole:treeitem">Spinach</div>
       <div role="wairole:treeitem">Chard</div>
      </div>
     </div> ---close leafy
     <div role="wairole:treeitem">Green beans</div>
    </div>
   </div> ---close green
  <div role="wairole:treeitem">Legumes</div>
  <div role="wairole:treeitem" >Yellow
   <div role="wairole:treegroup">
    <div role="wairole:treeitem">Bell peppers</div>
    <div role="wairole:treeitem">Squash</div>
   </div>
  </div> ---close yellow
 </div>
</div> ---close veggies
</div> ---close tree

Sometimes a tree structure is not explicit via the DOM and logical structure of a page. In such cases the relationships must still be made explicit using the States and Properties Module.

Example:

<div x2:role="wairole:treeitem" aaa:haschild="yellowtreegroup">Yellow<div>
..
<div id="yellowtreegroup" role="wairole:treegroup">
<div role="wairole:treeitem">Bell peppers</div>
<div role="wairole:treeitem">Squash</div>
</div>

Although this is allowed it may affect performance

Step 5: Use properties

Control the behavior of the element using XML Events [XML-EVENTS] and States.

For example, use the aaa Namespace [XML-NAMES] with supporting scripts to control what tree elements are expanded

<div tabindex="-1" role="wairole:treeitem" aaa:expanded="true">Yellow</div>

And use events to device independent events with supporting JavaScript to handle user interaction.

<div role="wairole:tree" tabindex="-1"
onfocus="return treeItemFocus(event);"
onclick="return treeItemEvent(event);"
ondblclick="return treeItemEvent(event);"
onkeydown="return treeItemEvent(event);"
onkeypress="return treeItemEvent(event);">

Then create JavaScript support to control the event driven behavior or the application.

4. Conformance Requirements

This section is normative.

The keywords "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

4.1. Document Conformance

Roles for RDF [RDF] and XML [XML] is not a stand-alone document type. It is intended to be integrated into other host languages such as XHTML [XHTML]. A conforming document requires only the facilities described as mandatory in this specification and the facilities described as mandatory in its host language. Such a document must meet all the following criteria:

  1. The document must conform to the constraints expressed in Appendix A - RDF Schema combined with the constraints expressed in its host language implementation.
  2. The document must contain an xmlns declaration for the role Namespace [XML-NAMES]. The namespace name for the roles defined here is

    http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#

    An example start tag of a root element might look like:

    <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/xhtml2/" 
        xml:lang="en"
        xmlns:wairole="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#"
    >
    

Note: In XML languages without the role attribute included, the role attribute can be imported from the XHTML Role Attribute Module [XHTML-ROLES]. For example:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" 
    xmlns:x2="http://www.w3.org/2002/06/xhtml2"
    xmlns:wairole="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#"
>

4.2. Host Language Conformance

When Roles are included in a host language, all of the facilities required in this specification must be included in the host language.

4.3. User Agent Conformance

A conforming user agent must reference the role information reference in the DOM [DOM]. However, it is advised that a conforming user agent also allows for roles to be extended via RDF [RDF]. When a role from a different specification extends or inherits from a role in this specification, then that role should also be supported at least to the extent that the original role is supported.

5 Extending Roles

This section is informative.

5.1 How To Extend Roles

Roles are extendable by inheriting existing role types using RDF Schema [RDFS] schema with the predicates provided within this specification. It is not recommended to extend roles unless you are familiar with RDF syntax specification.

Using RDF [RDF] syntax set properties to make the definition rich. This includes:

A widget role is one that has inherited properties from widgets. You may only inherit from one widget role. Inherence from other types of roles is not restricted. Until user agents can create there own accessibility mappings parents widgets should provide enough information to enables usability

5.2 When To Extend Roles

New roles will slow down application performance. Therefore, you should probably only extend roles when:

Appendices

A. Implementation

Note: This RDF is still in draft form and changes from last draft have not been validated. Some related concepts may be missing.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<!DOCTYPE rdf:RDF [
<!ENTITY xsd "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#">
<!ENTITY dc "http://dublincore.org/2003/03/24/dces#">
<!ENTITY owl "http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#">
<!ENTITY rdfs "http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#">
<!ENTITY rdf "http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#">
<!ENTITY states "http://www.w3.org/2005/07/aaa#">
<!ENTITY skos "http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#">
]>

<rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#"
xmlns:rdfs="http://www.w3.org/2000/01/rdf-schema#"
xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/#"
xmlns:owl="http://www.w3.org/2002/07/owl#"
xmlns:role="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy#"
xmlns:states="http://www.w3.org/2005/07/aaa#"
xmlns:skos="http://www.w3.org/2004/02/skos/core#"
xml:base="http://www.w3.org/2005/01/wai-rdf/GUIRoleTaxonomy">

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="relatedConcept">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">The URI of similar/related types from
other specifications (See SKOS)</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="&xsd;anyURI"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="baseConcept">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">This is similar to type but without
inheritance of limitations and properties. role:baseConcepts are designed as
a substitute for inheritance for external concepts. </rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subpropertyOf rdf:resource="#relatedConcept"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="supportedState">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">A state that can be supported for this a
Role</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#widget"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="scope">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">Context where this role is
allowed</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#role"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="mustContain">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">A child that must be contained by this
role</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subpropertyOf rdf:resource="#scope"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="media">
<rdfs:comment xml:lang="en">The media type, where the Role is
allowed - a type of role:scope, simmilar to DC: Format or media
type</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subpropertyOf rdf:resource="#scope"/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="default">
<rdfs:comment>Default value of a supported state in the context of
this role</rdfs:comment>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:ObjectProperty rdf:ID="nameRef">
<rdfs:comment>How a role type name is extracted and referenced
inside a document. For example the DOM might reference a role by it's
title.</rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:domain rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<rdfs:Range/>
</owl:ObjectProperty>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="roletype">
<rdfs:comment>This is a draft resource for adding semantic
annotations and information to Web resources. Knowing what the types of
content are in a Web page allows for better customized renderings. Including
want to allow information hiding, or rendering common types of content in a
consistent way - it makes the Web easer to use and more accessibility. You
can also use this for device independence so that content is better formatted
to fit on the device. </rdfs:comment>
<rdfs:subClassOf>
<owl:Restriction>
<owl:onProperty rdf:resource="dc:description"/>
<owl:cardinality
rdf:datatype="&xsd;string">1</owl:cardinality>
</owl:Restriction>
</rdfs:subClassOf>
<rdfs:comment>You have to give each content type a title and
description sorry folks (just be glad I did not put a min length on the
description</rdfs:comment>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;describedby"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="widget">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#roletype"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A widget is a base class for widgets.
</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:parseType="Resource">
<rdfs:value>states:disabled</rdfs:value>
<role:default>false</role:default>
</role:supportedState>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;activedescendent"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;tabindex"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;labelledby"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="input">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-INPUT"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An input is a base class for widgets
that have a value. </dc:description>
<role:nameRef>title</role:nameRef>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;valuenow"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="textbox">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#input"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A textbox is a base class for widgets
that have a free-form text value. </dc:description>
<role:nameRef>Childcontent</role:nameRef>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;readonly"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="link">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">Interactive reference.
</dc:description>
<role:nameRef>title</role:nameRef>
<role:nameRef>Childcontent</role:nameRef>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="select">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#list"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#input"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-SELECT"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#list"/>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="#option"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A select is an Input that allows the
user to make selections from a set of choices. </dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;multiselectable"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="combobox">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#select"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-SELECT"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#list"/>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="#option"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A combobox is a sellect with a
specific presentation. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="radiogroup">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#select"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-SELECT"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#list"/>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="#radio"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A select containing radio-buttons,
instead of options. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="option">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#input"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-OPTION"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#listitem"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#select"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An option is a selectable item in a
list represented by a Select. </dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:parseType="Resource">
<rdfs:value>states:selected</rdfs:value>
<role:default>false</role:default>
</role:supportedState>
<role:nameRef>Childcontent</role:nameRef>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="checkbox">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#checkboxtristate"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A checkbox is an input that has two
possible values, an equivalent to a boolean. </dc:description>
<rdfs:comment
xml:lang="en">checked="true"|"false"</rdfs:comment>
