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The Electronic Broadsheet


The Electronic Broadsheet consists of approximately 7000 lines of C code. It handles all aspects screen-based news presentation from low-level typesetting to multi-page layout and user interactivity. Taking advantage of advanced display hardware, the Electronic Broadsheet introduces a rival to paper's dominance as the preferred newspaper presentation media.

As a part of the Newspace project, The Electronic Broadsheet is the first presentation module to institute dynamically updated news from an independent user modelling server. The clearly defined interface between the presentation module and news manipulation modules will make news scalable by easing the design of presentation modules for other display hardware.

The Electronic Broadsheet can be evaluated from several standpoints:

* The 2k monitor offers unprecedented visual bandwidth for the human interface. No application will exploit the bandwidth fully; the human being on the other side is not capable of digesting unlimited amounts of information. Instead, the bandwidth optimization must be judged with regard to the human user. A rich visual language is utilized in the design of the articles and the map, and I believe the result is functional as well as visually pleasing. However, the Newspace is only two-dimensional and the map is by definition also two-dimensional. Constructing a three-dimensional Newspace and a corresponding map could increase the maximum bandwidth. The Rooms project at Xerox PARC has been extended into the third dimension [Card, Robertson, Mackinlay 91].

* Not having a design background, I don't possess the vocabulary to criticize the visual design elements. Others will judge better than me, but designing text, articles, pages and nameplates has been one of the most challenging parts of the projects. The lack of colors in the data received form the news sources were substituted with colorful logos. Judging from the response from fellow students and faculty, personalized newspaper design should be available.

* From a computer resource efficiency the application scores poorly. There has been no time for optimization, and the heavy dependance upon system calls like fork should be reviewed.

* The ultimate evaluation of a newspaper is done by the readers. For the Electronic Broadsheet, the number of potential subscribers is strictly limited by the number of 2k monitors in the world; a number that is still very low. A formal user testing project should be performed to measure how the well Electronic Broadsheet performs versus paper-based news.

A newspaper will never be better than the quality of the articles presented; fancy design will not keep readers entertained for very long. As the Newspace project stands today it receives a high number of text articles, but few figures, and no photographs or video sequences. This tends to give pages a dull look which is hard to avoid without depending on locally produced news, like scanned maps and comics strips. In the future, emphasis should be put on widening the range of media sources.

Evaluating a project that has been on my mind for the last nine months is problematic; the bias is tremendous. The same mind is also able to come up with new ideas faster than it can implement them, and this creates a feeling of always lagging behind in an unfinished project. True, the application is not complete, and it can be improved in many ways, but it is at a point where it deserves to be presented.

12.1 Conclusion

At 2000 lines of resolution, computer displays start to compete with paper in size and legibility. When using the broadsheet-sized monitor, screen space management shifts emphasis from screen area conservation to screen overview, and opens for new metaphors in the human machine communication; the newspaper metaphor seems particularly appropriate.

Augmented by navigational clues and dynamic screen updates, the Electronic Broadsheet takes on paper-based news distribution; it handles all aspects of screen-based news presentation from low-level typesetting to multi-page layout and user interactivity.

The newspaper application was ported to a 1k monitor, but the limited screen space was not sufficient to present news using the newspaper metaphor


[Baskette 86] Baskette, F K: The Art of Editing; New York; Macmillan 1986

[Bender et al. 87] Bender, W; Crespo, R A.; Kennedy, P J.; Oakley, R: CRT Typeface Design and Evaluation; Human Factors, 1987

[Bender, Chesnais 88] Bender, W; Chesnais, P: Network Plus; Paper presented at SPSE Electronic Imaging Devices and Systems Symposium, Los Angeles, January 1988

[Bender et al. 91] Bender, W; Lie H W; Orwant J L; Teodosio, L; Abramson, N: Newspace: Mass Media and Personal Computing; To appear in USENIX, Nashville, June 1991

[Bigelow, Day 83] Bigelow, C; Day, D: Digital Typography; Scientific American 249(2), 106-119, August 1983

[Bolt 84] Bolt, R: The Human Interface; Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1984

[Card, Robertson, Mackinlay 91] Card, S; Robertson, G; Mackinlay, J.: The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace; ACM/SIGCHI'91 Conference Proceedings, pp 181-188, May 1991

[Coursey 91] Coursey, D: Riding the Internet; INFOWORLD, February 4, 1991

[DESIGN 88] DESIGN: Newspaper Design--2000 and Beyond; American Press Institute, 1988

