Use Case Enhanced Publications
From Library Linked Data
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Maurice Vanderfeesten, SURF foundation
Background and Current Practice
Libraries and other repositories store scientific research papers in journals, dissertations, reports, memoranda and book chapters. Papers consist mainly of text, tables and illustrations. A limited number of pages is available for each paper. These constraints make it difficult to include original data, video, more and larger images etcetera into the paper. Sometimes online supplements do contain links to material belonging to the paper, but this is not yet standard practice.
Enhanced publications aim to make it possible to include not only the paper but also the underlying data, models, algorithms, illustrative images, metadata sets, or post-publication data such as comments or rankings. Adding the underlying data and models to an article makes it easier to verify, reproduce, and re-use the results of research. An enhanced publication can also utilise other enhanced publications and the associated data sources. One enhanced publication can therefore form part of another. An enhanced publication can be considered a compound object centred around a (scientific) publication. Scientific papers involve scientific or scholarly research and contain an interpretation or analysis of primary data or something derived from it.
Related is the concept of "open access": knowledge produced by research and higher education should be freely accessible. The central idea is that the results of publicly financed research should also be freely available [SURF OpenAccess].
In the Netherlands, the SURF foundation has initiated several pilot projects to realize enhanced publications [SURFshare, SURF EP, SURF standards, SURF information model].
Two short statements stating (1) what is achieved in the scenario without reference to linked data, and (2) how we use linked data technology to achieve this goal.
(1) RELATE(new, existing, aggregation), PUBLISH, SEARCH/BROWSE, URIS: link scientific publications to material related to the publication, including data, models, additional illustrations, algorithms and other publications -- also known as enhanced publications. Allow search over and reuse of these materials.
(2) REUSE-SCHEMAS, REUSE-VOCABS: reuse of schemas and vocabularies simplifies publishing, searching and reuse of enhanced publications and materials associated with them.
Libraries: Looking for a new definition of their role in the new era of information technology. Libraries in the role as enablers and facilitators for research knowledge.
Publishers: prospective owners of the infrastructure to create enhanced publications (incorporated into their journal publishing pipeline).
Researchers: simplify accessing and building on previous research.
Use Case Scenario
A researcher creates an enhanced publication that links other materials to the main text document. The researcher has to specify the materials and the relationship(s) that each material has with the publication.
Note that Use Case Citation of Scientific Datasets may be seen as part of the Enhanced Publication use case (scientific datasets can be part of an enhanced publication).
Application of linked data for the given use case
In general for all use cases linked data should be used in:
- Creating a collection for research material that belong together and create a logical whole in the research process, in order to make research comparable and more transparent.
- Describing metadata components that are research field specific and not bibliographic. (for example, who is the interviewer and the interviewed person in this audio recording)
Existing Work (optional)
JALC Dissertations in Dutch Archaeology
JALC – Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries [JALC]
Creating a journal with supplementary material. Archaeological resources are digitally archived and linked to the publication.
The project focused on creating enhanced publications in an Open Access e-journal: Journal of Archaeology in the Low Countries (JALC). It involved collaboration between the publisher Amsterdam University Press (AUP), the digital production centre at the University of Amsterdam library, the e-depot for Dutch archaeology (EDNA), Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS), and the collection of the Amsterdam Archaeological Centre (AAC).
The project created a number of enhanced publications in the Open Access Journal JALC. The articles included the extensive digital documentation that is typical of archaeology, for example photographs and drawings of excavations, geographical information, tables, and diagrams. The project involved the actual presentation of research data integrated within peer-reviewed publications and clarified both technical matters and actual substance, as well as the perspective of the user.
A number of reports were produced in addition to the enhanced publications themselves. One of these was a report on the requirements of users, based on a study of the literature and interviews with archaeologists. Internal and external evaluation reports were also produced on the use of enhanced publications in the e-journal JALC and a good practice/workflow report on the publication of enhanced publications in an e-journal.
Presentation about JALC at CNI Spring 2010 Meeting.
DatapluS - Repositories for Enhanced Survey Publications
The DatapluS project involved constructing two portals and filling them with enhanced publications based on survey data. This project continued on from the Together in Parts [Samen in Delen] project [DATAPLUS] and had the aim of creating operational portals that can be used by researchers belonging to two large research groups. The material for the two portals was provided by the groups European Values Study (EVS, University of Tilburg) and Dutch Parliamentary Election Studies (NKO, University of Twente).
The researchers enhanced the publications not only with links to the datasets and variables stored in the GESIS and DANS data archives but also with the syntax of the analyses. This code allows the reader to see the methods and analyses that were applied to the data in order to produce the results.
One important part of the project was to develop an electronic submission form, which makes it a simple matter for researchers to assemble and upload their enhanced publication. The editor used during the project to add the enhancements to the publications will also play an important role in the continuation of the portals after the end of the project.
ESCAPE - Enhanced Scientific Communication by Aggregated Publications Environments [ESCAPE]
The World Wide Web opens up new possibilities for scientific and scholarly communication. Scientists and scholars wish to make their publications available online in combination with other material. This includes such things as research reports that are available in the public domain or film clips to explain the research method to the general public. In the course of the ESCAPE project, a tool was constructed to enhance publications with other relevant information and to make it available with the publication on the Web.
