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W3C I18N News: changes

Descriptions of changes made to resource pages (articles, FAQs, tutorials, and tests) on the W3C Internationalization site. This information is not usually posted on the home page. Of use as a reference if you want to learn about changes in a new version of a given page. May also be particularly interesting for translators who want to be informed when a document they translated has changed.

Items are in chronological order, with the newest at the top. See the sidebar for other specialized lists and related RSS feeds.

Time to change your RSS feed

28 June 2006
Richard Ishida
Closing this RSS Feed

The W3C Internationalization Activity home page was converted to a blog format in April of this year. The blog supersedes these news filter pages, although similar categories will be used to group blog posts. The old pages will remain available as a historical record. The new blog approach also makes it possible to easily host short articles with a comment facility, such as requests for public feedback.

If you are subscribed to this RSS feed, you should now subscribe to this new feed.

Wed, 28 Jun 2006 00:00:01 GMT

Setting encoding in web authoring applications

12 October 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated FAQ article

This article answers the question: "How do I set character encoding in my web authoring applications?"

The subsection entitled "Microsoft Notepad & WordPad 2000/XP (Windows)" was split into two, and substantive improvements were made to the text in each. [search key: qa-setting-encoding-in-applications]

Wed, 12 Oct 2005 13:33:00 GMT

Styling using the lang attribute

4 August 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated FAQ article

This article answers the question: "What is the most appropriate way to associate CSS styles with text in a particular language in a multilingual XHTML/HTML document?"

Much of the text has been changed or rearranged. A new subsection was added to explain how :lang recognizes language information declared higher up the hierarchy, unlike the other selectors. Links were also added to newly improved tests and a new results page relating to the use of the selectors described here. [search key: qa-css-lang]

Thu, 04 Aug 2005 18:42:00 GMT

Language dependent styling tests

2 August 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated tests

The 3 tests were rationalised, and a section was added to each page that tests the applicability of stylesheet rules when language information is inherited from an element further up the hierarchy, rather than declared on the element in question. This is a key distinguishing feature between behaviour of :lang and [lang |= '...']. [search key: test-css-lang]

Tues, 02 Aug 2005 08:15:00 GMT

Using language information in XHTML, HTML and CSS

2 August 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated tutorial

Information about declaration of language has been removed to a separate tutorial, Declaring Language in XHTML and HTML (Draft). This tutorial now focuses on uses of language information in documents.

The tutorial has also been adapted to the latest format for tutorials, and, thanks to Pasquale Popolizio, the Italian translation has been revised to support the changes. (This is the first translation of a tutorial in this format.) [search key: tutorial-lang]

Tues, 02 Aug 2005 08:45:00 GMT

Character encodings

19 July 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated article

Substantive changes:

  • added a link to the FAQ on document character set to the text in the first section
  • added "(including XHTML)" after "For XML " in the second section
  • added a paragraph to section 2: "<p>For a discussion of which approach is best for which type of (X)HTML document, see the tutorial <a href="/International/tutorials/tutorial-char-enc/">Character sets & encodings in XHTML, HTML and CSS</a>.</p>"
  • removed the second bulleted item from the list in the 3rd section: "<li>Charsets <a href="O-charset-list.html">supported</a> by some popular HTML applications</li>" (this data is very out of date now).
  • corrected the author information
  • changes to related links. [search key: O-charset]
Tues, 19 Jul 2005 13:55:12 GMT

Serving XHTML 1.0

4 July 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated article

Improved the code in the example in the section "'Standards' vs 'Quirks' modes".

