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Web of Things

EU FP7 COMPOSE project
Dominique Hazael‑Massieux

W3C Mobile Lead



  • Created and directed by Tim Berners-Lee
  • Hosted by 4 institutions: MIT (US), ERCIM (France), Keio (Japan), Beihang (China)
  • Operated by a staff of ~80
  • With ~380 members (companies, universities, gov agencies)
  • Community of ~1500 contributors


The Web as a Platform

  • Wide-scale interoperability
  • Consensus building
  • Trade-off between interoperability and expressivity

Standardization know-how

  • ”Pave the cowpath”
  • Tension between innovation and formalization
  • Timing is key
  • Widely deployed interoperable implementations are the end goal

Recent changes in W3C

Web of Devices

Web of Data

Web of Services

Web of People

Mobile phones Tablets Laptop Computers TV Cars Game console Ebook reader music player Camera Glasses Watch Lightbulb

Reach of the Web browser

  • The browser is the troyan horse of the Web platform
  • Satisfies ubiquitous needs
  • Sandbox security model has made it easy to distribute
  • Expand from a document platform to an app platform

Device APIs

Device APIs Definition

  • defined in WebIDL
  • Asynchronous
  • Use either callbacks, or DOM events
  • Moving to use the new DOM Promise
  • With different security requirements
  • Requiring user consent for sensitive data


  • Server-Sent Events
  • Web Sockets
  • WebRTC: P2P audio/video/data
  • Push API
  • HTTP2

Services Discovery

User Agent as Local Network Services Broker


Device Adaptation

  • Adapt UI to device (e.g. screen)
  • Responsive Design
  • CSS Media Queries
  • Responsive Images
  • Server and Client side

Multimodal Architecture

  • Architecture to articulate input from a variety of modalities
  • EMMA to qualify quality of input
  • SCXML to describe state machines

Web-based apps

  • Web technologies used outside of the browser sandbox
  • Firefox OS, Tizen, Windows, PhoneGap, BlackBerry OS, …
  • On-going standardization efforts in W3C: System Applications Working Group

Open questions

  • Tension between device-specific features and device-independence
  • Web in the browser vs Web-technologies based apps (security model)
  • User Experience constraints
  • How far down can the browser scale?
  • Connectivity beyond IP?
  • Privacy concerns

Data @ W3C



Key concepts of Provenance



  "@context": "",
  "name": "Manu Sporny",
  "homepage": "",
  "image": ""

Open questions

Services @ W3C

Web Services stack

Web Services stack


Linked Data Platform

In the browser

Open questions

People @ W3C




Social Networking

Open questions

“Web of Things”



Compose as an open market place for Web of Things services

Community Groups

Get Involved

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