[DeTreville 78] DeTreville, J D: An Analytical Approach to Computerized News Layout for Newspapers; Thesis E.E. Ph.D., MIT, Cambridge Mass 1978

[DOI 80] Map Data Catalog; U.S. Department of the Interior, 1980

[English 44] Earl English: A Study of the Readability of Four Newspaper Headline Types; Journalism Quarterly 21:217-229, 1944

[Erickson, Salomon 91] Erickson, T; Salomon, G: Designing a Desktop Information System: Observations and Issues; ACM/SIGCHI'91 Conference Proceedings, pp 49-54, May 1991

[Fishler, Firschein 87] Fishler, M A; Firschein, O: Intelligence--The Eye, the Brain, and the Computer; Addison Wesley 1987

[Gill 36] Gill, E: An Essay on Typography, First published 1931, a revised edition issued 1936 of which a photo-lithographic copy was published by David R. Godine, Publisher Inc., Boston, 1988

[Gilmore90] Gilmore, G; Modern Newspaper Editing; Iowa State University Press, 1990

[Gürtler 84] Gürtler, A: The History of Newspaper design; Swiss Typographic Journal, 1984

[Henderson, Card 86] Henderson Jr, D A; Card, S K: Rooms: The Use of Multiple Virtual Workspaces to Reduce Space Contention in a Window-Based Graphical User Interface; ABM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 5, No. 3 July 1986, 1986

[Hoffert, Gretsch 91] Hoffert, E M; Gretsch, G: The Digital News System at EDUCOM: A Convergance of Interactive Computing, Newspapers, Television and High-Speed Networks; Communications of the ACM, No. 4, April 1991

[Hodgkiss 81] Hodgkiss, A G: Understanding Maps, A Systematic History of their use and Development; Wm Dawson & Son Ltd, 1981

[Håfjeld et al. 88] Håfjeld, B; Kaplan, E S; Lie, H W: A Survey of Window and Desktop Managers; TF-report no 54/88, Norwegian Telecom Research Dept., 1988

[Jacobson, Bender 90] Jacobson, N; Bender, W: Deterministic Formation of Visual Color Sensation; Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 1250, February, 1990

[Jacobson et al. 91] Jacobson, J; Bender, W; Feldman, U: Alignment and Amplification as Determinants of Expressive Color; Proceedings of the SPIE, Vol. 1453, February 1991

[Kan 77] Kan, Hsin-Kuo: A Computerized Template-driven News-layout System for Newspapers; Thesis E.E Sc.D., MIT 1977

[LPF 90] League for Programming Freedom: Against User Interface Copyright;1990

[Lippman 86] Lippman, A; Electronic Publishing; MIT Media Lab, 1986

[Lippman, Bender 87] Lippman, A; Bender, W; News and Movies in the 50 Megabit Living Room; paper presented at Globecom, IEEE, Tokyo, Japan, 1987

[Mackinlay 86] Mackinlay, J; Automating the Design of Graphical Presentations of Relational Information; ACM Trans. on Graphics, vol 5 no 2 pp 110-141, April 1986

[Mandelbrot 82] Mandelbrot, B: The Fractal Geometry of Nature; W H Freeman, San Francisco, 1982

[Merrill 80] Merill, J C; The World's great Dailies: Profiles of fifty Newspapers; New York: Hasrings House 1980

[Mollitor 90] Mollitor, R C: Eloquent Scenery: A Study of Pheripheral Visual Communication; SM Thesis, MIT Media Lab, 1990

[Negroponte 80] Negroponte, Nicholas: Soft Fonts; Proceedings Society for Information Display, 1980

[Nelson 68] Carl J Nelson Research, Inc. The research results were reported by Chlinton R Bush in News Research for better Newspapers, ANPAF, Volume 3 1968

[Nye 90] Nye, A: Xlib Programming Manual; O'Reilly & Associates, 1990

[Orwant 91] Orwant, J L: Doppelgänger: A User Modeling System; SB Thesis, MIT Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1991

[Palmer 91] Palmer, T: Newspapers battle to survive in new age; Boston Globe, April 14, 1991

[Parker 90] Parker, Roger C: Looking good in Print; Ventana Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 1990

[Polansky 74] Polansky, R: Documentation of News-Layout Program; Electronic Systems Laboratory Memorandum NEWSI-20, MIT 1974

[Reintjes et al. 77] Reintjes, J F; Knudson, D R.; Kan, Hsin-Kuo: Computer-Assisted Layout of Newspapers; Electronic Systems Laboratory, MIT, 1977