<role:nameRef>Childcontent</role:nameRef>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="checkboxtristate">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#option"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A checkboxtristate is a control that
has three possible states. </dc:description>
<rdfs:comment
xml:lang="en">checked="true"|"false"|"mixed"</rdfs:comment>
<role:supportedState rdf:parseType="Resource">
<rdfs:value>states:checked</rdfs:value>
<role:default>false</role:default>
</role:supportedState>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="radio">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#checkbox"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An option in single-select list.
</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="menuitemcheckbox">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#checkbox"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#menuitem"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#menu"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A menuitemcheckbox is a checkbox that
is inside a menu, next to a menu item. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="menuitemradio">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#radio"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#menuitem"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#menu"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A menuitemradio is a radio-button that
is inside a menu, next to a menu item. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="button">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#link"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-BUTTON"/>
<role:relatedConcept rdf:resource="#link"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A button is a widget that allows for
user-triggered actions. </dc:description>
<role:nameRef>Childcontent</role:nameRef>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="progressbar">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">Progressbar is a widget used by
applications to show the execution progress for tasks that take a long time
to execute. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="separator">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A separator is a line or bar that
separates and distinguishes sections of content. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="secret">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#input"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A secret input provides the user with
the ability to supply information to the system in a manner that makes it
difficult for someone, other than the user, who may be observing the process
to discern the value that is being supplied.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="range">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#input"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A range is an input that restricts the
user to a range of values.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;valuemax"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;valuemin"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="slider">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#range"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A slider is a range input thatthat
restricts the user to a range of values and expects an analog keyboard
interface.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="spinbutton">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#range"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A spinbutton is a range input that
restricts the user to a range of values, and expects discreet
choices.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="textarea">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#textbox"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/interact/forms.html#edef-TEXTAREA"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A textarea is a textbox input intended
for use in entering multi-line content.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="textfield">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#textbox"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A textfield is a textbox input
intended for free-form data entry for short on-line
content.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="tree">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#select"/>
<role:baseConcept rdf:resource="#chart"/>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="#treeitem"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A tree is a select, where groups of
options (sub-trees) can be collapsed and expanded.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;expanded"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="treegroup">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#group"/>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="#treeitem"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#tree"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">This is a group of sibling tee items
that have a common parent. Intended use is for creating groups of treeitems
within a tree container.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;expanded"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="treeitem">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#option"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#tree"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A treeitem is an option item of a
tree.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;checked"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="dialog">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#window"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A dialog is a (small) application
window.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="alert">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#status"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An alert is a dialog with inportant
alert or error information.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;politeness"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="alertdialog">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#dialog"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#alert"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An alert is a dialog with inportant
alert or error information.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="status">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">Process--advisory information. This is
a container for process advisory information to give feedback to the
user.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="presentation">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#roletype"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An element whose role is
Presentational does not need to be mapped to the accessibility
API</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="application">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#roletype"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">An application is a software unit task
executing a set of sub tasks for its users</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="document">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#roletype"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A document is a unit of content, such
as text, that together conveys information. The document role is used to tel

