MathML 3.0 was released as a W3C Recommendation on 21 October 2010, with a second edition released on 10 April 2014. It is a revision of MathML 2.0, issued in February 2001, with a second edition in October 2003. A product of the W3C Math Working Group, MathML is a low-level specification for describing mathematics as a basis for machine to machine communication which provides a much needed foundation for the inclusion of mathematical expressions in Web pages. It is also important in publishing workflows for science and technology and wherever mathematics has to be handled by software. The new version brings, for instance, improvements for accessibility of mathematics, and for formulas in languages written from right to left. The basic markup remains the same, as the community have years of experience with it. See the Testimonials welcoming MathML 3.0. [more].

A variety of implementations of MathML are available (browsers and authoring tools, educational and symbolic algebra software…), many of which are Open Source. Go to the MathML Software list for descriptions and pointers, or read the Implementation and Interoperability report.

There is a good chance that your browser already supports MathML (possibly with the addition of a plug-in or JavaScript Library).

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MathML3 2nd Edition published as a Recommendation.

XML Entity Definitions for Characters (2nd Edition) published as a Recommendation.

The members of W3C are currently reviewing the second editions of MathML 3 and XML Entity Definitions for Characters. The Math Working Group updated both Recommendations to correct some obvious mistakes and especially to add many clarifications. The review lasts four weeks and the expectation is that these documents will replace the existing Recommendations around March/April.

Most people are used to MathML on its own or inside XML-based formats. But now that people are starting to use math in HTML5, which has slightly different syntax rules, people asked for more explanation. MathML has the same structure and meaning independent of the concrete syntax, but may have to be written in a different way inside HTML5. The new specification explains that, and also makes sure that all examples (except, obviously, those that specifically demonstrate syntax issues) can be copied and pasted into an HTML5 context.

As far as implementations go, the new specification requires no changes. HTML5 implementations have to follow the syntax defined in the HTML5 specification, XML implementations follow the XML specification, and the MathML specification defines how to display and interpret the resulting elements. And that part has not changed.

The XML Entities specification was updated to include the latest Unicode specification. (The previous Recommendation referred to Unicode 5, the current version to 6.) Descriptions were added for symbols that are new in Unicode 6, including the new Arabic math symbols. The text was also reorganized for more clarity. No new entities were defined.

Frédéric Wang, well-known for his work on MathML in Firefox
and MathJax, has launched a call for sponsors for a project
called **Mathematics in ebooks.**

Although Firefox supports MathML, and MathJax can be used to emulate MathML in browsers that support JavaScript, the resulting rendering is not as good as one would hope: Before you convert a book with mathematical formulas to an e-book, you would want typesetting closer to the quality of paper books.

The problem is lack of programmer time. There are few people who can do the programming and they have little spare time. Frédéric Wang is one of them and the project is meant to allow him to work full-time for a few months.

The main goals of the project are twofold:

- Create a collection of educational & scientific documents that will serve as examples & test cases for publishers and implementers.
- Improve rendering quality in WebKit and Gecko so that EPUB publishers can rely on it.

His initial target is € 3960, or one person in France working full-time for three months.

With the advancement of CSS Level 2 Revision 1 to Recommendation, the MathML for CSS Profile automatically also became a Recommendation.

The Profile describes which parts of MathML3 can be formatted with CSS and which can thus be displayed by many types of software that understand CSS but do not understand MathML itself. This allows quite a large part of MathML already to be used even though not all browsers and formatters implement full MathML yet.

The specification had already been tested and reviewed by the W3C members and the W3C Director in October 2010, but it has a normative dependency on CSS, and thus couldn't be a standard unless CSS Level 2 was a standard itself.

The W3C Director has advanced MathML version 3.0 to a W3C Recommendation. The press release has more information. Several companies have already expressed support for the new standard.

Compared to MathML 2, the major additions in version 3 are support for bidirectional layout, better linebreaking and explicit positioning, elementary math notations, and a new strict content MathML vocabulary with well-defined semantics.

MathML 3 is also part of version 5 of HTML (currently still in development), which means embedding math in Web documents will become easier, with direct import from HTML to mathematics software and vice versa.