The tool now also has a visualizer, which allows one to easily browse the clusters and their interlinks [VIZ]
The links between the publications and the other material and the description of all of this can be stored separately in a “resource folder”. The resource folders are placed in a digital storage area developed specially for the purpose. The project also included the development of an editor with which to create and edit the resource folder. This allows for a generic approach that is applicable in several disciplines. Three research groups produced resource folders and explored the various ways of utilising an enhanced environment for publications. This was done in the following three environments:
1. University of Twente: Brandaris128: The Physics of Fluids department wanted an environment for presenting the results and derived materials generated during research with the Brandaris128 high-speed camera [Brandaris]
2. University of Twente: Center for Risk and Safety Perception (iCRISP)
This environment is entitled “Communication with the public about flooding”. Users consider the ESCAPE tool to be useful when coordinating requests for information about dynamic policy developments. Besides use of the environment for policy development, the ESCAPE tool also contributes to explaining research and its relevance to society as a whole. This is achieved by presenting the various sources in combination and freely accessible on the Web [ICRISP].
3. University of Groningen: Centre for Public Order and Safety (COOV).
The environment for the COOV subproject enables fellow scholars, practising lawyers, and interested citizens to trace annotated court judgments and policy memoranda in the field of public order and safety. The various objects that form part of the environment can also be presented as graphics. [COOV, COOV paper]
Proefschriften Plus - Enhanced dissertations in the Utrecht repository
Working with two international partners, Utrecht University Library (UBU) carried out a Knowledge Exchange project on “Enhanced E-theses” in 2008 [PP]. The SURFshare tender built on this experience, making 20 enhanced theses accessible within the existing repository structure at the UBU.
The project produce a lot of interesting ideas regarding how the UBU – and other interested universities – can soon offer enhanced theses as a standard service. Amongst other things, a “lessons learned” report was produced on the acquisition, storage, and publication of enhanced theses.
Because the project focused on theses rather than on a specific discipline, it involved a very wide range of scientific and scholarly material that can be used for enhancement. A great deal of experience was consequently gained with describing that material and providing access to it via the repository.
Veteran Tapes VP
Enhanced publication based on multidisciplinary reuse of qualitative research files [VT].
The object of the “Veteran Tapes VP” project was to implement the concept of “enhanced publication” in a practical situation and to evaluate the results. A group of scholars from a number of different disciplines collaborated on an innovative research project that reused qualitative research material. The results of the study will be published in 2010 as an enhanced publication.
The project produced a qualitative digital research corpus consisting of audio clips and transcriptions of interviews with veterans. The material is being actively used by a group of multidisciplinary researchers and can also be used innovatively in future for secondary analysis by other researchers. A collection of enhanced articles was also produced based on the wider “Veteran Tapes” project. The articles will be brought out together as an electronic publication (an e-book). The final result of the overall Veteran Tapes project will be published later in 2010.
Besides the enhanced publications themselves, an annotation protocol was developed for producing links to the primary research data. An annotation tool was also developed in the form of a “clip cutter” that can be used to refer within the text to the relevant passages in the interviews. Careful attention was also paid to the privacy issues involved when one wishes to publish qualitative research data, for example the possibility of making certain clips anonymous.
Related Vocabularies (optional)
- Dublin Core Terms (creator, publisher, topic, ...)
- Dublin Core Types (Dataset, Image, Sound, ...)
See also [SURF ORE, SURF objectmodel]
Problems and Limitations (optional)
- Creating a visualisation from Enhanced Publications, that represents the knowledge in the graphs. See [VIZ]
o Possible solution, manage to create a sort of CSS for RDF, that annotates the Ontology elements. What element should be used for the presentation of a graph. Like foaf:name and dc:title and ore:describes
- Creating interoperability in enhanced publications, so that editors and viewers are representing the same knowledge.
o Possible solution: Like HTML is a standard, for enhanced publications should have the same model. So that users can expect the same behaviour and knowledge representations from different custom made editors and viewers.
Related Use Cases and Unanticipated Uses (optional)
Use Case Citation of Scientific Datasets may be seen as part of the Enhanced Publication use case (scientific datasets can be part of an enhanced publication).
Library Linked Data Dimensions / Topics
The dimensions and topics are used to organize the use cases. At the same time, they might help you to identify additional aspects currently not covered. If appropriate topics and/or dimensions are missing, please specify them here and annotate them by a “*”
- Users needs -> Browse / explore / select
- Users needs -> Retrieve / find
- Users needs -> Identify
- Users needs -> Access / obtain
- Systems -> Library systems
- Systems -> Commercial digital libraries
- Information assets -> Journal articles
- Information assets -> Databases
- Information assets -> Multimedia materials
- Information assets -> Archival materials
- Knowledge representation issues / Describing library and museum authorities and KOS resources as Linked Data
- The FR's: FRBR, FRAD, FRSAR
- Types of library data other than bibliographic and
- Digital objects: full-text sources (e.g. DOAJ, Project Gutenberg, etc), digitised objects (how to describe nested aggregations of files with OAI-ORE)
- Publishing citations, e.g. best practice for citations in RDF
- LLD. Applying SemWeb Technology to Library Data (Implementation)
- Use of Identifiers for and in LLD
- SW. Semantic Web Environmental Issues
- Use of Identifiers
- MGT. Community and Management Issues
Original email with suggestion for this use case: http://mailman.few.vu.nl/pipermail/dutchsemweb-l/2010-September/000119.html
[SURF share] Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e_KJTsr1fys (english subtitles, dutch audio)
[SURF information model] http://wiki.surffoundation.nl/display/vpinfra/1.1+Information+Model+for+Enhanced+Publications+whitepaper (dutch)
[Brandaris RDF EX] http://escape.utwente.nl/rem/50
[COOV paper] Enhanced Scientific Communication by Aggregated Publications Environments (Escape). This paper was presented at ElPub conference, June 2009 in Milan, Italy.
[European Values Study] http://www.europeanvaluesstudy.eu/
[Dutch Parliamentary Election Studies] http://www.dpes.nl/index.php
[PP Newsletter] http://www.igitur.nl/news/issue2_2009/proefschrift.html