the screen reader to switch back to its normal document browsing
mode.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="section">
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.loc.gov/nls/z3986/v100/dtbook110doc.htm#frontmatter"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.loc.gov/nls/z3986/v100/dtbook110doc.htm#level"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-smil/#par"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A section is a logical part of a
DeliveryUnit (page or a item) </dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;hasparent"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;flowto"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="window">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#application"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A window refers to a browser or
application window</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;expanded"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="region">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#group"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A group of elements that together form
a perceivable unit, that the author feels should be included in a summary of
page features. A region must have a title.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;expanded"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;labelledby"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;controls"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="group">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#section"/>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="#section"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A group is a collection of sections,
and is also itself a section. It defines a set or sub set.
</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="imggroup">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#group"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A img group is a container for a
collection elements that form an image.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="list">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#group"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">a list is a group of smal

items</dc:description>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="listitem"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/lists.html#edef-UL"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="listitem">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#section"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A listitem is an entry or item in a
list.</dc:description>
<role:scope rdf:resource="list"/>
<role:baseConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/lists.html#edef-LI"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="directory">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#list"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="group"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A list of references to members of a
single group.</dc:description>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="link"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="liveregion">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#region"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">This is a region of a Web page that is
likely to change. This is a region of the page which responds to a push, a
timed change, or a user event, such as AJAX controlled
regions</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;disabled"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;politeness"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="log">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#liveregion"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A liveregion where new information is
added and old information may disappear such as, chat logs, messaging, game
log or an error log.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="grid">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#table"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-TABLE"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A grid is a visual presentation of a
group of data.A grid is a table type that may be editable. Grids contain
cells that may be focusable. Grids allow the user to move focus between grid
cells with 2-D navigation. Grids may have have row and column headers which
also have functional value based on the implementation. Grid cells may have
values determined by an equation. </dc:description>
<role:mustContain rdf:resource="gridcell"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;multiselectable"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;disabled"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;labelledby"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;controls"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="gridcell">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#section"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#textarea"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-TD"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A gridcell is a section inside a
grid</dc:description>
<role:scope rdf:resource="grid"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;controls"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="tab">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#sectionhead"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A tab is the header for a
tabpanel.</dc:description>
<role:scope rdf:resource="tabpanel"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;selected"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="tabcontainer">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#group"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A visual presentation of a section.
Tabpanels are commonly used in applications that have a large number of
options that can be categorized in logical groups. The tabcontainer serve three
functional components, including a menu bar of groupings, a selected grouping
and set of resources associated with that group. Each tab in a tablist serves
as both a menu item and as a title for the tab content associated with the
tab. In graphical renderings the selected Tab and TabContent usually share
the same background color and the non-selected tabs have a different
background color to make the selected tab and tabpanels stand out visually
and provide a visual association with the Tab and tabpanels. Only one
tabpanel's contents is visible at a time. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="tabpanel">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#region"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">tabcontent is a container for the
resources associated with a tab. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="tablist"><rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#directory"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A list of tabpanels in a tabcontainer. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="table">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#group"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-TABLE"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A table is avisual presentation of a
group of data. A table contains cells of tabular data arranged in rows and
columns.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="td">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#section"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-TD"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A td is a table cell containing data
and is a small section a table.</dc:description>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#table"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="th">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#td"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#sectionhead"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-TH"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A th is a table cell containing data
that acts as a heading for a group of table cells.</dc:description>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#table"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="columnheader">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#th"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-COL"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A table cell containing header
information for a column. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="rowheader">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#th"/>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/tables.html#edef-COL"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A table cell containing header
information for a row. </dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="menu">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#widget"/>
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#list"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A menu is a block of
links.</dc:description>
<role:relatedConcept>See navigation in XHTML roles, See
http://www.w3.org/TR/2005/WD-xhtml2-20050527/mod-role.html#col_Role</role:relatedConcept>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.loc.gov/nls/z3986/v100/dtbook110doc.htm#sidebar"/>
<rdfs:mustcontain rdf:resource="#menuitems"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="menuitem">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#listitem"/>
<role:scope rdf:resource="#menu"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A menu item is an item or link inside
a menu.</dc:description>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;haspopup"/>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="toolbar">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#menu"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A toolbar is a collection of commonly
used functions represented in compact visual form.The toolbar is a subset of
functions found in a menubar designed minimize real estate and conserve user
device interaction.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="menubar">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#menu"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A container that contains menu items.
Each menu item may activate a menu. Navigation behavior should be similar to
a GUI menu bar. It is used to create a menubar similar to those found in
Windows, the Mac, and Gnome desktops. A menubar is used to create a
consistent climate of frequently used commands</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="breadcrumbs">
<rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="#menu"/>
<dc:description xml:lang="en">Bread crumb navigation list. Each
element in the list is a representation of hiearchary represented linearly.
The logical order of the text begins with the root
element.</dc:description>
</owl:Class>

<owl:Class rdf:ID="sectionhead">
<dc:description xml:lang="en">A heading without
level</dc:description>
<role:relatedConcept>See HTML Headings -
http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/struct/global.html#edef-h2</role:relatedConcept>
<role:relatedConcept
rdf:resource="http://www.loc.gov/nls/z3986/v100/dtbook110doc.htm#levelhd"/>
<role:supportedState rdf:resource="&states;hasparent"/>
</owl:Class>