The MathML for CSS Profile has also received positive reviews, but it cannot yet progress to W3C Recommendation, because it depends on CSS2, which is still in CR status. (The CSS working group expects CSS2 to become W3C Recommendation early in 2011.)

The W3C Director approved the publication of the MathML version 3.0
specification and its companion, the MathML for CSS
Profile, as *Proposed
Recommendations.* Until September 10, the two documents
undergo what

Paul Libbrecht and the MKM
Conference are organizing MathUI10, the 2010 Workshop on Mathematical User
Interfaces. The workshop offers a forum discussing how users can
interact with the mathematical objects

As expected, the specification XML Entity Definitions for Characters has become a W3C Recommendation. The W3C members expressed support for the specification and had no further requests for changes.

Design Science welcomes the XML Entity Definitions for Characters Recommendation. The nature of mathematical notation and its many symbols inevitably leads to the need for good character names. As a leading vendor of scientific communication software, we are keenly aware of the errors and confusions that have long been the result of multiple conflicting sets of names in different contexts. By providing a single, authoritative source of character names – consolidating more than a decade of painstaking work – this specification makes a significant contribution, and we look forward to implementing it in our products.

Dr. Robert Miner, Vice President, Research and Development, Design Science, Inc.

See all W3C member testimonials.

The
specification XML Entity Definitions for Characters has
advanced to the status of Proposed Recommendation, the final
step before becoming a standard.

The W3C Director today advanced the status of MathML3 from Working Draft to Candidate Recommendation (CR). That means that W3C is now asking people to not only send comments on the text, but to implement the specification and send feedback on any problems found in actual use. The MathML for CSS profile, which describes a subset of MathML3 that can be rendered with existing CSS renderers, was advanced to CR at the same time. The next step for both specifications is PR, as soon as there are sufficiently many implementations. The working group expects to start testing implementations around March 2010. Feedback can be sent to the <www-math@w3.org> mailing list.

The Math Working Group published a new draft of the MathML 3.0
specification, which is intended to be the last one before
the specification becomes a Candidate Recommendation, around the
end of the year. That means this is the *last call* for
comments. Please, send comments to <www-math@w3.org>. The
deadline is November 11. See the status
section and
appendix F for an overview of the major changes.

The Math Working Group published new drafts of two specifications, Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) Version 3.0 and A MathML for CSS profile. The new draft of MathML 3.0 especially affects chapter 4, on content mark-up, but there are smaller improvements throughout the document. The new draft profile adds some elementary math (e.g., long division) and includes sample CSS rules for displaying elementary math formulas. See the drafts for the details and for how to give feedback.

The Math Working Group published the fourth draft
of MathML version 3. Some more of the
non-normative text has been removed
in favor of a separate Primer. The presentation mark-up now
allows the author to insert rendering hints in case the renderer
has to insert extra line breaks. But most of the editorial
effort has gone into defining the underlying semantics of
content mark-up (chapter 4): it is now almost completely
expressed in terms of OpenMath Content Dictionaries. That should
not affect authors, but it enables software to convert between
different math systems. Chapter 8 will eventually describe the
structure of those Content Dictionaries. **Comments on the
draft are very welcome** on the group's (archived)
public mailing list,
<www-math@w3.org>. There will be at least one more
draft before the specification becomes Candidate Recommendation.

The charter of the Math Working Group expired earlier this year, and, after a few months' extension to determine the contents of the next charter, W3C decided to renew the charter until April 2010 without any changes to the work items. The updated schedule puts a Candidate Recommendation for MathML 3.0 at the end of 2008 and the group currently expects it can finish all its work, including all test suites, in early 2010. W3C Members can use a form to join the Working Group.

The Math Working Group published a new version of the draft XML Entity definitions for Characters. The specification defines names for many Unicode symbols. The names can be used in MathML if the use of the symbols themselves is inconvenient or impossible. The list of names is a superset of the list defined by HTML. The specification includes DTDs to include the names in other XML-based formats and also XSLT2 scripts to convert symbols to names.