[Scheifler, Gettys 87] Scheifler, R W; Gettys, J: The X Window System; ACM Transactions on Graphics, Vol. 5, No. 2, 1987

[Schmandt 80] Schmandt, C: Soft Typography; Architecture Machine Group, MIT 1980

[Smith 80] Smith, A: Goodbye Gutenberg: The Newspaper Revolution of the 1980s; Oxford 1980

[Sony 89] SONY DDM-2801C Operating Instructions; Sony Corporation, 1989

[Tufte 90] Tufte E R: Envisioning Information; Graphics Press, 1990

[Walker 80] Walker, J A: The London Underground Diagram; Iconographic, no 9-10, 1980

Appendix A

This Appendix contains messages from USENET and personal email regarding Solbourne's "claim" to the "virtual desktop". Also, Dave Edmonson's annnounce message regarding VRTW 3.0 (from which NVTWM is modified) is enclosed.

From emv@ox.com Tue Apr 2 12:10:29 1991

Date: Mon, 1 Apr 91 21:23 EST

From: emv@ox.com (Ed Vielmetti)

To: howcome@media-lab.media.mit.edu

Subject: vtwm

>From comp.archives Thu Aug 9 08:20:06 EDT 1990

Path: news-server.csri.toronto.edu!cs.utexas.edu!usc!zaphod.mps.ohio-state.edu!math.lsa.umich.edu!math.lsa.umich.edu!emv

From: rms@AI.MIT.EDU

Newsgroups: comp.archives

Subject: [emacs] X marks the suit

Message-ID: <1990Aug9.031936.29383@math.lsa.umich.edu>

Date: 9 Aug 90 03:19:36 GMT

Sender: emv@math.lsa.umich.edu (Edward Vielmetti)

Reply-To: rms@AI.MIT.EDU

Followup-To: comp.emacs

Organization: University of Michigan, Department of Mathematics

Lines: 35

Approved: emv@math.lsa.umich.edu (Edward Vielmetti)

X-Original-Newsgroups: comp.emacs

Archive-name: vtwm/03-Aug-90

Original-posting-by: rms@AI.MIT.EDU

Original-subject: X marks the suit

Archive-site: expo.lcs.mit.edu []

Reposted-by: emv@math.lsa.umich.edu (Edward Vielmetti)

I hope this taste of the shape of things to come in the computer

industry will wake enough of us up before it is too late...

Date: Fri, 3 Aug 90 10:51:34 -0400 (EDT)

From: Nicholas John Williams <njw@ATHENA.MIT.EDU>


Subject: TWM Virtual Desktop, Look & Feel Lawsuits etc.

As many of you know, there was a version of TWM available recently,

which had patches (written by Dave Edmondson of Imperial College) which

added a "Virtual Desktop" facility. This allowed you to spread your

windows out over virtual space and select which area to view at any one

time. The feature was modelled after the Solbourne Window Manager,

performing the same sort of tasks as their Virtual Desktop.

Wednesday, the patches allowing TWM to do this were placed into the

contrib area on expo.lcs.mit.edu.

Following this, Dave Edmondson yesterday received a letter from Paul

Lippe, the vice president of Solbourne stating that he had "engaged in

unauthorized copying of Solbourne's virtual desktop utility feature".

Legal discussions are currently underweigh and, until further notice,

the vtwm in the windowmanagers locker has been made unavailable.




From toml@Solbourne.COM Sun May 12 02:14:16 1991

Date: Tue, 2 Apr 91 14:01:32 MST

From: toml@Solbourne.COM (Tom LaStrange)

To: howcome@media-lab.media.mit.edu (Hakon Lie)

In-Reply-To: howcome@media-lab.media.mit.edu's message of 1 Apr 91 19:47:10 GMT

Subject: Solbourne wm

> Remember the controversy regarding th Soulbourne window manager last

> summer? At some point they claimed to have rights to the "virtual"

> look & feel. I need a reference to this case for my thesis which deal

> with virtual environments.


> So, is you saved some email about the case or have other statements

> from involved parts, please let me know!

Yeah, I remember it. It wasn't "virtual look & feel" that started it all,

it was the fact that a person copied the Virtual Desktop (a trademark) feature

of swm, and didn't bother to ask Solbourne or acknowledge where he got the

idea from.