</rdf:RDF>

B. References

[AAC]
Apple Accessibility for Cocoa™. Available at: http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Cocoa/Conceptual/Accessibility/index.html.
[ARIA-ROADMAP]
Roadmap for Accessible Rich Internet Applications, R. Schwerdtfeger, Editor. World Wide Web Consortium, 21 September 2006. This version of Roles for Accessible Rich Internet Applications is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-aria-roadmap-20060921/. The latest version of ARIA Roadmap is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/aria-roadmap/.
[ARIA-STATE]
States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications, L. Seeman, Editor. World Wide Web Consortium, 21 September 2006. This version of States and Properties Module for Accessible Rich Internet Applications is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-aria-state-20060921/. The latest version of ARIA States and Properties is available at http://www.w3.org/TR/aria-state/.
[CSS]
Cascading Style Sheets, level 2 (CSS2) Specification, I. Jacobs, B. Bos, H. Lie, C. Lilley, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 12 May 1998, http://www.w3.org/TR/1998/REC-CSS2-19980512/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-CSS2/.
[DOM]
Document Object Model (DOM) Level 2 Core Specification, L. Wood, G. Nicol, A. Le Hors, J. Robie, S. Byrne, P. Le Hégaret, M. Champion, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 13 November 2000, http://www.w3.org/TR/2000/REC-DOM-Level-2-Core-20001113/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/DOM-Level-2-Core/.
[GAP]
Gnome Accessibility Project (GAP) State and StateSets. Available at: http://developer.gnome.org/projects/gap/tech-docs/at-spi-docs/at-spi-cspi-state-and-statesets.html.
[HTML]
HTML 4.01 Specification, I. Jacobs, A. Le Hors, D. Raggett, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 24 December 1999, http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/html401/.
[JAPI]
Java Accessibility API (JAPI). Available at: http://java.sun.com/products/jfc/accessibility/index.jsp.
[MSAA]
Microsoft Active Accessibility (MSAA). Available at: http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/msaa/msaastart_9w2t.asp.
[RDF]
Resource Description Framework (RDF): Concepts and Abstract Syntax, G. Klyne, J. J. Carroll, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 10 February 2004, http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-concepts-20040210/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-concepts/.
[RDFS]
RDF Vocabulary Description Language 1.0: RDF Schema, D. Brickley, R. V. Guha, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 10 February 2004, http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-rdf-schema-20040210/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/rdf-schema/.
[RFC2119]
"Key words for use in RFCs to indicate requirement levels ", RFC 2119, S. Bradner, March 1997. Available at: http://www.rfc-editor.org/rfc/rfc2119.txt.
[SVG]
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) 1.1 Specification, D. Jackson, J. Ferraiolo, 藤沢, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 14 January 2003, http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-SVG11-20030114/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/SVG11/.
[UAAG]
User Agent Accessibility Guidelines 1.0, I. Jacobs, J. Gunderson, E. Hansen, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 17 December 2002, http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-UAAG10-20021217/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/UAAG10/.
[XFORMS]
XForms 1.0 (Second Edition), R. Merrick, M. Dubinko, T. V. Raman, J. Boyer, D. Landwehr, L. L. Klotz, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 14 March 2006, http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xforms-20060314/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xforms/.
[XHTML]
XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Second Edition), S. Pemberton, Editor, W3C Recommendation, 1 August 2002, http://www.w3.org/TR/2002/REC-xhtml1-20020801/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/.
[XHTMLMOD]
XHTML™ Modularization 1.1 , M. Altheim, F. Boumphrey, S. McCarron, S. Schnitzenbaumer, S. Dooley, T. Wugofski, Editors, W3C Working Draft (work in progress), 5 July 2006, http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-xhtml-modularization-20060705/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-modularization/.
[XML]
Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fourth Edition) , T. Bray, J. Paoli, E. Maler, C. M. Sperberg-McQueen, F. Yergeau, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 16 August 2006, http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-20060816/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xml/.
[XML-EVENTS]
XML Events, S. McCarron, S. Pemberton, T. V. Raman, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 14 October 2003, http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-xml-events-20031014/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-events/.
[XML-NAMES]
Namespaces in XML 1.0 (Second Edition) , D. Hollander, A. Layman, R. Tobin, T. Bray, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 16 August 2006, http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/REC-xml-names-20060816/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xml-names/.
[XHTML-ROLES]
XHTML Role Attribute Module, S. Pemberton, T. V. Raman, R. Schwerdtfeger, S. McCarron, M. Birbeck, Editors, W3C Working Draft (work in progress), 25 July 2006, http://www.w3.org/TR/2006/WD-xhtml-role-20060725/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-role/.
[XSD]
XML Schema Part 0: Primer Second Edition, D. C. Fallside, P. Walmsley, Editors, W3C Recommendation, 28 October 2004, http://www.w3.org/TR/2004/REC-xmlschema-0-20041028/. Latest version available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/.