This was applied to the English, Romanian and Swedish versions of the document. The new French version already has it. [search key: serving-xhtml]

Mon, 04 Jul 2005 00:11:12 GMT

What you need to know about the bidi algorithm and inline markup

30 June 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated article

Reorganized and amplified the following sections to improve clarity:

  • Directional context
  • Neutral characters

One paragraph was moved from the section 'Directional typing of characters'. [search key: inline-bidi-markup]

Thu, 30 Jun 2005 00:00:01 GMT

Authoring Techniques for XHTML & HTML Internationalization: Specifying the language of content 1.0

24 February 2005
Working Draft
Richard Ishida
Updated Working Draft

Specifying the language of content is useful for a wide number of applications, from linguistically sensitive searching to applying language-specific display properties. In some cases the potential applications for language information are still waiting for implementations to catch up, whereas in others, such as detection of language by voice browsers, it is a necessity today. Marking up language information is something that can and should be done today. Without it, it is not possible to take advantage of any of these applications.

This document is one of a series of documents providing HTML authors with techniques for developing internationalized HTML using XHTML 1.0 or HTML 4.01, supported by CSS1, CSS2 and some aspects of CSS3. It focuses specifically on advice about specifying the language of content. It is produced by the Internationalization GEO (Guidelines, Education & Outreach) Working Group of the W3C Internationalization Activity. [search key: html-tech-lang]

Thu, 24 Feb 2005 15:00:01 GMT

Language tags in HTML and XML

24 February 2005
Martin Dürst & Richard Ishida
Updated article

Language tags are used to indicate the language of text in HTML and XML documents, and are also used in HTTP headers, SMIL and SVG switch statements, CSS pseudo-elements, etc. This article describes how to choose values for language tags.

The article augments an existing article with information that previously existed in a tutorial. The article title was also changed from "Language tagging in HTML and XML". [search key: language-tags]

Thu, 24 Feb 2005 00:00:01 GMT

An Introduction to Multilingual Web Addresses

26 January 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated article

Recent developments enable you to add non-ASCII characters to Web addresses. This article provides a high level introduction to how this works. It is aimed at content authors and general users who want to understand the basics without too many gory technical details.

This article was updated to point to the new RFCs, published on 25 Jan 2005, relating to URIs and IRIs. [search key: idn-and-iri]

Wed, 26 Jan 2005 08:58:01 GMT

Translation process

05 January 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated page

Significant change to 'Version information' section. Instructions now say to put the following note near the top of the page, rather than at the bottom:

<p id="disclaimer">This document is a translation. In the case of any discrepancy or errors, the <a href="/International/XXX/YYY.en.html">latest English original</a> should be considered authoritative. <a href="#copyright">Original copyright</a> belongs to W3C, as shown below.</p>

The text has also changed.

Wed, 05 Jan 2005 14:23:01 GMT

Translation process

05 January 2005
Richard Ishida
Updated page

Improved clarity in several places. Susbtantially changed section 'Changes to the text' to say that translators should send information, rather than add details to the document. Added to section 'Notification of new or updated translations' information about news and RSS feeds, and Ivan's list of translations.

Wed, 05 Jan 2005 00:00:01 GMT

FAQ: Who uses Unicode?

08 December 2004
John Yunker
Updated FAQ

Added 7 additional companies to the list of those who use UTF-8 on their home page. [search key: qa-who-uses-unicode]

Wed, 08 Dec 2004 00:00:01 GMT

Defining Localization, Internationalization & Globalization

12 November 2004
Susan K. Miller, Boeing
Withdrawn article

This article has been temporarily withdrawn pending additional work. [search key: qa-i18n]

Fri, 12 Nov 2004 00:00:01 GMT

Tests overhauled

26 October 2004
Updated tests

Most of the Internationalization tests at have been improved in the light of lessons learned over recent months. Changes include the addition of explanatory information at the beginning of each test page that describes what is being tested and provides useful notes. Presentation has been standardized and improved. There have also been a small number of changes made to existing test pages, and a small number of new tests have been added. Finally, links to the results pages have been added to the test overview page.

Tue, 26 Oct 2004 00:00:00 GMT

Further information

See the list of previous news.

Participate in the Internationalization Activity!

The Internationalization Activity welcomes the participation of individuals and organizations around the world to help improve the appropriateness of the Web for multiple cultures, scripts and languages.

How to participate:

More information about the Internationalization Activity.

Contact: Richard Ishida (

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Content last changed 2005-03-14 11:31 GMT