The organizers of the Mathematical User-Interfaces Workshop 2008 call for papers. The workshop takes place at the Seventh Mathematical Knowledge Management Conference, at the University of Birmingham, UK, July 27th 2008. The coordinator is Paul Libbrecht. Papers can be submitted until May 31, 2008.

The Math Working Group has set up a syndicator for MathML-related news, called “Planet MathML.” It includes news about Math software, news from the Math WG itself (of course), blog entries written by working group members, and articles from the <www-math@w3.org> mailing list and elsewhere.

The Math Working group published a new draft of MathML 3. Especially chapter 4, Content Markup, has improved, and the content dictionaries (section 4.4) are aligned with OpenMath3. Some other material has been removed and will reappear later in a separate primer.

The Math Working Group published new drafts of three specifications: A MathML for CSS profile (a profile of MathML3 that can be displayed with current CSS), MathML 3.0 and XML Entity definitions for Characters (a list of names for Unicode characters, selected from existing standards, for use in MathML or elsewhere). The Entity definitions draft was published for the first time.

The Math Working Group published the first drafts of two new specifications: MathML version 3 is the latest version of MathML and A MathML for CSS profile describes how to use (a subset of) MathML3 that can be rendered in browsers that only support CSS. The new version of MathML will have better support for bidirectional text, better alignment with OpenMath, and will fix a number of errors and changes that have become necessary because of changes outside of MathML, such as new versions of Unicode.

Dadzilla is a browser that can display MathML. Versions 1.1 (Linux) and 1.2 (Windows) support MathML in Arabic, as described in the W3C Note “Arabic mathematical notation,” as well as mixed Latin and Arabic texts. Dadzilla has been written by Mustapha Eddahibi and Azzeddine Lazrek (Cadi Ayyad University of Marrakech, Morocco) and is based on Mozilla.

The Math IG published a note called “Arabic mathematical notation,” which analyzes the use of MathML in documents written in the Arabic script. There are pitfalls in the correct implementation of MathML in right-to-left scripts, but there are also limitations of MathML itself that might require an update of the standard.

Jacques Distler has adapted MovableType into a MathML publishing platform. With the help of a plugin, TeX equations in weblog entries and in comments are automatically converted to MathML. Technical details are on his weblog. The String Coffee Table is another weblog making extensive use of this technology.

The W3C Math Interest Group announces the new MathML software list. Now all items are organised either by name or by type of software, making browsing easier. It also looks slightly better... To submit a description your software, please refer to the "sumbmitting a description of your software" page.

XSL Formatter, the well-known XSL-FO renderer from Antenna House has now an add-on to render XSL-FO + MathML documents. See the entry in our software page for a short description or Antenna House's XSL Formatter MathML Option page for a longer one.

Bill
Hammond of the University at Albany has released version 0.8 of GELLMU (

*Generalized
Extensible LaTeX-Like MarkUp*), a free software project
designed to furnish a bridge to the world of XML for those
familiar with LaTeX typesetting markup. The “regular” form of
GELLMU now provides output streams for both XHTML+MathML and PDF
(spun by pdflatex) from a single source document.

David Carlisle, co-chair of the W3C Math Interest Group gave a keynote speech at the Second European Workshop on MathML and Scientific e-Contents (Kuopio, Finland on 16.-18.9.2004). On 18 September, the Mathematical User-Interfaces Workshop, organised by Paul Libbrecht from the IG, took place in Bialowieza, Poland. And on 26-29 October the Hermes and Semantic Authoring with TeX and MathML workshop took place at the Albert Einstein Institute, Golm-Potsdam, Germany.

A new version of Formulator has been released. Among the new features is an improvement in MathML import and export.

MathPlayer 2.0 is
out: Design
Science releases MathPlayer 2.0. MathPlayer 2.0's new
compatibility with Mozilla that means that stylesheets no longer
need to be referenced. Other notable features of new release are
support for MathML's alignment tags and support for speaking math.
MathPlayer works with leading screen readers, fulfilling the
promise that MathML is an accessible format.

Open Math Edit is an open source WYSIWIG equation editor that can export MathML.

