XHTML™ 1.0 The Extensible HyperText Markup Language (Third Edition)

A Reformulation of HTML 4 in XML 1.0

W3C Proposed Edited Recommendation 18 February 2009

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See acknowledgments.

Please refer to the errata for this document, which may include some normative corrections. See also translations.

This document is also available in these non-normative formats: Multi-part XHTML file, PostScript version, PDF version, ZIP archive, and Gzip'd TAR archive.


This specification defines the Third Edition of XHTML 1.0, a reformulation of HTML 4 as an XML 1.0 application, and three DTDs corresponding to the ones defined by HTML 4. The semantics of the elements and their attributes are defined in the W3C Recommendation for HTML 4. These semantics provide the foundation for future extensibility of XHTML. Compatibility with existing HTML user agents is possible by following a small set of guidelines [XHTMLMIME].

Status of this document

This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. The latest status of this document series is maintained at the W3C.

This document is a W3C Proposed Edited Recommendation. If approved, it will supersede the previous edition of XHTML 1.0. This third edition is not a new version of XHTML 1.0 (first published 26 January 2000). The changes in this document reflect corrections applied as a result of comments submitted by the community and as a result of ongoing work within the XHTML 2 Working Group. The only change of note in this version is that the contents of the informative Appendix A have been removed as they are being kept up to date in a separate document [XHTMLMIME]. Changes between this version and the previous Recommendation are illustrated in a diff-marked version.

The list of known errors in this specification is available at http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/2009/REC-xhtml1-20090218-errata.

Please report errors in this document to www-html-editor@w3.org (archive). Public discussion on HTML features takes place on the mailing list www-html@w3.org (archive).

This document has been produced by the W3C XHTML 2 Working Group as part of the HTML Activity. The goals of the XHTML 2 Working Group are discussed in the XHTML 2 Working Group charter.

This document was produced by a group operating under the 5 February 2004 W3C Patent Policy. W3C maintains a public list of any patent disclosures made in connection with the deliverables of the group; that page also includes instructions for disclosing a patent. An individual who has actual knowledge of a patent which the individual believes contains Essential Claim(s) must disclose the information in accordance with section 6 of the W3C Patent Policy.

A list of current W3C Recommendations and other technical documents can be found at http://www.w3.org/TR.

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