Tom LaStrange toml@Solbourne.COM

From toml@Solbourne.COM Sun May 12 02:22:51 1991

To: howcome@media-lab.media.mit.edu

Subject: Re: Solbourne wm

In-Reply-To: Your message of Tue, 02 Apr 91 16:43:06 -0500.


Date: Tue, 02 Apr 91 14:57:50 -0700

From: toml@Solbourne.COM

> Thanks for your reply, I was going to ask you for comments.

> Yeah, I remember it. It wasn't "virtual look & feel" that started it all,

> it was the fact that a person copied the Virtual Desktop (a trademark) fea


> of swm, and didn't bother to ask Solbourne or acknowledge where he got th


> idea from.

> Where the original ide comes from can be disputed. In the Media Lab we

> like to believe that SDMS (Spatial Data Management System) was first.

Well I certainly never saw it but if it was done in the 70's I'd bet you

were first.

> Anyway, the following draft text tries to summarize some of the events

> I find important. If you have comments or additional information, I'd

> be thankful. The text is intended to be a part of an MS thesis in the

> Media Lab where we use a modified vtwm as an interface to an electronic

> newspaper.

> -h&kon

> [..]

> During the last year, the X11 community has seen the introduction of

> several so-called "virtual window managers" [Solbourne] [Dave

> Edmondson] [Tom LaStrange]. The interface is clearly based on the

> concept pioneered by SDMS, a project in the Media Lab > in the late

> 70's. The window managers allow X11 displays to have a virtual plane

> larger than the physical screen size. The user can pan the real screen

> over the virtual screen to view a different part of the plane. The

> user interface for all the virtual window managers is implemented

> through a map. The user can see the outline of all toplevel windows in

> a special window that is an isomorph representation of the windows on

> the virtual plane. The implication of using a virtual window manager

> for the users is that they have more real estate to lay windows out

> on. The overlapping windows found in most window systems are replaced

> by a bulletin board with a partial view.


> The X11 concept of a "window manager" is quite unique. The window

> manager is with few exceptions an application just like any other X11

> client (For an overview over X Window System Concepts see Xlib

> Programming Manual, [Nye88]). The window manager is given authority to

> control the layout of windows on the screen. Other > clients indicate

> their preferred position and size and this will normally be granted.

> However, the window manager can anytime decide to move or resize a

> client window.

> One of the first window managers available, twm [LaStrange, when ,

> where, hp?], gained widespread popularity [Hafjeld, Kaplan, Lie] by

Most of the initial work was done while I was employed at Evans & Sutherland.

The first public release was April 15, 1988.

> offering the same functionality and ease of use as found in earlier

> window systems [Star, Lisa, Mac]. Recognizing it's de facto position

> among window managers, the X Consortium adopted the program and

> extended the functionality for release 4 of X11.

> Dave Edmondson of Imperial College [Edmonson] modified the freely

> available source code for twm to add the virtual feature. The new

> version, called vtwm (virtual twm), was made available in (june?) 1990

> and quickly gained popularity. It was the first free window manager

> with virtual features, Solbourne [LaStrange] had earlier (when?)

> released their propietary swm (Solbourne Window Manager).

> At some point Solbourne claimed to have the rights to the "virtual

> desktop utility feature" [Stallman90], a claim that was heavily

> disputed on the network at the time. Solbourne later acknowledged that

> they had no ....... and have later allowed the release of source code

> from tvtwm, written by LaStrange, now of Solbourne.

>From what I understand, the only thing we laid claim to was the name

"Virtual Desktop". If Dave Edmonson had called his the virtual outhouse

I don't think any of this would have ever happened. I could be wrong, I

never saw the lawyer letter that was sent to Edmonson, but that was my



Tom L.

From emv@ox.com Tue Apr 2 12:10:38 1991

Date: Mon, 1 Apr 91 21:24 EST

From: emv@ox.com (Ed Vielmetti)

To: howcome@media-lab.media.mit.edu

Subject: vtwm

>From comp.archives Thu Aug 30 20:20:04 EDT 1990

Newsgroups: comp.archives

Path: news-server.csri.toronto.edu!math.lsa.umich.edu!math.lsa.umich.edu!emv

From: toml@ninja.Solbourne.COM (Tom LaStrange)

Subject: [xpert] tvtwm is available

Message-ID: <1990Aug30.164251.14639@math.lsa.umich.edu>

Followup-To: comp.windows.x

Sender: emv@math.lsa.umich.edu (Edward Vielmetti)

Reply-To: toml@solbourne.com

Organization: University of Michigan, Department of Mathematics

Date: Thu, 30 Aug 90 16:42:51 GMT

Approved: emv@math.lsa.umich.edu (Edward Vielmetti)