And now, it's Samuel Chong's (of the Los Angeles Chinese Learning Center) turn to offer translations of PMoTWWM in simplified Chinese and traditional Chinese. Congratulations!

Claudio Cattazo has translated Putting mathematics on the Web with MathML in Italian, helping making it one of the most international W3C documents!

The Second European Workshop on MathML and Scientific e-Contents (Kuopio, Finland on 16.-18.9.2004) will address to delivering mathematical contents trough the Internet to be utilized by human beings as well by computer programs. Different technologies - LaTex, MathML, OpenMath * are presented. Speakers include Eitan Gurari, David Carlisle, Mika Seppälä, etc.

Tadas Talaikis has translated Putting mathematics on the Web with MathML in Lithuanian, the ninth language this document has been translated in.

A new source of online mathematical material in MathML. From the authors: * EMTeachline® mathematics software offers an
extensive MathML-based resource for teachers and students. Many thousands
step-by-step solutions and proofs in arithmetic, pre-algebra, algebra,
trigonometry, hyperbolic trig and calculus can be viewed and saved in
MathML format. Math teachers are enabled to develop and save in MathML
format quizes, tests, lesson plans and worksheets. Hundreds detailed
solutions of algebraic and trigonometric equations and inequalities,
proofs of identities etc are available online.*

W3C is pleased to announce the approval and re-launch of the Math Activity. The Math Activity is launched until 31 December 2005. A new Math Interest Group is chartered through December 2005. The Group's charter describes its goals and plans.

Software updates:
*MathML .NET Control 2.0* and *SciWriter 1.5* from
Soft4Science. Design Science have also
updated their description and screenshots of their line of
products on our MathML software
page.

Three interesting new pieces of software recently announced: ASCIIMathML.js: a JavaScript script which allows editing of XHTML+MathML through a simple text shorthand language; gNumerator: two .net components that implement the MathML DOM and a renderer; Hermes: a conversion tool from LaTeX + custom macros. All three are Open Source software.

The "Math on the Web Pavillion" at Joint Mathematics Meetings 2004 (Phoenix,AZ,USA - 7-10 January 2004) will feature a series of talks on the state of Math of the Web, the tools available, techniques to use them, etc. Speakers include Don DeLand, Sam Dooley, Patrick Ion, Barry MacKichan, Bob Matthews, Darren McIntyre, Robert Miner, John Risley, Neil Soiffer and Eric Weisstein. The Pavillion will be at exhibit booths 114 and 116, and is organised by Design Science Inc.

Based on the successful completion of the Math Working Group, whose charter expired in September 2003, the Math Activity is now closed. However the Activity should be reopened again soon in order to create a Math Interest Group which will continue the work of maintaining existing documents, working with other W3C groups and provide general support on MathML and mathematics on the Web.

The Math Working Group has published three documents as W3C Notes: Bound Variables in MathML, Structured Types in MathML 2.0 and Units in MathML. These Notes serve as companion documents to the MathML 2 Recommendation and provide guidelines and examples on its use.

The Math Working Group is proud to announce that MathML 2.0, second edition has become a W3C Recommendation. Many thanks to members of the public who contributed by sending comments on www-math. A few supporting testimonials are available.

Design Science have announced that Microsoft will provide the MathPlayer (tm) to MSN users, allowing them to view MathML markup in Microsoft's Web products.

"Publishing Equations? Do the Math(ML)", by Robert Boeri, in EContent Magazine.

MathML 2.0, second edition is now a Proposed Edited Recommendation. This means that at this point the W3C seeks endorsement of the stable technical report from the member companies. The review period will last until 6 September, after which the spec (hopefully) becomes a final Recommendation. Public feedback is always welcome on www-math@w3.org (archive).

The Last Call Working Draft of MathML2.0, 2nd edition, is available. The Last Call period will last until 9 May. People are invited to review the draft and send comments to www-math@w3.org.