Editorial Note: The following references are included as important resources but are not referenced from the body of the document.

[SKOS]
SKOS is an area of work developing specifications and standards to support the use of knowledge organisation systems (KOS) such as thesauri, classification schemes, subject heading lists, taxonomies, terminologies, glossaries and other types of controlled vocabulary within the framework of the Semantic Web.
[DAISY]
DAISY denotes the Digital Accessible Information System
[NIMAS]
NIMAS the National Instructional Materials Accessibility Standard (NIMAS), is a voluntary standard to guide the production and electronic distribution of flexible digital instructional materials, such as textbooks, so that they can be more easily converted to Braille, text-to-speech, and other accessible formats.
[DTB]
The DigitalDigital Talking Book standard that defines the format and content of the electronic file set that comprises a digital talking book (DTB) and establishes a limited set of requirements for DTB playback devices.

C. Acknowledgments (Non-Normative)

This section is informative.

The following contributed to the development of this document.

C.1 Participants active in the PFWG at the time of publication

  • Jim Allan (TSBVI)

  • Judy Brewer (W3C/MIT)

  • Michael Cooper (W3C/MIT)

  • Donald Evans (AOL)

  • Kentarou Fukuda (IBM)

  • Alfred S. Gilman

  • Andres Gonzalez (Adobe)

  • Georgios Grigoriadis (SAP AG)

  • Jeff Grimes (Oracle)

  • Jon Gunderson (UIUC)

  • Alex Li (SAP AG)

  • Charles McCathieNevile (Opera)

  • Dave Pawson (RNIB)

  • David Poehlman (State of MD)

  • Janina Sajka (FSG)

  • Richard Schwerdtfeger (IBM)

  • Lisa Seeman (UB Access)

  • Ryan Williams (Oracle)

  • Gottfried Zimmermann (Access Technologies Group)

C.2 Other previously active PFWG participants and other contributors to Roles for Accessible Rich Internet Applications

Special thanks to Aaron Leventhal for effort and insight as he implemented a working prototype of accessibility API bindings.

Christian Cohrs, Becky Gibson, Ari Gruen, Barbara Hartel, Jael Kurz, Vitaly Sourikov.

C.3 Enabling funders

This publication has been funded in part with Federal funds from the U.S. Department of Education under contract number ED05CO0039. The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Education, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

Temporary Appendix: Removed Roles

The following roles were removed until structural roles are fully considered

Structural Roles From Previous Working Drafts
Widget Role Description Inherited Concepts Base and Related Concepts
buttonsubmit This form control initiates submission of all or part of the instance data to which it is bound Button HTML input (type :submit)
buttoncancel This button initiates closing a window or leaving a form (e.g. To another page) without submission Button  
buttonundo This control brings a form to the initial state (e.g. returns all default values to all inputs) Button HTML input (type : reset)
buttonback Brings user-agent to the previous page or state Button HTML Link
hidden A form control that is never displayed to the user, but is always submitted to the server with the form.

NOTE: In XForms, unless bound to form controls, instance data nodes are not presented to the user; consequently, there is no need for a form control corresponding to [HTML] input type="hidden".

Input [HTML] input (type : hidden)
spreadsheet Interactive table where the user can enter the values Widget
Table
 
col Description of a table column. Group  
row Defines a table row. Group [HTML] tr
menubar A Visual presentation of a menu Menu  
mainmenu A menu containing the most important links on this page/document Menu  
submenu1 Main submenu Menu  
submenu2 Secondary submenu Menu  
submenutrivia Unimportant submenu Menu  
footer Small text at the end of a page - typically contains copyright and similar information   [HTML] roles : contentinfo, copyright
footermenusite A menu found at the bottom of a page containing important site links. Typically includes a link to a "contact us" page and other important site's pages. Menu
Footer
 
heading1 Level 1 heading Sectionhead [HTML]/[DTB]/NIMAS h2
heading2 Level 2 heading Sectionhead [HTML]/[DTB]/NIMAS h3
heading3 Level 3 heading Sectionhead [HTML]/[DTB]/NIMAS h4
heading4 Level 4 heading Sectionhead [HTML]/[DTB]/NIMAS h4
heading5 Level 5 heading Sectionhead [HTML]/[DTB]/NIMAS h5
heading6 Level 6 heading Sectionhead [HTML]/[DTB]/NIMAS h6