X-Original-Newsgroups: comp.windows.x

Lines: 211

Archive-name: tvtwm/30-Aug-90

Original-posting-by: toml@ninja.Solbourne.COM (Tom LaStrange)

Original-subject: tvtwm is available

Archive-site: expo.lcs.mit.edu []

Archive-directory: /contrib

Reposted-by: emv@math.lsa.umich.edu (Edward Vielmetti)

As many of you have no doubt seen, tvtwm has shown up in comp.sources.x. But

as many of you also know, as soon as you send some software off, you find some

more problems that you would like to get fixed. Anyway, the sources posted

to comp.windows.x are now a whole day old and there is already a patch file

to bring it up to patchlevel 1. That will show up in comp.sources.x sometime

in the near future.

I have also placed a copy in contrib/tvtwm.tar.Z on expo. The version on

expo is the latest stuff and is already at patchlevel 1, no need to apply the

forthcoming patches.

What is tvtwm? It's a version of twm with a Virtual Desktop modeled after

swm (Solbourne Window Manager). It took me all of two and a half days to

get the major stuff written and its been in use for a whole three days

by Dave Lemke and some of his buddies at NCD (Thanks Dave!). I'm including

the README.tvtwm file here so you can decide if you want to grab it.


Tom LaStrange

Solbourne Computer Inc. ARPA: toml@Solbourne.COM

1900 Pike Rd. UUCP: ...!{boulder,sun}!stan!toml

Longmont, CO 80501

------------------ README.tvtwm -----------------------

For those of you like me who want to try software before reading

the instructions, all you have to do to get started is add a single

line to your .twmrc file. Something like this:

VirtualDesktop "3000x2000"

Now for the verbose description:

This is yet another, different implementation of the Virtual Desktop

concept for twm. I call this version tvtwm (Tom's Virtual twm). It is

based on the R4 version of twm with up to fix-14 installed. This

implementation is modeled after swm (Solbourne Window Manager) and

includes the very nice ability to move windows into and out of the

panner. It should be noted that none of this code came from the vtwm

implementation. If you have problems and/or patches you can email me

at the address at the end of this file.

If we look at different implementations of the Virtual Desktop, I think

we can relate them to soft drinks:

swm - Classic Coke "The Real Thing"

tvtwm - Diet Coke "Same as Coke but not as sweet"

vtwm - Diet Pepsi "Not as sweet as Coke, some people may

prefer it to any flavor of Coke"

There are pros and cons to the vtwm and swm/tvtwm implementations. Most

revolve around whether or not to use an additional window for the

scrolling desktop or to simply move windows around on the actual

root window.

vtwm moves windows on the actual root window, swm/tvtwm use an

additional window to perform the scrolling.


vtwm Simple to implement.

Programs like xsetroot continue to work.

tvtwm Half the network traffic when the desktop scrolls,

only a ConfigureNotify event has to be sent.

Faster scrolling of the desktop.

Desktop background image will actually scroll.

Opens the door for possible multiple Virtual Desktop



vtwm Twice as much network traffic when the desktop scrolls,

each window has to be moved and then a ConfigureNotify

event must be sent.

Slower scrolling of the desktop.

Desktop background image does not scroll.

tvtwm Programs like xsetroot no longer work, additional work

needs to be done to find the Virtual Desktop window.

Programs that attempt to find the size of the window

manager decoration may fail if the traverse the window

tree until they run into the actual root window.

The rest of the message is a user manual for tvtwm and is not relevant for this case.

From emv@ox.com Tue Apr 2 12:10:48 1991

Date: Mon, 1 Apr 91 21:26 EST

From: emv@ox.com (Ed Vielmetti)

To: howcome@media-lab.media.mit.edu

Subject: vtwm

>From comp.archives Fri Nov 23 20:20:04 EST 1990

Path: news-server.csri.toronto.edu!rutgers!att!tut.cis.ohio-state.edu!zaphod.mps.ohio-state.edu!uakari.primate.wisc.edu!caen!ox.com!emv

From: dme@doc.ic.ac.uk (Dave Edmondson)

Newsgroups: comp.archives

Subject: [xannounce] vtwm release 3.0

Message-ID: <1990Nov23.234605.26799@ox.com>

Date: 23 Nov 90 23:46:05 GMT

Sender: emv@ox.com (Edward Vielmetti)

Reply-To: dme@doc.ic.ac.uk (Dave Edmondson)