DongSok KANG has translated Putting mathematics on the Web with MathML in Korean. Including the examples pages, David Carlisle's presentation at the MathML conference, and all the comments in the code!

soft4science
have announced "MathML .NET Control 1.0", a MathML based "WYSIWYG-style" equation editor control for the .NET
Framework. Written in 100% managed C# code, the control offers .NET
developers a fast and simple way to include a MathML based equation
editor in their Windows applications. The .NET control can also be
hosted in Internet Explorer. A free trial version is available.

Michael Kohlhase, from the Math WG has published a new MathML tutorial, which introduces the language as well as explores relationships with other mathematical notation languages and exposes concrete problems with publishing MathML on the Web.

The Math Working Group have published the first Working Draft of the second edition of MathML 2.0. This mainly is a re-issue to fold all the changes in the MathML 2.0 errata document back into the main text, but also for the first time it includes a W3C XML Schema, and a version in which all the examples are inlined and should render in a MathML aware browser. Feedback sent to www-math@w3.org is very much welcome.

Pavi Sandhu from Wolfram Research has written the first book on MathML. It is called The MathML Handbook and covers not only the MathML 2.0 specification, but also the use of the language on the Web as well as software that supports it.

The First European Workshop on MathML and Scientific e-Contents will be held in Trieste, Italy, on 21-22 November 2002. *The workshop aims at bringing together content providers and interested developers to discuss and share the best practices of the ongoing research, applications and projects on all topics related to Mathematical Markup Language -MathML and enabling technologies for the use of mathematics and scientific content on the Web.*

Stéphan Sémirat has written WeM: an MathML editor that converts a subset LaTeX to MathML . It can be tested on line and is also available for download (GPL, requires PHP).

Robert Miner, from the WG, writes: “There is a new version of the MathML 2.0 test suite. It fixes the bugs that have been reported, improves a number of sample renderings (though there is still plenty of room for further improvement) and adds a number of tests”

Mathplayer 1.0 (tm), Design Science's MathML renderer for Internet Explorer is now out and downloadable.

Netscape 7.0 is out. And MathML is supported. On Linux and Windows.

Mozilla 1.1 was released yesterday. At last, Mozilla can now display MathML on Linux, Windows and MacOS.

MathML display is now included in the nightly builds of Mozilla for Mac OS X.

A new site, MathML Central, established by Wolfram Research, provides tools and resources for MathML. In particular it offers a forms-based MathML expression renderer that can return the equation in many formats such as a picture, as well as a MathML validator.

Netscape have announced the availability of Netscape 7.0 Preview Release 1, which now includes support for MathML. Please try it and send feedback saying how much you like it!

Vasil I. Yaroshevich has released an XSLT stylesheet to convert MathML2 markup to LaTeX. At present only Presentation MathML is supported; however, full MathML support is planned.

The Math Working Group has made available the "Universal MathML stylesheet" which makes it possible to author a single form of HTML+MathML that will be viewable in many browsers, including IE5.5, IE6 and Mozilla. Cross-browser mathematics are at last becoming a reality. Kudos to David Carlisle for writing most of the code.

Bhuvanesh Bhatt has announced a package that exports TI-89/92+ expressions to content MathML called TIMathML.

Design Science have announced the availability of a free version of MathPlayer (tm), a MathML display engine for Microsoft's Internet Explorer browser.

The latest version of Mozilla (0.9.9) now includes support for displaying Presentation MathML, either as stand-alone files, or inlined within an HTML page.

The Math page at W3C has been redesigned. Not only it looks different but it is now authored using custom XML markup and transformed to HTML using XSLT (the XML version is directly readable on browsers supporting XSLT). An RSS feed is also generated from the XML source, making it possible to receive the news using news gathering software.

Submissions for the MathML 2002 Conference are now open. [update on 3 March: submissions for papers are closed, but Posters and Demos can still be submitted by March 15].

Design Science, Inc., the developers of MathType(tm) and the Equation Editor in Microsoft Office, announced the release of the WebEQ(tm) Developers Suite, a toolkit for building Web pages that include dynamic math.

The new Working Group will be working on maintaining the MathML2.0 Recommendation, continuing liaison with other W3C working groups and other standards bodies, and more generally continue the task of facilitating the use of mathematics on the Web. Read the new charter .