Followup-To: comp.windows.x.announce

Organization: Imperial College Mafia

Lines: 55

Approved: emv@ox.com (Edward Vielmetti)

X-Original-Newsgroups: comp.windows.x.announce

Archive-name: vtwm/21-Nov-90

Original-posting-by: dme@doc.ic.ac.uk (Dave Edmondson)

Original-subject: vtwm release 3.0

Archive-site: expo.lcs.mit.edu []

Archive-directory: /contrib

Reposted-by: emv@ox.com (Edward Vielmetti)

This is to announce the availability of the gamma release of

vtwm, TWM with a virtual desktop. This is the second public release,

and is numbered 3.0 (make sense ?).

A compressed shar file is available on expo.lcs.mit.edu

( as /contrib/vtwm.shar.Z. If anyone still wants a copy

of the older (beta) version, please send me mail.

Version 3.0 has been tested on the following platforms:

IBM 6150 with ACIS 4.3

Sun SPARC's with SunOS 4.x

Sun 68k's with SunOS 4.x

HP9000 seris 300 with HPUX 7.0

DECstation's with Ultrix 3.x and 4.0

A couple of notes on compiling:

* if you don't have strdup(), add -DNOSTRDUP

* if you are at Project Athena, add -DPIXEL_ALREADY_TYPEDEFED,

due to a change in /usr/include/X11/Xmu/Drawing.h

* if at Project Athena, use gmake (GNU-make), the standard one

complains about a line too long

As ever, I solicit bug reports and enhancement requests. A note from

our sponsors:


* Copyright (c) 1990 Dave Edmondson.

* Copyright (c) 1990 Imperial College of Science, Technoology & Medicine

* All Rights Reserved.


* Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its

* documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided

* that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that

* copyright notice and this permission notice appear in supporting

* documentation, and that the names of Dave Edmondson or Imperial College

* not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution of the

* software without specific, written prior permission. Dave Edmondson and

* Imperial College make no representations about the suitability of this

* software for any purpose. It is provided "as is" without express or

* implied warranty.


thanks, dave.


Dave Edmondson, Systems Support. Opinions are all my own.

Department of Computing, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine,

180 Queen's Gate, London SW7 1BZ. phone: 071-589-5111 x5085 fax: 071-581-8024

email: dme@doc.ic.ac.uk, ..!ukc!icdoc!dme, dme@athena.mit.edu

``Be selective, be objective, be an asset to the collective'' -- Jazzy B

Appendix B


There are many people, programs & `puters that deserve acknowledgment for their support. Without them, this thesis would not have been written. I especially want to thank (with FrameMaker's suggested spelling in parenthesis) :

* Walter Bender, my advisor, for accepting me into his Garden--his inspiration, creativity and support throughout the sometimes confusing process was essential.

* My readers, Børre Ludvigsen, for rich comments and sincere advice, and Muriel Cooper for design hints.

* The members of the Electronic Publishing group, orwant (arrant), teo (doe), lacsap (lactose) + the UROPers (rapers), for providing a creative work environment.

* My officemates: foof (FIFO), sanjay (Santa), and arista. We shared an office, a messy nature, and all learned some foreign words.

* Paddy, for being the third reader.

* Judith, for playing with the words that ended up becoming the title of this thesis.

* Fellow gardeners for sharing good food, music & ideas: janet, uri (euro), sbeck (speck), wad, abha (abbey), kabooom (kabobs), klee (kale), blount (blond), barry, lisa, ogura (guru), tuna, debby (dopey), holtzman (talisman), scottf (scatter), hewlett (elate), ijshen (edition), warlord, vmb (vamp), lip, leyna (loony), gillian, and janette.

* Also thanks to wave for breaking the double-spaced tyranny, to straz (stars) for an essential network message, and to mario, bradedel (breaded), dsmall (dismal), masuishi (misuse), martin, and che (the).

* FrameMaker, the #1 program in which this report was created, and GNU-emacs into which most of the text was written.

* Milano, the Sun4 workhorse behind the display, and my Zenith laptop.

* Børre Stenseth and Per Ofstad for showing me that Apple II.

* Rune Fløysbonn and Bård Håfjeld for introducing me to X and FrameMaker. Also thanks to Erik Lillevold of TF.

* Last, but not least I want to thank my parents for their motivation, and Siri for tolerating my 36/12 phases.

Håkon (hokum)


12.1 - Conclusion

The Electronic Broadsheet - 30 JUN 95
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